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Full-Text Articles in Life Sciences

Analysis Of Connectivity In Emg Signals To Examine Neural Correlations In Muscular Activation Of Lower Leg Muscles For Postural Stability, Diana Mccrumb Oct 2019

Analysis Of Connectivity In Emg Signals To Examine Neural Correlations In Muscular Activation Of Lower Leg Muscles For Postural Stability, Diana Mccrumb

Masters Theses

In quiet standing the central nervous systems implements a pre-programmed ankle strategy of postural control to maintain upright balance and stability. This strategy is comprised of a synchronized common neural drive being delivered to synergistically grouped muscles. In this study connectivity between EMG signals of unilateral and bilateral homologous muscle pairs, of the lower legs, during various standing balance conditions was evaluated using magnitude squared coherence (MSC) and mutual information (MI). The leg muscles of interest were the tibialis anterior (TA), medial gastrocnemius (MG), and the soleus (S) of both legs. MSC is a linear measure of the phase relation ...


Does Acute Preprandial Exercise Modify Postprandial Inflammation After A High Fat Meal In Young And Older Adults?, William Wisseman Aug 2019

Does Acute Preprandial Exercise Modify Postprandial Inflammation After A High Fat Meal In Young And Older Adults?, William Wisseman

Masters Theses

A single high-fat meal (HFM) can increase systemic inflammation (postprandial inflammation; PPI) and may be attenuated by recent exercise. However, the effect of preprandial exercise on PPI in older adults (OA) is not clear. Purpose: To determine if preprandial exercise attenuates PPI in YA and OA. Methods: 12 YA (23.3±3.9 years n= 5 M/7 F) and 12 OA (67.7±6 years, n= 8 M/4 F) completed two HFM challenges in a randomized order. During HFM alone, participants abstained from exercise 48 hours prior to the HFM session (except for the exercise session) and adhered ...


Evaluating Remote Site Incubators To Support Restoration Of Arctic Grayling In Michigan, Alan J. Mock Aug 2019

Evaluating Remote Site Incubators To Support Restoration Of Arctic Grayling In Michigan, Alan J. Mock

Masters Theses

Remote site incubators (RSIs) have been used to rear salmonid fish eggs along streams in the Pacific Northwest since the 1980s. Recently, the successful use of RSIs for Arctic Grayling Thymallus arcticus restoration in Montana has sparked a renewed interest to reestablish the species in Michigan. To support future reintroduction efforts of Arctic Grayling in Michigan, I evaluated RSIs in three Michigan streams during 2018 and 2019 using Rainbow Trout Oncorhynchus mykiss eggs (as surrogates for Arctic Grayling). My objectives were to: (1) compare hatching success between two different RSI designs (19-L vs. 265-L RSIs), and (2) test whether the ...


The Association Between Dietary Niche Variation In Rodents And Climate Change Across The Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum, Hannah K. Vermeer Aug 2019

The Association Between Dietary Niche Variation In Rodents And Climate Change Across The Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum, Hannah K. Vermeer

Masters Theses

Mammalian teeth play a crucial role in food acquisition and breakdown and are therefore closely tied to dietary niche. This study reconstructed the diet of early Paleogene paramyid rodents across the Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM) climatic event in an effort to understand the role of climate in mammalian dietary niche change. Dietary niches were quantified using three dental topographic measures: Dirichlet normal energy, relief index, and orientation patch count rotated. A Kruskal-Wallis test was conducted over eight time periods to determine if each of the dental topographic measures (i.e., diet) varied over time. Regression analysis of these measures with ...


Thermal Quality Explains Shift In Habitat Association From Forest To Clearings For Terrestrial-Breeding Frogs Along An Elevation Gradient In Colombia, Zachary Lange Jul 2019

Thermal Quality Explains Shift In Habitat Association From Forest To Clearings For Terrestrial-Breeding Frogs Along An Elevation Gradient In Colombia, Zachary Lange

Masters Theses

Tropical ectotherms are considered particularly sensitive to changes in the thermal environment from climate change and habitat alteration. Understanding how such species’ thermal physiology relates to their habitat associations in thermally heterogeneous landscapes may help us predict responses and develop sound conservation strategies for the future. We conducted a mark-recapture study of three terrestrial breeding anuran species (Pristimantis medemi, P. savagei, P. frater) in adjacent forest and anthropogenic clearings at field sites spread across seven elevations (415-1350 m asl) in the Colombian Andes. We also performed thermal preference and critical thermal maximum assays in the lab to investigate the relationship ...


