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Full-Text Articles in Life Sciences

The Effects Of Foliar Nutrient Applications On Split, Yield, And Internal Fruit Quality Of 'Wonderful' Pomegranate (Punica Granatum L.), John Matthew Chater Dec 2015

The Effects Of Foliar Nutrient Applications On Split, Yield, And Internal Fruit Quality Of 'Wonderful' Pomegranate (Punica Granatum L.), John Matthew Chater

Master's Theses and Project Reports

Fruit split is the most important physiological disorder in pomegranate production, causing devastating crop losses worldwide. Foliar nutrient applications have been used experimentally to mitigate pomegranate fruit split but none have been conducted using the industry standard cultivar, Wonderful, and little is known about the effects of foliar nutrient applications on pomegranate. Additionally, investigations into putative health benefits of pomegranate fruit have increased interest in its production but limited evidence exists regarding effects of agricultural practices such as foliar fertilizer applications on internal fruit quality. ‘Wonderful’ pomegranate trees at 2 commercial orchards were treated with foliar applications of ZnSO4 ...


Digestibility Of Two Complete Pelleted Diets By The Horse (Equus Caballus) As A Model Animal For Nondomestic Hindgut Fermenters, Emily M. Schwartz Dec 2015

Digestibility Of Two Complete Pelleted Diets By The Horse (Equus Caballus) As A Model Animal For Nondomestic Hindgut Fermenters, Emily M. Schwartz

Master's Theses and Project Reports

Estimating nutrient and energy requirements of exotic animals is a necessary component of nutrition management in zoos and other wildlife facilities. In the absence of species-specific data, domestic animal models are often referenced. Herbivorous hindgut fermenters, such as horses, zebra, and rhinoceros, rely on microbial fermentation in the cecum and colon to utilize dietary structural carbohydrates. The study objective was to measure the digestible energy of two (LOW, HIGH) complete pelleted diets by the horse as a model for nondomestic hindgut fermenters. Seven, individually housed, adult Quarter Horse (Equus caballus) geldings were assigned to one of two diets as 100 ...


Predicting Invasive Range Of Eucalyptus Globulus In California, Anthony J. Lopez Dec 2015

Predicting Invasive Range Of Eucalyptus Globulus In California, Anthony J. Lopez

Master's Theses and Project Reports

Eucalyptus globulus is the subject of intense debate in California. Its invasive potential, aggressive growth, reproductive biology, and association with fire make the prediction of spread important in California. Two modeling simulations, Climex and Maxent, will illustrate the distribution and potential growth range of E. globulus in California based on climate and presence. Modeling the potential range of growth will predict invasive spread. The anticipated result is the continued spread of E. globulus in coastal regions with adequate moisture and suitable climate. Predicting the range of E. globulus in California dictates management strategy and is key for preventing further introduction ...


Production And Harvest Of Microalgae In Wastewater Raceways With Resource Recycling, Alexander Colin Roberts Dec 2015

Production And Harvest Of Microalgae In Wastewater Raceways With Resource Recycling, Alexander Colin Roberts

Master's Theses and Project Reports

Microalgae can be grown on municipal wastewater media to both treat the wastewater and produce feedstock for algae biofuel production. However the reliability of treatment must be demonstrated, as well as high areal algae productivity on recycled wastewater media and efficient sedimentation harvesting. This processes was studied at pilot scale in the present research.

A pilot facility was operated with nine CO2-supplemented raceway ponds, each with a 33-m2 surface area and a 0.3-m depth, continuously from March 6, 2013 through September 24, 2014. The ponds were operated as three sets of triplicates with two sets continuously ...


Lyme Disease Ecology In San Luis Obispo County: The Role Of The Western Gray Squirrel, Ryan William Baker-Branstetter Nov 2015

Lyme Disease Ecology In San Luis Obispo County: The Role Of The Western Gray Squirrel, Ryan William Baker-Branstetter

Master's Theses and Project Reports

Despite the fact that eight cases of Lyme disease were diagnosed in San Luis Obispo County between 2005-2013, the identity of wildlife hosts serving as sources for tick infection in this region remained unidentified. The primary cause of Lyme disease in the U.S. is the spirochetal bacterium Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto, and this agent had not been previously isolated from the region. Borrelia bissettii, a related species that has not been implicated as a common causative agent of Lyme disease, was isolated in small rodents inhabiting coastal scrub and chaparral habitats in a previous San Luis Obispo County study ...


