Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

Life Sciences Commons

Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

Articles 1 - 27 of 27

Full-Text Articles in Life Sciences

Strawberries And Gut Health In Postmenopausal Women, Morgan T. Macneill Jun 2019

Strawberries And Gut Health In Postmenopausal Women, Morgan T. Macneill

Master's Theses and Project Reports

The gut microbiota has been implicated in both health and disease. As such, diet is a significant determinant of gut health, whereby diet induced dysbiosis is associated with cardiometabolic risk. Interestingly, a higher proportion of Firmicutes and a lower proportion of Bacteroidetes are implicated in obesity. Strawberry polyphenols have been shown to reduce cardiovascular disease risk in addition to exhibiting prebiotic activity by increasing probiotic bacteria in the gut. Polyphenols have also been shown to reduce the ratio of Firmicutes to Bacteroidetes. Therefore, dietary modifications such as strawberry consumption may help improve health outcomes through the gut. The objective of ...


Comparative Analysis Of Body Composition And Reference Values Of Visceral Adipose Tissues In Various American Collegiate Sports, Eshan M. Dandekar Sep 2018

Comparative Analysis Of Body Composition And Reference Values Of Visceral Adipose Tissues In Various American Collegiate Sports, Eshan M. Dandekar

Master's Theses and Project Reports

Background: Currently, body composition (BC) assessment is usually performed to diagnose disease states and accurately estimate certain types of tissues. In athletes, performing BC assessments helps gauge training and nutrition programs to see if they are adequately meeting the athlete’s needs to improve performance. Annual Dual Energy X-ray Absorptiometry (DXA) scans before the start of an athlete’s season can help identify an athlete’s preparedness or health before training begins.

Objective: To assess the preseason BC of four collegiate sports: Men’s basketball, men’s baseball, women’s volleyball, and women’s soccer, for Fat Mass (FM), bone ...


Modifying The Mineral Profile Of Crickets (Acheta Domesticus) Using A Supplemented Diet, Rhianne Morgan Le Maxwell Aug 2018

Modifying The Mineral Profile Of Crickets (Acheta Domesticus) Using A Supplemented Diet, Rhianne Morgan Le Maxwell

Master's Theses and Project Reports

Captive insectivores may consume invertebrates as all, or part of their overall diet. The challenge with feeding captive insectivores involves the limited number of invertebrate species that are commercially available, and the lack of key nutrients provided by these insects. Among these insects, a naturally occurring low concentration of calcium and an inverse calcium to phosphorus ratio may put insectivores at the risk of developing hypocalcemia. A strategy to correct this nutrient imbalance involves supplementing the insect diet with high concentrations of targeted nutrients – a term referred to as gut-loading. Current industry guidelines recommend feeding a supplemented diet for 48 ...


Pink And Dude Chefs: Effectiveness Of An After-School Nutrition Knowledge And Culinary Skills Program For Middle School Students To Increase Fruit And Vegetable Consumption, Alyssa S. Vaziri Jun 2018

Pink And Dude Chefs: Effectiveness Of An After-School Nutrition Knowledge And Culinary Skills Program For Middle School Students To Increase Fruit And Vegetable Consumption, Alyssa S. Vaziri

Master's Theses and Project Reports

The rate of overweight and obesity among adolescents aged 12-19 years has more than tripled since 1980, and disproportionately impacts low-income and marginalized populations. Reduction in adolescent obesity rates may result in decreased health risks, decrease healthcare costs, and increased quality of life. Effective intervention methods for adolescent participants have incorporated nutrition knowledge and culinary skill building into afterschool programs. This study examines whether building knowledge, skills, and confidence through a culinary intervention can improve adolescent participants’ choices of healthful foods through increased fruit and vegetable intake.

Pink and Dude Chefs (PDC) is an afterschool nutrition education and culinary skills ...