Forest Structure Of Long-Term Conserved Areas Utilizing Different Strategies On A Continental, Glacial Moraine Formed Island, Christopher Coggin Jul 2019

Forest Structure Of Long-Term Conserved Areas Utilizing Different Strategies On A Continental, Glacial Moraine Formed Island, Christopher Coggin

Masters Theses

Understanding patterns of forest succession can help advise management plans within New England nature preserves. This study took place on Block Island, 13 miles off the coast of Rhode Island. The island has greater than 200+ years of farming practices. After 1960, conservation groups began reforesting the island using different strategies, such as actively planting with native and exotic tree species, mowing, and preventing further development. In 2018, woody vegetation was inventoried along transects within four reforested sites. Sites were characterized as the following: actively planted with exotic and native tree species and mowed (AP-M), actively planted with exotic and ...


Assessing Populations Of Eastern Brook Trout (Salvelinus Fontinalis) Above And Below Waterfalls In Mountain Streams Of Virginia, Hannah Eisemann Macmillan May 2019

Assessing Populations Of Eastern Brook Trout (Salvelinus Fontinalis) Above And Below Waterfalls In Mountain Streams Of Virginia, Hannah Eisemann Macmillan

Masters Theses

Anthropogenically driven factors, such as increasing temperature and sediment in valley streams, acidification of mountain streams, and the introduction of non-native trout, are restricting habitat suitable for healthy populations of eastern brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis) throughout their native Appalachian range. Brook trout are important as predators of insects in mountain streams and as a favorite of anglers. It is crucial that remaining populations in sustainable habitats be identified and preserved. Waterfalls are geologic knickpoints preventing base-level lowering that create unique, stable landscapes above them, which may alleviate the temperature-productivity/acidity “habitat squeeze” for populations of brook trout and could serve ...


Urban Stream Restoration: An Evaluation Of Material Processing And Conveyance Channels, Madeline Berg May 2019

Urban Stream Restoration: An Evaluation Of Material Processing And Conveyance Channels, Madeline Berg

Masters Theses

Stream restoration is gaining popularity in the Mid - Atlantic region to offset impacts from urbanization. Increased levels of impervious surfaces, decreased vegetation along banks, and changes in water flow patterns make urban stream ecosystems flashy and result in high erosion rates, increasing the amount of nutrients entering the Chesapeake Bay. Different restoration practices can play a large role in the amount of nutrients and organic matter leaving a stream and the amount of habitat that is present in-stream.

Due to the recent interest in stream restoration as a tool to help the health of the Chesapeake Bay, this study was ...


How Successful High School Boys Soccer Coaches Perceive And Develop Cultural Competency: A Grounded Theory Approach, Lauren Jefferson Apr 2019

How Successful High School Boys Soccer Coaches Perceive And Develop Cultural Competency: A Grounded Theory Approach, Lauren Jefferson

Masters Theses

The purpose of this study was to examine how high school athletics coaches conceptualize the knowledge, values, and skills of cultural competence, with specific attention to learning processes and influences. In order to serve the increasingly diverse U.S. student population equitably and to the full holistic potential of extracurricular programming, high school coaches must develop a greater comfort with and capacity for exercising cultural competency. A qualitative approach using a grounded theory was applied. Seven coaches and one athletic director were recruited by purposive sampling. The research suggests a process-oriented, chronological model of how experienced coaches begin to work ...


Dental Topographic Analysis Of Maxillary And Mandibular Phyllostomid Bat Dentitions: Implications For Dietary Prediction In The Fossil Record, Colin Pellegrom Apr 2019

Dental Topographic Analysis Of Maxillary And Mandibular Phyllostomid Bat Dentitions: Implications For Dietary Prediction In The Fossil Record, Colin Pellegrom

Masters Theses

Mammalian dental anatomy has evolved in accordance with the physical properties of its diet, and multiple features on each tooth have specific functions related to the breakdown of food during mastication and ingestion. Tooth structure is under tight genetic control and much of the anatomical variation in dentition across species is related to adaptation to a specific dietary regime. This diet-dentition relationship can be exploited to reconstruct mammalian diets from fossil specimens through calculation of dental topographic metrics. To date, most studies of dietary reconstruction using dental topography have focused on mandibular molars; thus, this study seeks to test whether ...


