Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

Life Sciences Commons

Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

PDF

Theses/Dissertations

Master's Theses and Project Reports

Articles 1 - 30 of 279

Full-Text Articles in Life Sciences

The Effects Of Cluster Thinning On Vine Performance, Fruit, And Wine Composition Of Pinot Noir (Clone 115) In The Edna Valley Of California, Paul F W Mawdsley Sep 2019

The Effects Of Cluster Thinning On Vine Performance, Fruit, And Wine Composition Of Pinot Noir (Clone 115) In The Edna Valley Of California, Paul F W Mawdsley

Master's Theses and Project Reports

A three-year study was conducted at a commercial vineyard site in California’s Edna Valley AVA to evaluate the physiological and agronomical effects of the timing of cluster thinning on Pinot noir (clone 115) grapevines. Vines were thinned to one cluster per shoot at three selected time-points during the growing season (bloom, bloom + 4 weeks, bloom + 8 weeks), and fruit from each treatment was harvested and made into wine. Across all growing seasons, yield decreased 43% in thinned vines relative to un-thinned control vines. No effect of cluster thinning or interaction with growing season was found in vine shoot diameter ...


Effects Of Sudangrass Cover Crop And Soil Solarization On Weed And Pathogen Management In Organic Strawberry Production, Timothy Jacobs Aug 2019

Effects Of Sudangrass Cover Crop And Soil Solarization On Weed And Pathogen Management In Organic Strawberry Production, Timothy Jacobs

Master's Theses and Project Reports

Field and lab experiments were conducted to determine the efficacy of sudangrass (Sorghum X drumondii (Nees ex Steud.) Millsp. & Chase) cover crop management techniques and soil solarization on important agricultural weeds and pathogens in organic strawberry production in Central California. Lab experiments assessed the time needed to kill weed seeds at temperatures typically achieved during soil solarization (40°C, 45°C, 50°C, 55°C, and 60°C) in California. Seeds tested included little mallow, redstem filaree, bristly oxtongue, annual sowthistle, common purslane, nettleleaf goosefoot, and redroot pigweed. Efficacy of simulated solarization temperatures differed between different species. Cool-season annuals annual ...


Examining The Effectiveness Of Electromyography Biofeedback At Improving The Upper Trapezius To Serratus Anterior Muscle Activation Ratio, Julia Evelyn Holton Aug 2019

Examining The Effectiveness Of Electromyography Biofeedback At Improving The Upper Trapezius To Serratus Anterior Muscle Activation Ratio, Julia Evelyn Holton

Master's Theses and Project Reports

Purpose: The upper trapezius to serratus anterior muscle activation ratio is essential for optimal shoulder function. An alteration of this ratio, specifically a decrease in upper trapezius and increase in serratus anterior activation, is a main area of focus in shoulder rehabilitation (Kibler, 1998; Paine & Voight, 1993). Electromyography (EMG) biofeedback has been shown to be an effective rehabilitation technique to address many musculoskeletal disorders but there is limited research on the retention of improvements seen with EMG biofeedback (Ma et al., 2011; Lim et al., 2014; Weon, et al., 2011). The purpose of this study was to determine if EMG biofeedback can be used to improve scapular control by decreasing the upper trapezius to serratus anterior activation ratio. A secondary purpose was to determine if these predicted improvements in the ratio can be retained beyond the timeframe ...


Short Term Shifts In Soil Nematode Food Feb Structure And Nutrient Cycling Following Sustainable Soil Management In A California Vineyard, Holly M. Deniston-Sheets Jul 2019

Short Term Shifts In Soil Nematode Food Feb Structure And Nutrient Cycling Following Sustainable Soil Management In A California Vineyard, Holly M. Deniston-Sheets

Master's Theses and Project Reports

Evaluating soil health using bioindicator organisms has been suggested as a method of analyzing the long-term sustainability of agricultural management practices. The main objective of this study was to determine the effects of vineyard management strategies on soil food web structure and function, using nematodes as bioindicators by calculating established nematode ecological indices. Three field trials were conducted in a commercial Pinot Noir vineyard in San Luis Obispo, California; the effects of (i) fertilizer type (organic and inorganic), (ii) weed management (herbicide and tillage), and (iii) cover crops (high or low water requirements) on nematode community structure, soil nutrient content ...