Assessment Of Maternal And Infant Outcomes Of Moderately Malnourished Pregnant Adolescents In Malawi, Alyssa Marie Friebert Feb 2018

Assessment Of Maternal And Infant Outcomes Of Moderately Malnourished Pregnant Adolescents In Malawi, Alyssa Marie Friebert

Master's Theses and Project Reports

Background: Adolescent childbearing and maternal malnutrition are common in low- and middle-income countries and are associated with increased risk for poor maternal and infant outcomes. Adolescent pregnancy compounded with moderate malnutrition exacerbates outcomes common to both individually. Supplementary foods may be a way to improve outcomes in malnourished adolescent pregnant women.

Objective: To retrospectively assess maternal and infant outcomes in moderately malnourished pregnant young adolescents (16-17 YO), older adolescents (18-19 YO), and adults (≥20 YO) in response to one of three nutritional interventions and in a pooled treatment group analysis, and to assess differences in infant outcomes by infant gender ...


Assessing The Effect Of Nutritional Interventions On Body Composition Changes During Pregnancy In Moderately Malnourished Malawian Women, Megan K. Kitagawa Sep 2017

Assessing The Effect Of Nutritional Interventions On Body Composition Changes During Pregnancy In Moderately Malnourished Malawian Women, Megan K. Kitagawa

Master's Theses and Project Reports

Background: Malnutrition can affect the body composition changes that occur in healthy pregnancy, resulting in adverse effects to both the mother and infant. Supplementary foods with high quality protein may result in more favorable changes in lean mass and fat mass in pregnant malnourished women.

Objective: To retrospectively assess changes in body composition in moderately malnourished pregnant Malawian women in response to one of three nutritional interventions.

Methods: Height, weight, MUAC, and TSF were measured in pregnant women with MUAC >20.6 cm and19) were compared using ANOVA. If differences were detected, differences between groups were tested using the Tukey ...


A Comparative Analysis Of The Nutrient Composition And Digestibility Of California Perennial And Annual Grasses At Four Stages Of Growth, Elaina Cromer Jul 2017

A Comparative Analysis Of The Nutrient Composition And Digestibility Of California Perennial And Annual Grasses At Four Stages Of Growth, Elaina Cromer

Master's Theses and Project Reports

Beef products represent the fourth largest agricultural commodity in the state of California, valuing more than $3 billion from 2013 to 2015 (CDFA, 2016) and procure 90% of the income for the range livestock industry (FRAP, 2003). Forages found on California’s coastal, desert, foothill, and mountain ranges are the basis of the state’s beef cattle industry. Understanding their nutritional quality of these forages is important for their effective use (George et al., 2001a; Waterman et al., 2014). The objectives of this research were to investigate the nutritional characteristics, and in situ digestbilities in Angus beef cattle, of common ...


Pink And Dude Chefs: Efficacy Of An Online Train-The-Trainer Mechanism And Student Program Outcomes, Jacqueline Chen Jun 2017

Pink And Dude Chefs: Efficacy Of An Online Train-The-Trainer Mechanism And Student Program Outcomes, Jacqueline Chen

Master's Theses and Project Reports

Background: The rate of overweight and obesity among adolescents aged 12-19 years has quadrupled since 1980. Reducing obesity is a key public health priority, as obesity is associated with individual and population-level health and economic consequences. Afterschool-based obesity prevention programs that aim to develop nutrition and culinary self-efficacy have shown promise. However, the level of aptitude among program instructors is directly correlated with student success, suggesting the importance of effective train-the-trainer (TTT) mechanisms for implementing and scaling up these strategies.

Pink and Dude Chefs (PDC) is an afterschool nutrition education and culinary skills program for middle-school adolescents aged between 11-14 ...


Physically Effective Fiber Threshold, Apparent Digestibility, And Novel Fecal Microbiome Identification Of The Leopard Tortoise (Stigmochelys Pardalis), Breanna Paige Modica Sep 2016

Physically Effective Fiber Threshold, Apparent Digestibility, And Novel Fecal Microbiome Identification Of The Leopard Tortoise (Stigmochelys Pardalis), Breanna Paige Modica

Master's Theses and Project Reports

Particle size distribution of diet, feces, and change from diet to feces, as well as apparent digestibility (aDig, %) of selected nutrients, and novel fecal microbiome identification of mature female leopard tortoises (Stigmochelys pardalis, n = 16) fed exclusively one of three, nutritionally complete, pelleted diets were evaluated in a blind, complete randomized design study. Two diets included insoluble fiber (powdered cellulose) consisting of either 2.0 mm or 0.2 mm length. Insoluble fiber provides nutritional and physical benefits to both the animal host and the microorganisms that inhabit the gastrointestinal tract. Insoluble fiber length was used as a means of ...