Patterns Of Morphological Plasticity In Metriaclima Zebra And Danio Rerio Suggest Differently Canalized Phenotypes Due To Form-Function Relationships, Dylan Jockel Jan 2019

Patterns Of Morphological Plasticity In Metriaclima Zebra And Danio Rerio Suggest Differently Canalized Phenotypes Due To Form-Function Relationships, Dylan Jockel

Masters Theses

In order to ascertain the degree of compatibility in developmental restructuring and behavioral plasticity between two fish species frequently made subject of laboratory research (Metriaclima zebra & Danio rerio), alternative trophic niche exposure experiments utilizing novel three-prong feeding treatments were conducted to obtain morphometric data, which demonstrated both species do bear some degree of plasticity. The results are somewhat complicated by differences in locality of detectable restructuring, which may be due to disparity in the form-function relationship for each species’ lineage. Each is notable in the manner of respective species’ jaw protrusion, as it is driven by anterior kinethmoid rotation in ...


The Effects Of Acidosis On Calcium Dependent Binding Of A Single Crossbridge, Matthew Unger Jan 2019

The Effects Of Acidosis On Calcium Dependent Binding Of A Single Crossbridge, Matthew Unger

Masters Theses

Intracellular acidosis is a putative agent of skeletal muscle fatigue, in part, because acidosis depresses the calcium (Ca2+) sensitivity and force production of muscle (18, 50). However, the molecular mechanisms behind this depression in Ca2+ sensitivity and force production are unknown. This gap in knowledge poses a significant challenge in generating a complete understanding of the fatigue process. To close this gap, the ability of myosin to bind to a single actin filament was measured under acidic conditions, in a laser trap assay, with and without regulatory proteins. Decreasing pH from 7.4 to 6.5 reduced the ...


Apple Disease Forecasting Models: When Climate Changes The Rules, Elizabeth W. Garofalo Jan 2019

Apple Disease Forecasting Models: When Climate Changes The Rules, Elizabeth W. Garofalo

Masters Theses

With a changing global climate, plant pathologists must understand the impact aberrant weather events may have on the development of plant diseases. Fungal plant infections are largely dependent on temperature and precipitation, climate parameters that are predicted to change more in this century. Venturia inaequalis causes apple scab, one of the most destructive apple diseases of temperate growing regions. Temperature and precipitation drive apple scab infections and forecast models, which guide growers in efficient, effective fungicide applications. In some recent years in the Northeast, these models have failed to accurately predict when ascospores of this fungus are available to cause ...


Creg1: Its Role As A Master Regulator Of Liver Function, Iffat Jahan Jan 2019

Creg1: Its Role As A Master Regulator Of Liver Function, Iffat Jahan

Masters Theses

Mammalian development involves a complex system of regulatory signals and reactions resulting in highly differentiated cell types with specific structure and function. The liver is a major organ that has been studied extensively to understand underlying genetic processes responsible for specification, establishment and maintenance of tissue identity. Hepatoma and hepatoma variant cell lines have been used as models to understand genetic networks responsible for liver function. Whole genome microarray analysis of hepatocyte cell lines has revealed candidate genes that may serve as regulators or master regulators of liver specificity. In two previous studies in our lab, the role of candidate ...


Variation In Leaf Morphology Of An Alpine Shrub Community Along Environmental Gradients, Abdulssalam Khafsha Jan 2019

Variation In Leaf Morphology Of An Alpine Shrub Community Along Environmental Gradients, Abdulssalam Khafsha

Masters Theses

Mountains represent complex environment gradients which strongly affect local temperature regimes and rainfall. These changes in climate conditions drive a diversity of plant responses. As alpine environments are expected to change dramatically in response to climate change, understanding plant responses to environmental variation is critical in these environments. Although they are a critical component of alpine communities, the environmental responses of shrubs have been much less examined than trees, representing an important knowledge gap. Leaves, as the primary photosynthetic organs on plants, would be expected to respond strongly to local climate conditions. In this study, I documented how the leaf ...


