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Full-Text Articles in Life Sciences

Development Of A Prolyl Endopeptidase Expression System In Lactobacillus Reuteri To Reduce The Clinical Manifestation Of Celiac Disease, Kara Lynn Jew Jul 2019

Development Of A Prolyl Endopeptidase Expression System In Lactobacillus Reuteri To Reduce The Clinical Manifestation Of Celiac Disease, Kara Lynn Jew

Master's Theses and Project Reports

Celiac Disease (CD) is an autoimmune disorder that emerges due to the ingestion of gluten, a protein found in a variety of common grains such as wheat, rye, and barley. Approximately 1 in 100 individuals in the US suffer from CD, making it the most commonly diagnosed gastrointestinal disorder (Ciclitira et. al., 2005). These proline-rich gluten peptides are resistant to proteolysis and accumulate in the duodenum of the small intestine. Once in the duodenum, these peptides illicit an autoimmune response resulting in villous atrophy. Current treatment for CD requires a rigorous adherence to a gluten-free diet. Nevertheless, gluten-containing grains are ...


The Population Genetics Of Morro Bay Eelgrass (Zostera Marina), Julia Gardner Harencar Jun 2017

The Population Genetics Of Morro Bay Eelgrass (Zostera Marina), Julia Gardner Harencar

Master's Theses and Project Reports

Seagrass populations are in decline worldwide. Zostera marina (eelgrass), one of California’s native seagrasses, is no exception to this trend. In the last 8 years, Morro Bay, California has lost 95% of its eelgrass. Eelgrass is an ecosystem engineer, providing important ecosystem services such as sediment stabilization, nutrient cycling, and nursery habitats for fish. The failure of recent restoration efforts necessitates a better understanding of the causes of eelgrass decline in this estuary. Previous research on eelgrass in California has demonstrated a link between population genetic diversity and eelgrass bed health, ecosystem functioning, and resilience to disturbance and extreme ...


An Assessment Of Potential False Positive E.Coli Pyroprints In The Cplop Database, Skyler A. Gordon Feb 2017

An Assessment Of Potential False Positive E.Coli Pyroprints In The Cplop Database, Skyler A. Gordon

Master's Theses and Project Reports

The genetic information found in each species of organism is unique, and can be used as a tool to differentiate at the molecular level. This has caused rapid genotyping methods to become the cornerstone of a new area of research dependent on reading the genome as a form of identification. One of these specific identification methods, known as pyroprinting, relies on the small variation of DNA sequences within the same species to develop a unique, reproducible fingerprint. By simultaneously pyrosequencing multiple polymorphic loci within the ribosomal operons known as the intergenic transcribed spacers, a reproducible output is obtained, known as ...


Araucaria In The Urban Landscape: A Novel Leaning Pattern And Evidence Of Cultivated Hybridization, Jason W. Johns Jan 2017

Araucaria In The Urban Landscape: A Novel Leaning Pattern And Evidence Of Cultivated Hybridization, Jason W. Johns

Master's Theses and Project Reports

Our understanding of the natural world is constantly evolving and strengthening as more observations are made and experiments are performed. For example, we understand that tree stems grow toward the light (positive phototropism; Darwin 1880, Loehle 1986, Christie et al. 2013) and against gravity (negative gravitropism; Knight 1806, Hashiguchi et al. 2013). We also know that plants respond to mechanical stimulus and perturbation (thigmotropism; Braam 2005). Genes and their resulting proteins have been described to uncover some of the mechanisms for these environmental responses, but relatively speaking, we have just scratched the surface (Wyatt et al. 2013). While the discovery ...


Genes Encoding Flower- And Root-Specific Functions Are More Resistant To Fractionation Than Globally Expressed Genes In Brassica Rapa, Naiyerah F. Kolkailah Jun 2016

Genes Encoding Flower- And Root-Specific Functions Are More Resistant To Fractionation Than Globally Expressed Genes In Brassica Rapa, Naiyerah F. Kolkailah

Master's Theses and Project Reports

Like many angiosperms, Brassica rapa underwent several rounds of whole genome duplication during its evolutionary history. Brassica rapa is particularly valuable for studying genome evolution because it also experienced whole genome triplication shortly after it diverged from the common ancestor it shares with Arabidopsis thaliana about 17-20 million years ago. While many B. rapa genes appear resistant to paralog retention, close to 50% of B. rapa genes have retained multiple, paralogous loci for millions of years and appear to be multi-copy tolerant. Based on previous studies, gene function may contribute to the selective pressure driving certain genes back to singleton ...


Multi-Stress Proteomics: The Global Protein Response To Multiple Environmental Stressors In The Porcelain Crab Petrolisthes Cinctipes, Michael A. Garland Sep 2015

Multi-Stress Proteomics: The Global Protein Response To Multiple Environmental Stressors In The Porcelain Crab Petrolisthes Cinctipes, Michael A. Garland

Master's Theses and Project Reports

Global climate change is increasing the number of hot days along the California coast as well as increasing the incidence of off-shore upwelling events that lower the pH of intertidal seawater; thus, intertidal organisms are experiencing an increase in more than one stress simultaneously. This study seeks to characterize the global protein response of the eurythermal porcelain crab Petrolisthes cinctipes to changes in thermal, pH, and tidal regime treatments, either combined or individually. The first experiment examined temperature stress alone and sought to determine the effect of chronic temperature acclimation on the acute heat shock response. We compared the proteomic ...