An Invasive Grass And A Desert Adapted Rodent: Is There An Effect On Locomotory Performance And Is It Modified By Prior Experience Or Familiarization?, Camille D. Boag Oct 2015

An Invasive Grass And A Desert Adapted Rodent: Is There An Effect On Locomotory Performance And Is It Modified By Prior Experience Or Familiarization?, Camille D. Boag

Master's Theses and Project Reports

Kangaroo rats (Dipodomys spp.) are frequently characterized as keystone species for their role in altering soil characteristics, changing habitat structure through seed consumption and dispersal, and being important primary consumers in their ecosystem. They are arid adapted and known to forage in areas with sparse vegetation. Studies suggests densely vegetated habitat to be unsuitable for kangaroo rats because plants are an impediment to their locomotion and predator avoidance behaviors. This study focuses on an invasive grass, South African Veldt (Ehrharta calycina), that converts landscapes with sparse vegetation into dense grassland habitats, and the Lompoc kangaroo rat (Dipodomys heermanni arenae) that ...


Effects Of Supplemental Hydration On Physiology And Behavior Of Northern Pacific Rattlesnakes (Crotalus Oreganus Oreganus), Griffin D. Capehart Oct 2015

Effects Of Supplemental Hydration On Physiology And Behavior Of Northern Pacific Rattlesnakes (Crotalus Oreganus Oreganus), Griffin D. Capehart

Master's Theses and Project Reports

Hydration is a critical element for many physiological processes in vertebrates, such as protein production, innate immunity, and behavioral processes such as daily activity and thermoregulation. Few studies have directly assessed the effect of hydration on these animals in nature. While it seems intuitive that drought is stressful to animals, studies examining drought are typically observational and fail to assess how the hydration state of these animals influences their physiology and behavior. We tested for an effect of hydration on several physiological and behavioral parameters in Northern Pacific rattlesnakes (Crotalus oreganus oreganus) by experimentally manipulating hydration levels in the field ...


How Are Rare Species Maintained?: Reproductive Barriers Between Layia Jonesii, A Rare Serpentine Endemic, And L. Platyglossa, Natalie L. Rossington Sep 2015

How Are Rare Species Maintained?: Reproductive Barriers Between Layia Jonesii, A Rare Serpentine Endemic, And L. Platyglossa, Natalie L. Rossington

Master's Theses and Project Reports

Reproductive barriers are vital to generating new species as well as maintaining distinct species. Investigating reproductive barriers between closely related plant taxa helps us to understand how these barriers are maintained, particularly between rare and widespread relatives. Layia jonesii, a rare San Luis Obispo County serpentine endemic, and L. platyglossa, a common coastal species, co-occur on serpentine derived hillsides and are interfertile. At these locations, L. jonesii is isolated to dry soils near serpentine rock outcrops and L. platyglossa is located on slightly deeper grassland soils surrounding the rock outcrops. On hillsides where they co-occur, I observe two morphologically distinct ...


Multi-Stress Proteomics: The Global Protein Response To Multiple Environmental Stressors In The Porcelain Crab Petrolisthes Cinctipes, Michael A. Garland Sep 2015

Multi-Stress Proteomics: The Global Protein Response To Multiple Environmental Stressors In The Porcelain Crab Petrolisthes Cinctipes, Michael A. Garland

Master's Theses and Project Reports

Global climate change is increasing the number of hot days along the California coast as well as increasing the incidence of off-shore upwelling events that lower the pH of intertidal seawater; thus, intertidal organisms are experiencing an increase in more than one stress simultaneously. This study seeks to characterize the global protein response of the eurythermal porcelain crab Petrolisthes cinctipes to changes in thermal, pH, and tidal regime treatments, either combined or individually. The first experiment examined temperature stress alone and sought to determine the effect of chronic temperature acclimation on the acute heat shock response. We compared the proteomic ...


Morphological Response In Sister Taxa Of Woodrats (Genus: Neotoma) Across A Zone Of Secondary Contact, Michaela M. Koenig Sep 2015

Morphological Response In Sister Taxa Of Woodrats (Genus: Neotoma) Across A Zone Of Secondary Contact, Michaela M. Koenig

Master's Theses and Project Reports

This study focuses on a secondary contact zone between two sister species of woodrat, Neotoma fuscipes (dusky-footed woodrat) and N. macrotis (big-eared woodrat). Along the Nacimiento River, on the border of southern Monterey and northern San Luis Obispo counties, the ranges of these sister species of woodrats meet and overlap forming a secondary contact zone. The zone of secondary contact is estimated to include a 500-meter (~1,650 linear feet) portion of the Nacimiento River riparian corridor.