The Impact Of School Nutrition Education And Physical Education Programs On Weight Status Of Obese Children Aged 5-12 Years, Lamia Alotaibi Jan 2019

The Impact Of School Nutrition Education And Physical Education Programs On Weight Status Of Obese Children Aged 5-12 Years, Lamia Alotaibi

Masters Theses

Epidemiological studies indicate that 12.5 million children and adolescents are considered obese (Center for Disease Control and Prevention, 2017). Obesity is on the rise globally, and while it affects both children and adults, early measures can be taken to reduce the number of children who are obese, and therefore, come into adulthood at a higher risk for obesity-related diseases, such as hypertension, cardiovascular disease, and sleep apnea. There are many studies in which programs are implemented and tested for effectiveness; therefore, a systematic review of these studies that examine which factors play into overall obesity prevention and health improvements ...


White Grub In Bluegill In The Sangamon River: Impact Of Sewage Effluent And Flow Regime On Infection Parameters, Miranda White Jan 2019

White Grub In Bluegill In The Sangamon River: Impact Of Sewage Effluent And Flow Regime On Infection Parameters, Miranda White

Masters Theses

White grub (Posthodiplostomum minimum) is a digenetic trematode that uses a piscivorous bird, a pulmonate snail, and a centrarchid fish to complete its life cycle. To assess the impact of impoundment and sewage effluent on white grub infection parameters, infections in bluegill (Lepomis macrochirus) were monitored in 3 reaches of the Sangamon River near Decatur, Illinois: Reach 1- free-flowing river upstream of Lake Decatur Dam, unimpacted by sewage effluent, Reach 2- impounded flow below Lake Decatur Dam, unimpacted by sewage effluent, and Reach 3- free-flowing river downstream of Sanitary District of Decatur, impacted by sewage effluent. Liver and kidney abundances ...


Impacts Of Plant-Microbe Interactions On Seedling Performance In A Riparian Forest Invaded By Lonicera Maackii, Taylor E. K. Strehl Jan 2019

Impacts Of Plant-Microbe Interactions On Seedling Performance In A Riparian Forest Invaded By Lonicera Maackii, Taylor E. K. Strehl

Masters Theses

Soil microbes have profound impacts on plant growth and survival and can either promote or inhibit plant dominance. Exotic plants are often strongly invasive because they have escaped their natural enemies, potentially including antagonistic soil microbes. I examined how the invasive shrub Lonicera maackii and a common native tree, Acer negundo, responded to soil microbial communities to determine the role of soil microbes in regulating invasion success. This was done by growing both species with microbes from invaded (L. maackii) and uninvaded (A. negundo) soils collected from three locations within a riparian forest. Seedlings were grown both in isolation (Experiment ...


Detection Of Beta-Lactamase Variants In Municipal Wastewater And Fresh Water, Sunil Pandey Jan 2019

Detection Of Beta-Lactamase Variants In Municipal Wastewater And Fresh Water, Sunil Pandey

Masters Theses

The occurrence and spread of antibiotic-resistant genes (ARGs) are pressing public health problems worldwide. A key factor contributing to the spread of ARGs is lateral gene transfer. Wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) are measured hot spots of microbial diversity and resistance because they receive polluted wastewater from diverse sources and contain a variety of different environments with dense bacterial loads. Due to the overuse of antibiotics the genetic capacities of microbes have profited. This helps every source of resistance gene and every means of horizontal gene transmission to develop the multiple mechanism of resistance to each antibiotic used clinically, agriculturally, or ...


Medicinal Properties Of The Araliaceae, With Emphasis On Chemicals Affecting Nerve Cells, Rana Alharbi Jan 2019

Medicinal Properties Of The Araliaceae, With Emphasis On Chemicals Affecting Nerve Cells, Rana Alharbi

Masters Theses

In recent times, medicinal plants have become the focus of scientists and research. However, many have used traditional medicine to take advantage of plant extracts to treat many diseases, especially neurological diseases. Various central nervous system receptors have been shown to associate with plant extracts influencing the pharmacology and in this manner conceivably assuming a role in human sickness and treatment. For instance, extracts from Cussonia paniculata Eckl. & Zeyh targeted several early nervous and mental disease, and Kalopanax pictus has been traditionally used for the treatment of rheumatoidal arthritis, nerve pain and diabetes mellitus.

In the present study, we investigated ...