The Influence Of Exclusive Breastfeeding On Growth Trajectory From Birth To Year 5 In A Wic Cohort, Lindsey Arevalos Jun 2016

The Influence Of Exclusive Breastfeeding On Growth Trajectory From Birth To Year 5 In A Wic Cohort, Lindsey Arevalos

Master's Theses and Project Reports

OBJECTIVE. The impact of exclusively breastfeeding (EBF) on child body mass index (BMI) from birth through 60 months of age was investigated.

METHODS. 60,190 mothers and children attending Women, Infant and Children (WIC) clinics in the Santa Barbara and San Luis Obispo counties of California provided data on breastfeeding duration, maternal pre-pregnancy BMI, and child weight-for-length (WL) was measured at 3 month intervals until 5 years of age. Missing time points were interpolated in determining child BMI/WL z-score trajectories plotted on the Center of Disease Control (CDC) infant and child growth curves. Multivariate analysis of variance was used ...


The Impact Of A Smarter Lunchrooms Makeover On Children's Food Choice And Consumption, Polina Zhuzhina Jun 2016

The Impact Of A Smarter Lunchrooms Makeover On Children's Food Choice And Consumption, Polina Zhuzhina

Master's Theses and Project Reports

Childhood obesity has tripled over the past three decades and poses a serious public health problem. The Smarter Lunchrooms Movement aims to increase healthy eating by incorporating low-cost to no-cost alterations to the school lunchroom in an effort to increase consumption of healthier foods, such as fruits and vegetables, by making them more attractive and convenient.

Our study implemented Smarter Lunchrooms interventions at two primarily Hispanic elementary schools in Paso Robles, CA. The interventions focused on increasing the appeal of the salad bars, including installation of age-appropriate signage highlighting fruits and vegetables, as well as branding of fruits and vegetables ...


Pink And Dude Chefs: Impact Of A Nutrition And Culinary Education Program With Middle School Students In An Afterschool Setting, Jessie R. Bierlich-Wesch Mar 2016

Pink And Dude Chefs: Impact Of A Nutrition And Culinary Education Program With Middle School Students In An Afterschool Setting, Jessie R. Bierlich-Wesch

Master's Theses and Project Reports

The epidemic of adolescent obesity has become one of the greatest public health concerns in the United States. Approximately 20.5% of adolescents of both sexes aged 12-19 years are considered obese. Higher rates of obesity are evident in ethnic minority and lower income status children with the highest prevalence among Hispanic/Latino and Black populations. The causes for obesity are multifactorial in nature and highlight disparities nationwide. These factors include socioeconomic status, education, environment, availability and access to fresh fruits and vegetables, and behavior patterns. Successful intervention methods that have reduced the impact of adolescent obesity have incorporated nutrition ...


Digestibility Of Two Complete Pelleted Diets By The Horse (Equus Caballus) As A Model Animal For Nondomestic Hindgut Fermenters, Emily M. Schwartz Dec 2015

Digestibility Of Two Complete Pelleted Diets By The Horse (Equus Caballus) As A Model Animal For Nondomestic Hindgut Fermenters, Emily M. Schwartz

Master's Theses and Project Reports

Estimating nutrient and energy requirements of exotic animals is a necessary component of nutrition management in zoos and other wildlife facilities. In the absence of species-specific data, domestic animal models are often referenced. Herbivorous hindgut fermenters, such as horses, zebra, and rhinoceros, rely on microbial fermentation in the cecum and colon to utilize dietary structural carbohydrates. The study objective was to measure the digestible energy of two (LOW, HIGH) complete pelleted diets by the horse as a model for nondomestic hindgut fermenters. Seven, individually housed, adult Quarter Horse (Equus caballus) geldings were assigned to one of two diets as 100 ...