This research examines quantifiable morphological change that is likely associated with heightened inter-specific competition within the contact zone. When in sympatry the sister ...


Effects Of Testosterone On The Spatial Ecology, Coloration, And Brain Regions In Western Fence Lizards, Sceloporus Occidentalis, Rachel Catharine Wilson Sep 2015

Effects Of Testosterone On The Spatial Ecology, Coloration, And Brain Regions In Western Fence Lizards, Sceloporus Occidentalis, Rachel Catharine Wilson

Master's Theses and Project Reports

An organism’s spatial ecology allows for access to essential resources such as food, mates, and escape from predators. Home range size, or the total area an organism inhabits, varies in relation to numerous factors including seasonality. During the breeding season, home range size increases in males across taxa. In addition, males usually also have larger home range sizes than females. This implicates testosterone (T) as a possible mediator of this relationship. Indeed, T causes an increase in home range size of males in numerous species of lizards. In addition to T causing an increase in home range size, it ...


Demographics And Transfer Of Escherichia Coli Within Bos Taurus Populations, Joshua Ryan Dillard Sep 2015

Demographics And Transfer Of Escherichia Coli Within Bos Taurus Populations, Joshua Ryan Dillard

Master's Theses and Project Reports

In the United States, symptoms caused by pathogenic strains of Escherichia coli are on the rise. A major source of these pathogenic strains is the E. coli in the digestive tract of cattle. The purpose of this project was to determine if E. coli are transferred between individuals of the same species and if interspecies transmission is possible. Proximity of cattle was also studied as a contributing factor to the transfer of E. coli. To accomplish this goal, E. coli isolates from cattle and cohabitating ground squirrels were compared through a new method of bacterial strain typing called pyroprinting. Bulls ...


An Investigation Of The Effect Of Malathion On Adaptive Plasticity Of Pseudacris Sierra, Michael Jonathan Maples Aug 2015

An Investigation Of The Effect Of Malathion On Adaptive Plasticity Of Pseudacris Sierra, Michael Jonathan Maples

Master's Theses and Project Reports

This thesis is composed of two chapters. Chapter one reviews what is known about adaptive plasticity in response to predators, describes the physiological systems involved in such plasticity, and outlines the evolutionary consequences of adaptive plasticity. Chapter two describes a scientific experiment that investigates how malathion may impact adaptive plasticity in the Sierran Treefrog, Pseudacris sierra. Anuran tadpoles suffer high mortality rates due to predation. In response to strong selective forces relating to these high predation rates, tadpoles evolved the ability to adaptively respond to predators through morphological and behavioral plasticity. The morphological and behavioral responses are varied and depend ...


High Moisture Extrusion Of Oatmeal, Brandon F. Coleman Jun 2015

High Moisture Extrusion Of Oatmeal, Brandon F. Coleman

Master's Theses and Project Reports

Oats are considered to be a highly nutritious breakfast food available to consumers. Heightened consumer interest in functional food products and advances in human nutrition have led to increased levels of interest in the development of new oat based products (Webster and Wood 2011). Developments in technology have led to manufacturing of instant oatmeal, making the product more convenient to consumers. Low moisture extrusion processing is one of the most widely used methods to produce ready to eat breakfast cereals; however, there has been little research carried out to determine if high moisture extrusion methods would be viable. This study ...


Screening Of Biocontrol Organisms For The Management Of Phytopathogenic Fungi And Foodborne Pathogens On Produce, Antoinette Boyee De Senna Jun 2015

Screening Of Biocontrol Organisms For The Management Of Phytopathogenic Fungi And Foodborne Pathogens On Produce, Antoinette Boyee De Senna

Master's Theses and Project Reports

The multibillion dollar agricultural industry is an important part of the United States economy, and the management of factors that affect crop and human health is imperative to maintaining this economic sector. The fungi Botrytis cinerea, Fusarium pallidoroseum, and Fusarium moniliforme are the causative agents of several plant diseases and can cause significant crop loss both before and after harvest in commodities such as strawberries, lettuce, citrus, and grains. Fungicides are employed to control these phytopathogens, but the use of these chemicals has led to an increase in fungicide resistance and may negatively affect the environment and human health. In ...