Context Dependency Of Invasion Impacts On The Controllers Of Invasibility In Microstegium Vimineum, Scott Vincent Janis Jan 2019

Context Dependency Of Invasion Impacts On The Controllers Of Invasibility In Microstegium Vimineum, Scott Vincent Janis

Masters Theses

Although plant invasions are of major conservation concern, understanding of the natural controls on invasion and their impacts is largely limited to static observational studies or artificially manipulated systems. Linking patterns of invasion with subsequent impacts in natural systems is necessary to fully assess invasion causes and consequences. Therefore, I employed a long-term approach to sequentially assess the controls on invasion and their subsequent impacts in a self-assembled system for the highly invasive annual grass Microstegium vimineum. I modeled likely factors contributing to the probability of invasion and local invasion success of a natural invasion of M. vimineum in a ...


Haplotype Diversity And Population Genetic Structure Of Antistrophus Gall Wasps Associated With Two Silphium Species And Implication For Host Mediated Speciation, Jiaxin Deng Jan 2019

Haplotype Diversity And Population Genetic Structure Of Antistrophus Gall Wasps Associated With Two Silphium Species And Implication For Host Mediated Speciation, Jiaxin Deng

Masters Theses

Gall making insects form a special feeding guild of phytophagous animals, and by manipulating host plant tissue differentiation, are able to avoid plant chemical defenses and thus have no need for counter defense mechanisms. Host plant selection is crucial to the evolution of these insects because successful gall formation is largely dependent on host plant ability to respond to stimuli. In Illinois and neighboring states, Antistrophus gall wasps associated with the rosin weed (S. integrifolium) and the cup plant (S. perfoliatum) are morphologically indistinguishable and thus have been treated as belonging to single species. However, the wasps from the host ...


Waist Circumference And The Relation To Aerobic Exercise And Perception Of Illness In Adults With Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus, Bailey J. Huebner Jan 2019

Waist Circumference And The Relation To Aerobic Exercise And Perception Of Illness In Adults With Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus, Bailey J. Huebner

Masters Theses

The purpose of this study was to observe the relationship between waist circumference (WC), amount of aerobic exercise performed weekly and overall Health Belief Model (HBM) score in adults with diagnosed type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Members from a local Midwest adult fitness program (n = 5) who had been diagnosed T2DM participated in this study. Participants ranged in age from 70 to 80 years with an average age of 74 years. Four of the participants were female and one participant was male. The questions included in this study were 1 .) in those with diagnosed T2DM, was a low overall HBM ...


A Genome Wide Survey Of The Insertion Sequences In Halanaerobium Hydrogeniformans, A Haloalkaliphilic Anaerobic Bacterium, Kody Austin Bassett Jan 2019

A Genome Wide Survey Of The Insertion Sequences In Halanaerobium Hydrogeniformans, A Haloalkaliphilic Anaerobic Bacterium, Kody Austin Bassett

Masters Theses

"Insertion sequences (IS) are the smallest prokaryotic transposable elements. These mobile genes are highly diverse in size and structure, making them difficult to study. The transposition activity of insertion sequences has a significant role in evolution by enabling genomic plasticity via genome rearrangements. Insertion sequences are largely uncharacterized and thus methods to improve the ability to accurately identify, annotate, and infer genomic impact of insertion sequences is limited. A sequential set of methods using readily available genomic and bioinformatic tools was developed to accurately identify insertion sequences. This method was used to perform an entire genome survey of Halanaerobium hydrogeniformans ...


Characterization Of Chromosomal Translocations In A Group Of Killifish Species By Using Genome-Wide High-Density Snp Mapping Approach, Naznin Sultana Remex Jan 2019

Characterization Of Chromosomal Translocations In A Group Of Killifish Species By Using Genome-Wide High-Density Snp Mapping Approach, Naznin Sultana Remex

Masters Theses

"The role of chromosomal rearrangements in reproductive isolation and introgression between species is poorly understood. In heterozygous form, rearrangements may directly interrupt meiotic progression leading to partial sterility/subfertility (underdominance) or may suppress local meiotic segregation (recombination suppression). Such unbalanced meiotic segregation may also result in reproductive isolation and play roles as a driving force of speciation. The objective of this study was to gain insight into the pattern of chromosomal rearrangements in two closely related killifish species in the genus Fundulus (F. notatus, and F. olivaceus) by constructing genetic linkage maps using high-resolution single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers. Markers ...