A Multicultural Nutrition And Culinary Intervention For Middle School Students: Pink And Dude Chefs, Phase 2, Jaime Lynn Lockhart Aug 2014

A Multicultural Nutrition And Culinary Intervention For Middle School Students: Pink And Dude Chefs, Phase 2, Jaime Lynn Lockhart

Master's Theses and Project Reports

The prevalence of adolescent obesity in the United States has more than quadrupled in the past 30 years, growing from 5% to nearly 21% in 12-19 year olds. Although obesity has many interrelated causes, a lack of knowledge and practical skill to prepare healthy food from scratch is an important factor. Research indicates that nutrition and culinary interventions based on behavioral change theories may improve mediators of healthful eating in adolescents.

Pink and Dude Chefs, Phase 2, an eight-week after-school nutrition and culinary intervention targeted towards middle school students in a predominantly low-income, Hispanic community, was developed and evaluated. The ...


An Examination Of An Environmental Change In Beverages Available To High School Students In Santa Maria, California On Their Consumption Behavior, Susan Eileen Klucker Jun 2014

An Examination Of An Environmental Change In Beverages Available To High School Students In Santa Maria, California On Their Consumption Behavior, Susan Eileen Klucker

Master's Theses and Project Reports

Hypothesis: "By an environmental change in high school vending machines, making water available, students will choose water over the sugar sweetened sodas."

This document highlights a case study analysis of vendor-provided refill data for forty-five beverage vending machines at two campus sites in one high school district in 2003 and 2004. The innovative study and publicized negotiated soda contract of a 50:50 (healthy to unhealthy) beverage ratio stipulation became the “Win-Win-WEAN” compromise, in which exposure to healthier beverage options for students might prove to provide the same income opportunity for the school district.

An overview of the political climate ...


The Effects Of Age On Muscle Loss And Tissue-Specific Levels Of Nf-ĸb And Sirt6 Proteins In Rats, Tiev C. Laguire Jun 2013

The Effects Of Age On Muscle Loss And Tissue-Specific Levels Of Nf-ĸb And Sirt6 Proteins In Rats, Tiev C. Laguire

Master's Theses and Project Reports

The objective of this study was to examine the influence of age on food intake, tissue and organ mass and NF-ĸB and SIRT6 levels in various tissues. The transcription factor, Nuclear Factor Kappa-B (NF-ĸB), is associated with both catabolic and anabolic pathways of muscle metabolism and may be involved in age-related muscle loss. SIRT6 is a member of the sirtuin family of proteins that function as protein lysine deacetylases and are associated with longevity in a number of organisms. Male Sprague-Dawley rats, aged 6 months (Adult) and 21 months (Old) were fed a commercially available diet for 10-17 days. Old ...


Associations Between Alcohol Consumption And Fasting Blood Glucose In Young Adults, Julie Ann Lucca Jun 2013

Associations Between Alcohol Consumption And Fasting Blood Glucose In Young Adults, Julie Ann Lucca

Master's Theses and Project Reports

Current research shows moderate alcohol consumption is associated with decreased risk of diabetes and excessive consumption or binge drinking can cause insulin resistance and diabetes. In 2010, diabetes was the seventh leading cause of death in the United Statesand was responsible for significant health complications: blindness, kidney failure, and limb amputations, and is a large national economic burden. Fasting blood glucose (FBG) is a tool used to help diagnose diabetes. Abnormally high FBG, ≥100 mg/dl, is indicative of diabetes and pre-diabetes. Few studies have observed diabetic prevalence among young adults or college students. Studying young adults can help provide ...


Maternal Acculturation Levels And Their Effect On Children's Food Intake, Maternal Perceptions Of Body Size And Maternal Stress, Tracie A. Chavoor Jun 2013

Maternal Acculturation Levels And Their Effect On Children's Food Intake, Maternal Perceptions Of Body Size And Maternal Stress, Tracie A. Chavoor

Master's Theses and Project Reports

In the U.S., obesity has hit alarming rates and affects Hispanic children disproportionately. Acculturation, the shift from one culture’s values, beliefs and practices to those of a new culture, may have both negative and positive health effects on immigrants. The objectives of this study were to determine the association between the level of acculturation (low acculturation or high acculturation) of low-income Latina mothers and the foods consumed by their children (0 to 36 months old). The association between acculturation and maternal perceptions of infant and toddler body size, maternal perceptions of her own body size and maternal parenting ...