Investigation Of Larval Sensory Systems In The Marine Bryozoan, Bugula Neritina, Heather Leigh Price Jun 2015

Investigation Of Larval Sensory Systems In The Marine Bryozoan, Bugula Neritina, Heather Leigh Price

Master's Theses and Project Reports

Bugula neritina is a sessile marine bryozoan with a pelagic larval stage. Larvae frequently settle on boat hulls, facilitating the introduction of B. neritina to bays and estuaries worldwide. Adrenergic agonists, such as the vertebrate hormone noradrenaline, inhibit larval settlement in a variety of marine invertebrate species, including B. neritina. Light also inhibits B. neritina larval settlement, yet the underlying mechanisms by which light and adrenergic compounds exert their effects on larvae are not well understood. Octopamine is considered the invertebrate analog of noradrenaline, and may be an endogenous hormone involved in larval settlement pathways. I observed the effects of ...


Virulence Gene Expression Of Vibrio Parahaemolyticus In The Viable But Nonculturable State, Tiffany Pui-Yun Tse Jun 2015

Virulence Gene Expression Of Vibrio Parahaemolyticus In The Viable But Nonculturable State, Tiffany Pui-Yun Tse

Master's Theses and Project Reports

Vibrio parahaemolyticus is a food-borne pathogen commonly associated with the consumption of raw or undercooked seafood resulting in primary infections of the human gastrointestinal tract. It is estimated to cause about 4500 illnesses each year in the United States. However, infection from this food-borne pathogen can be avoided if this organism is detected in the implicated food, prior to consumption. Current standard methods of detecting this organism are dependent on the culturability of the bacteria. Detection based on an organism’s culturability may be problematic as V. parahaemolyticus has been known to exist in a viable but nonculturable (VBNC) state ...


Consumer Evaluation: The Link Between Body Mass Index, Reward Sensitivity, Product Liking And Emotion, Malori Comer Jun 2015

Consumer Evaluation: The Link Between Body Mass Index, Reward Sensitivity, Product Liking And Emotion, Malori Comer

Master's Theses and Project Reports

The objectives of this study were: (1) to evaluate consumer acceptance of cheeses varying in fat and sodium levels, (2) to determine if sensitivity to reward and body mass index has an effect on product liking based on fat or salt content, (3) to evaluate the use of FaceReader technology during consumer evaluation and, (4) to determine if consumer’s self-selected, conscious emotions matched with the expressed, subconscious emotions acquired by FaceReader.

Consumer acceptance testing (n=108) was conducted on two medium cheddar cheeses with varying fat levels and two low-moisture part-skim mozzarella cheeses varying in sodium levels. Attributes were ...


Exploring The Physiological Role Of Vibrio Fischeri Pepn, Sally L. Cello Apr 2015

Exploring The Physiological Role Of Vibrio Fischeri Pepn, Sally L. Cello

Master's Theses and Project Reports

The primary contributor to Vibrio fischeri aminopeptidase activity is aminopeptidase N, PepN. Colonization assays revealed the pepN mutant strain to be deficient at forming dense aggregates and populating the host’s light organ compared to wildtype within the first 12 hours of colonization; however the mutant competed normally at 24 hours. To address the role of PepN in colonization initiation and establish additional phenotypes for the pepN mutant strain, stress response and other physiological assays were employed. Marked differences were found between pepN mutant and wildtype strain in response to salinity, acidity, and antibiotic tolerance. This study has provided a ...


Outdoor Adventure Therapy To Increase Physical Activity In Young Adult Cancer Survivors, Elizabeth C. Gill M.S., Suzanne Phelan Ph.D, Marni Goldenberg Ph.D, Heather Starnes Ph.D Mar 2015

Outdoor Adventure Therapy To Increase Physical Activity In Young Adult Cancer Survivors, Elizabeth C. Gill M.S., Suzanne Phelan Ph.D, Marni Goldenberg Ph.D, Heather Starnes Ph.D

Master's Theses and Project Reports

Physical activity (PA) has numerous benefits for cancer survivors, but limited research exists on PA interventions in young adult cancer survivors. Outdoor adventure therapy is a potential method of increasing PA in this demographic. The primary purpose of this non-randomized parallel group study was to determine whether the outdoor adventure camp experience (vs. wait list control) would increase participants’ PA levels immediately following the 7-day camp, as well as three months later. Secondary aims examined correlates of greater PA, including pre-post camp changes in sedentary behavior, exercise self-efficacy, environmental change self-efficacy, perceived barriers to exercise, physical activity enjoyment, and physical ...