A Pipeline For Exogenous Gene Expression And Biomass Analysis In Plants, Bijay Bisunke Jan 2019

A Pipeline For Exogenous Gene Expression And Biomass Analysis In Plants, Bijay Bisunke

Masters Theses

Biological pretreatment of biomass is typically required for the production of liquid biofuels, which are viable alternatives to traditional fossil fuels. While traditional thermomechanical pretreatments are effective at helping to deconstruct lignocellulose, they are often expensive and tend to generate environmentally dangerous waste materials. An alternative to traditional pretreatment strategies is biological pretreatment, which has focused on lignocellulose-degrading organisms, such as white-rot fungi. While direct pretreatment of biomass with white-rot fungi has shown great promise, directly expressing functional white-rot fungi genes in plants (i.e. in planta expression) has the potential to be even more efficient because the biomass itself ...


Assessment And Recovery Of Stream Restoration Efforts On Fish Communities, Jessica Marie Rohr Jan 2019

Assessment And Recovery Of Stream Restoration Efforts On Fish Communities, Jessica Marie Rohr

Masters Theses

Aquatic systems are subjected to disturbances of various types, including natural and anthropogenic, or can deteriorate due to accumulating unfavorable conditions, including receding banks, decreasing riparian vegetation, and disrupted flow patterns. An analysis was done on a variety of streams in central Illinois that experienced one or multiple anthropogenic disturbances without remediation to determine the natural recovery dynamics of each system. A separate analysis was performed on a multi-site restored stream with a complex restoration project with a variety of restoration methods. This data were collected over at periods of time spanning from 5-15 years, including time prior to disturbance ...


Investigating The Prevalence Of An Insecticide Resistance Gene In Culex Mosquito Populations Of Central Illinois, Kylee R. Noel Jan 2019

Investigating The Prevalence Of An Insecticide Resistance Gene In Culex Mosquito Populations Of Central Illinois, Kylee R. Noel

Masters Theses

The globalization of society has led to the spread of the vectors, mosquitoes, and diseases. Each year millions of people are killed by diseases vectored by mosquitoes. For example, West Nile Virus alone killed over 2,000 people in North America in 2017; 8 of those deaths being in Illinois. Two prominent vectors of West Nile Virus are Culex pipiens and Culex restuans; which are difficult to differentiate based upon morphological features. In this study, mosquitoes collected from two Illinois counties, Coles County and Champaign County, were first identified based upon morphology and this identification was then compared to probe-based ...


An Assessment Of Night Time And Seasonal Electrofishing In The Lower Wabash River, Eric Christopher Hine Jan 2019

An Assessment Of Night Time And Seasonal Electrofishing In The Lower Wabash River, Eric Christopher Hine

Masters Theses

Large rivers are highly important systems; being exploited both commercially and recreationally. Because of this usage by humans, close monitoring of the ecology of theses rivers is of the utmost importance. The Long-Term Electrofishing project (LTEF) monitors the fish communities of the Illinois, Mississippi, Wabash, and Ohio rivers using day time, pulsed-DC electrofishing during the late Spring through the early Fall each year. Given that previous studies have noted diel and seasonal changes in catch and composition of fish communities, the addition of night time electrofishing may be beneficial to the overarching goals of the LTEF. This study sought to ...


Reprogramming Of Rat Hepatoma Cells With Fibroblast-Specific Protein Twist1, Kezban Ucar Cifci Jan 2019

Reprogramming Of Rat Hepatoma Cells With Fibroblast-Specific Protein Twist1, Kezban Ucar Cifci

Masters Theses

In mammalian development, a complex system comprised of regulatory signals causes tissue distinction with unique structures as well as functions. Gene expression controls these functions through specific combinations of transcription factors and cofactors that influence cell differentiation by both activation and repression of genes.

Whole genome microarray studies of fibroblasts have identified candidate genes that can serve as master regulators of fibroblast identity. A previous study showed that Prrx1 and Snai2 play important roles in activating expression of fibroblast identity, and Snai2 overexpression in hepatoma cells (Fg14) activated expression of fibroblast specific genes. Moreover, Snai2 overexpression resulted in repression of ...