Pink And Dude Chefs: A Nutrition And Culinary Intervention For Middle School Students, Tianna R. Sheehan May 2013

Pink And Dude Chefs: A Nutrition And Culinary Intervention For Middle School Students, Tianna R. Sheehan

Master's Theses and Project Reports

Pink and Dude Chefs: A nutrition and culinary intervention for middle school students

Tianna Sheehan

The prevalence of obesity in US adolescents has more than tripled in the past 35 years, and the greatest impact has been among low-income and minority racial/ethnic populations. Adolescents report inadequate fruit and vegetable intake, an overconsumption of sweetened beverages, and a high reliance on fast food locations for meals or snacks; increasing the risk of adolescent obesity. Building knowledge and skills through culinary interventions may empower middle school students to create and also choose healthful foods.

Pink and Dude Chefs, a six-week nutrition ...


Determinants Of Food Insecurity Among Vulnerable White And Latino Households: Contextualizing The Impact Of Sociodemographic And Household-Level Factors, Alexandra Lund May 2013

Determinants Of Food Insecurity Among Vulnerable White And Latino Households: Contextualizing The Impact Of Sociodemographic And Household-Level Factors, Alexandra Lund

Master's Theses and Project Reports

Household-level characteristics have been shown to be associated with food insecurity but studies among vulnerable populations are sparse. A food security assessment was developed to determine food security and collect sociodemographic and household level data across San Luis Obispo County. The assessments were administered to vulnerable groups through interviews at multiple sites across the County. Three household characteristics (marital status, number of children in the household and number of workers in the household) were examined in this analysis. A total of 808 surveys were collected, 69% in English and 31% in Spanish. Through ethnicity-stratified sequentially adjusted logistic regression models, the ...


Consumer Evaluation Of Low Sodium Mozzarella Cheese And Development Of A Novel Method For Evaluating Emotions, Lauren Alyse Collinsworth Mar 2013

Consumer Evaluation Of Low Sodium Mozzarella Cheese And Development Of A Novel Method For Evaluating Emotions, Lauren Alyse Collinsworth

Master's Theses and Project Reports

Mozzarella cheese is currently the highest consumed cheese in the United States. The popularity of mozzarella cheese is typically attributed to the high consumption rates of pizza cheese and string cheese; both of which are low moisture part skim (LMPS) mozzarella cheese. A single serving of LMPS mozzarella cheese contains approximately 8% of the daily value (DV) for sodium, a mineral which is currently consumed in excess among most Americans. On average, one in three Americans has hypertension. This condition is strongly associated with excessive sodium intake, and it is a leading risk factor for cardiovascular disease and stroke in ...


Vitamin D Sub-Set Analysis From The Flash Study, Megan Bishop, Laura Hall, Ann Mcdermott, Aydin Nazmi Mar 2012

Vitamin D Sub-Set Analysis From The Flash Study, Megan Bishop, Laura Hall, Ann Mcdermott, Aydin Nazmi

Master's Theses and Project Reports

Vitamin D is important to the health of college students. The objective of our study was to measure sun exposure, skin pigmentation, vitamin D intake, and serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25[OH]D) in a subset of participants from The Following the Longitudinal Aspects of Student Health (FLASH) Study to determine the best predictors of 25(OH)D status. Participants were college-aged freshman who had their blood drawn in spring (Visit 1) and fall 2010 (Visit 2) at California Polytechnic State University (Cal Poly), San Luis Obispo, CA. (35.3°N). Vitamin D intake was measured using a 28-day food frequency ...