Increasing Expression Of Hepatitis B Surface Antigen In Maize Through Breeding, Erin Suzanne Miller Mar 2015

Increasing Expression Of Hepatitis B Surface Antigen In Maize Through Breeding, Erin Suzanne Miller

Master's Theses and Project Reports

The hepatitis B virus (HBV) is a common virus, with two billion people infected worldwide. It causes approximately 600,000 deaths each year, despite the availability of an effective vaccine since 1982. Maize as a platform for oral vaccination can supply a heat stable vaccine, which does not require syringes or trained personnel to administer. The Hepatitis B Surface antigen was transformed into maize and this seed was used to evaluate expression levels through the breeding process. The transgene was transferred into two elite maize inbreds by backcrossing. Highest expressing ears were selected each generation until approximately 99% commercial parent ...


Identification Of Saccharina Groenlandica (Phaeophyceae) Around The Svalbard Archipelago: Dna Barcoding Using Cytochrome C Oxidase Subunit 1 (Coi), Anniken Lydon Mar 2015

Identification Of Saccharina Groenlandica (Phaeophyceae) Around The Svalbard Archipelago: Dna Barcoding Using Cytochrome C Oxidase Subunit 1 (Coi), Anniken Lydon

Master's Theses and Project Reports

In the Arctic, brown algae (kelps) and seaweeds are ecologically important: providing habitat, protection, and nutrients for invertebrate and vertebrate species living in nearshore environments. Migrations of biota between the North Pacific and North Atlantic Oceans have occurred periodically during Earth’s history leading to colonization of the Arctic Ocean. Around 3.5 Mya the “Great Trans-Arctic Biotic Interchange” occurred and the Laminariales order of kelp, thought to be of North Pacific origin, underwent a massive radiation and speciation event around the Arctic Ocean. Phylogenetic analysis performed on “Laminaria-like” specimens collected from six sampling locations around the Svalbard Archipelago ...


Survey Of Phytoseiids (Acari: Phytoseiidae) On The Central Coast Of California, Maria Elena Murrietta Mar 2015

Survey Of Phytoseiids (Acari: Phytoseiidae) On The Central Coast Of California, Maria Elena Murrietta

Master's Theses and Project Reports

Phytoseiids were collected March through November, 2006 and 2007, from leaf samples of avocados, cherimoya, caneberry, grape, and strawberry from a combined total of 24 sites. The most diverse collection of phytoseiids was identified on grape with seven different genera and 12 different species followed by caneberry with 7 genera and 7 species. Strawberry was the least diverse with three genera and three different species. The most significant presence of type I and type II phytoseiids were located on caneberry and strawberry while avocado, cherimoya and grape were dominated by type IV species. Reasons for the difference in diversity could ...


Native Small Mammal Use Of An Invasive Grass: Heermann's Kangaroo Rats (Dipodomys Heermanni) And Veldt Grass (Ehrharta Calycina) In Coastal California, Juliana P. Trunzo Mar 2015

Native Small Mammal Use Of An Invasive Grass: Heermann's Kangaroo Rats (Dipodomys Heermanni) And Veldt Grass (Ehrharta Calycina) In Coastal California, Juliana P. Trunzo

Master's Theses and Project Reports

Invasive species are generally regarded as detrimental to native communities because they cause increased competition and community structure alterations. There is therefore a critical need to understand the ecological processes underlying the establishment and spread of invasive species. While most studies to date have focused on the role of competition in species invasions, trophic dynamics may also play a fundamental role in the establishment and spread of non-natives, especially in cases when a non-native species experiences differential predation pressure relative to a native competitor. Herein I explore the potential for differential granivory pressure by a native rodent (Heermann’s kangaroo ...


The Proteomic Response Of The Carcinus Maenas Y-Organ Over The Course Of The Molt Cycle, Mark S. Hamer Feb 2015

The Proteomic Response Of The Carcinus Maenas Y-Organ Over The Course Of The Molt Cycle, Mark S. Hamer

Master's Theses and Project Reports

Molting in arthropods is a complex process governed by regulatory mechanisms that have evolved and adapted over millennia to allow these animals to grow, despite being confined by a hardened exoskeleton. We isolated the molt-regulating Y-organs (YO) from the common shore crab Carcinus maenas at molt stages B, C1-3, C4, and D0 to assess how changes in protein abundances might underline the unique physiology of each of these stages. We found that changes in protein abundance were most notable in the postmolt stages (B and C1-3), where an increase in energy metabolism and the reactive oxygen ...