Morphological Response In Sister Taxa Of Woodrats (Genus: Neotoma) Across A Zone Of Secondary Contact, Michaela M. Koenig Sep 2015

Morphological Response In Sister Taxa Of Woodrats (Genus: Neotoma) Across A Zone Of Secondary Contact, Michaela M. Koenig

Master's Theses and Project Reports

This study focuses on a secondary contact zone between two sister species of woodrat, Neotoma fuscipes (dusky-footed woodrat) and N. macrotis (big-eared woodrat). Along the Nacimiento River, on the border of southern Monterey and northern San Luis Obispo counties, the ranges of these sister species of woodrats meet and overlap forming a secondary contact zone. The zone of secondary contact is estimated to include a 500-meter (~1,650 linear feet) portion of the Nacimiento River riparian corridor.

This research examines quantifiable morphological change that is likely associated with heightened inter-specific competition within the contact zone. When in sympatry the sister ...


Increasing Expression Of Hepatitis B Surface Antigen In Maize Through Breeding, Erin Suzanne Miller Mar 2015

Increasing Expression Of Hepatitis B Surface Antigen In Maize Through Breeding, Erin Suzanne Miller

Master's Theses and Project Reports

The hepatitis B virus (HBV) is a common virus, with two billion people infected worldwide. It causes approximately 600,000 deaths each year, despite the availability of an effective vaccine since 1982. Maize as a platform for oral vaccination can supply a heat stable vaccine, which does not require syringes or trained personnel to administer. The Hepatitis B Surface antigen was transformed into maize and this seed was used to evaluate expression levels through the breeding process. The transgene was transferred into two elite maize inbreds by backcrossing. Highest expressing ears were selected each generation until approximately 99% commercial parent ...


Identifying Chromosome Rearrangements In The Allopolyploid Brassica Napus Using Pyrosequencing, Alexandra R. Barbella Oct 2013

Identifying Chromosome Rearrangements In The Allopolyploid Brassica Napus Using Pyrosequencing, Alexandra R. Barbella

Master's Theses and Project Reports

Allopolyploids form through the hybridization of two or more diploid genomes. A challenge to reproduction in allopolyploids is that pairing can occur between homologous chromosomes or homeologous chromosomes (i.e.different subgenomes.). Crossover between homeologous chromosomes can result in chromosome rearrangements that lower fertility and overall fitness. Rearrangements can alter the dosage of either entire chromosomes or just parts of chromosomes. Understanding the frequency and extent of rearrangements will help to explain the evolution and genome stabilization of agriculturally important allopolyploid species. Pyrosequencing is a useful tool in the study dosage changes in allopolyploids because it allows quantification of the ...


Investigating The Roles Of Ndj1 And Tid1 In Crossover Assurance In Saccharomyces Cerevisiae, Rianna Knowles Nov 2011

Investigating The Roles Of Ndj1 And Tid1 In Crossover Assurance In Saccharomyces Cerevisiae, Rianna Knowles

Master's Theses and Project Reports

Meiosis is the specialized process of cell division utilized during gametogenesis in all sexually reproducing eukaryotes, which consists of one round of DNA replication followed by two rounds of chromosome segregation and results in four haploid cells. Crossovers between homologous chromosomes promote proper alignment and segregation of chromosomes during meiosis.

Crossover interference is a genetic phenomenon in which crossovers are non-randomly placed along chromosomes. Crossover assurance ensures that every homologous chromosome pair obtains at least one crossover during Prophase I. Crossovers physically connect homologous pairs, allowing spindle fibers to attach and separate homologs properly. However, some organisms have shown an ...


Determining The Fate Of Hybridized Genomes In The Allopolyploid Brassica Napus, Tina Y. Wang Jul 2010

Determining The Fate Of Hybridized Genomes In The Allopolyploid Brassica Napus, Tina Y. Wang

Master's Theses and Project Reports

Polyploidy is widely acknowledged as a widespread mechanism in the evolution and speciation of the majority of flowering plants. Allopolyploid forms through interspecific hybridization and whole genome duplication. While allopolyploids may display increased vigor relative to their progenitors, they can also face challenges to fertility following hybridization. Genetic changes in allopolyploids result from recombination between the hybridized subgenomes, which can influence phenotype and ultimately determine fitness of future generations. To study dynamic changes that follow allopolyploid formation, Brassica napus lineages were derived by hybridizing Brassica oleracea and Brassica rapa. Two lineages of B. napus were analyzed for genetic and phenotypic ...


Investigating The Roles Of Ndj1 And Tid1 In Distributive Segregation Using Non-Exchange Chromosomes, Jonathan V. Henzel Jun 2009

Investigating The Roles Of Ndj1 And Tid1 In Distributive Segregation Using Non-Exchange Chromosomes, Jonathan V. Henzel

Master's Theses and Project Reports

Meiosis is a specialized cell division that leads to a reduction of ploidy in sexually reproducing organisms through segregation of homologous chromosomes at the first meiotic division. Improper segregation of chromosomes during meiosis results in anueploidy, which is usually fatal during embryonic development. The meiotic process is therefore tightly regulated. Typically, proper segregation of homologs at meiosis I requires pairing of homologous chromosomes, followed by crossover recombination between homologs. Crossovers enable proper chromosomal segregation during the first meiotic division in part by establishing tension in the meiotic spindle. However, in the absence of crossovers, some cells maintain the ability to ...