The Effect Of Processing Parameters And Methylcellulose On Texture And Consumer Acceptability Of A Non-Melting Dairy Protein Gel, Joshua Goldman Jun 2011

The Effect Of Processing Parameters And Methylcellulose On Texture And Consumer Acceptability Of A Non-Melting Dairy Protein Gel, Joshua Goldman

Master's Theses and Project Reports

The overall goal was to understand the capabilities of a dairy based meat alternative. This was done in three phases: 1) the production of a dairy protein gel as a base for a dairy based meat alternative, 2) texturization of the dairy protein gel base to produce a nugget like texture, and 3) a consumer test to determine the acceptability of the dairy based nugget compared to meat and meat alternatives on the market.

For phase I, a dairy protein gel base was tested to understand the textural attributes. Milk to whey percentages and level of acidification were examined to ...


Optimizing Micronutrient Intake Of Lactating Women In Kwazulu-Natal, South Africa, Through Increased Wild Edible Plant Consumption, Kerry Pearson Jun 2011

Optimizing Micronutrient Intake Of Lactating Women In Kwazulu-Natal, South Africa, Through Increased Wild Edible Plant Consumption, Kerry Pearson

Master's Theses and Project Reports

OPTIMIZING MICRONUTRIENT INTAKE OF LACTATING WOMEN IN KWAZULU-NATAL, SOUTH AFRICA, THROUGH INCREASED WILD EDIBLE PLANT CONSUMPTION

Kerry Pearson

Micronutrient consumption in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa, is insufficient to meet the needs of lactating women. Inadequate intake negatively impacts the health of both the mother and infant. Increasing consumption of wild edible plants has been recommended to combat these deficiencies, but information has not yet been provided on which types of wild plants should be eaten or in what quantity. The objective of this study was to determine the optimal mixture of wild edible plants that needs to be consumed to meet ...


Intake, Apparent Digestibility, And Digesta Passage In Leopard Tortoises (Geochelone Pardalis) Fed A Complete, Extruded Feed, Laura Evelyn Lickel Mar 2011

Intake, Apparent Digestibility, And Digesta Passage In Leopard Tortoises (Geochelone Pardalis) Fed A Complete, Extruded Feed, Laura Evelyn Lickel

Master's Theses and Project Reports

The influence of feeding juvenile female leopard tortoises (Geochelone pardalis, n=18) a commercially available, complete, extruded feed three (3) or seven days (7) per week on dry matter and digestible energy intake, apparent digestibility of dry matter, organic matter, gross energy and fiber fractions, animal body weight and measurements, digesta transit time, rate of passage, and indigestible fill was evaluated. Both feeding frequencies are commonly practiced with captive tortoises. When fed 7 compared to 3 days per week, dry matter and digestible energy intake was greater. Tortoises gained more g BW, but not when adjusted per kg initial BW ...


Dietary Protein Intake, Body Composition And Self-Reported Physical Functioning In U.S. Adults, Kerri Beth Parker Sep 2010

Dietary Protein Intake, Body Composition And Self-Reported Physical Functioning In U.S. Adults, Kerri Beth Parker

Master's Theses and Project Reports

Sarcopenia is a growing health problem in this country as more Americans are living well into old age. It has been thought that a higher protein intake may be related to greater lean muscle mass as well as greater muscular strength and physical functioning. The purpose of this research was to examine protein intake and its relationship to lean body mass and physical functioning in a nationally representative sample of U.S. adults.

This research used cross-sectional data from the NHANES 2003-2004 to examine the relationship between protein intake, as an average from two 24h recalls, and dual X-ray absorptiometry ...


The Effects Of A Vegetarian Diet On Iron Status In Female Students, Kimberly G. Englehardt Aug 2008

The Effects Of A Vegetarian Diet On Iron Status In Female Students, Kimberly G. Englehardt

Master's Theses and Project Reports

Iron deficiency anemia is the most common nutritional deficiency disease worldwide (Mahan & Escott-Stump, 2004). Iron deficiency anemia is of major concern especially in women of child bearing age and those who follow a vegetarian diet. The objective of this study was to compare the nutrient and hematological values related to iron status in female university students following a vegetarian versus following a nonvegetarian diet. This study took a cross sectional analysis of 39 female students at California Polytechnic State University (Cal Poly State University) in San Luis Obispo, CA. Of the participants 19 were following a vegetarian diet and 20 ...