Development Of A Prolyl Endopeptidase Expression System In Lactobacillus Reuteri To Reduce The Clinical Manifestation Of Celiac Disease, Kara Lynn Jew Jul 2019

Development Of A Prolyl Endopeptidase Expression System In Lactobacillus Reuteri To Reduce The Clinical Manifestation Of Celiac Disease, Kara Lynn Jew

Master's Theses and Project Reports

Celiac Disease (CD) is an autoimmune disorder that emerges due to the ingestion of gluten, a protein found in a variety of common grains such as wheat, rye, and barley. Approximately 1 in 100 individuals in the US suffer from CD, making it the most commonly diagnosed gastrointestinal disorder (Ciclitira et. al., 2005). These proline-rich gluten peptides are resistant to proteolysis and accumulate in the duodenum of the small intestine. Once in the duodenum, these peptides illicit an autoimmune response resulting in villous atrophy. Current treatment for CD requires a rigorous adherence to a gluten-free diet. Nevertheless, gluten-containing grains are ...


Modifying Succession: A History Of Vegetation Alliances On Swanton Pacific Ranch, Jill Wilson O'Connor Jun 2019

Modifying Succession: A History Of Vegetation Alliances On Swanton Pacific Ranch, Jill Wilson O'Connor

Master's Theses and Project Reports

This thesis conducts historical research into Swanton Pacific Ranch in the County of Santa Cruz, an interdisciplinary facility for education and research managed by Cal Poly’s College of Agriculture, Food and Environmental Sciences. The study seeks to determine whether there have been discernable changes in vegetation alliances (communities), spatially or in type, within a 110-acre Study Area from the early twentieth century to the present day and how the changes compare with other similar historical analyses in California. Historical farming and ranching uses of the area are researched, and two family case studies are presented as paradigms of potential ...


Leaf Functional Traits As Predictors Of Drought Tolerance In Urban Trees, Sophia Huang Jun 2019

Leaf Functional Traits As Predictors Of Drought Tolerance In Urban Trees, Sophia Huang

Master's Theses and Project Reports

The services that urban trees provide to human society and the natural environment are widely recognized, but urban trees are in jeopardy due to climate change and urban stressors. With drought as a major threat in many areas, it is important for the future of urban forestry to select species composition based upon performance under water stress. Certain leaf functional traits can help horticulturalists more accurately predict water usage of urban trees. Comprehension through rigorous experimentation is lacking, partly due to the thousands of mostly exotic species. Previous studies suggest that species whose leaves have a denser arrangement of smaller ...


Study Of Paper Microbial Fuel Cells For Use In On-Site Wastewater Testing, William A. Tolmasoff Jun 2019

Study Of Paper Microbial Fuel Cells For Use In On-Site Wastewater Testing, William A. Tolmasoff

Master's Theses and Project Reports

This study demonstrated a technique for fabricating simple, low-cost Paper Microbial fuel cells (PMFC’s) in the model of a previous study to, for the first time, produce voltage from wastewater effluent. The PMFC’s were created by stacking and gluing the main components of an MFC together: reservoir layer; anode; cation exchange membrane (CEM); air cathode. A wax printer was used to create the hydrophobic borders of the PMFC’s on filter paper, and graphite paint was applied to the paper to create the anode. The CEM’s considered were filter paper, wax, and Nafion, with Nafion being the ...


The Effects Of Agricultural Waste-Based Compost Amendments In Organic Pest Management, Gregg T. Stephenson Jun 2019

The Effects Of Agricultural Waste-Based Compost Amendments In Organic Pest Management, Gregg T. Stephenson

Master's Theses and Project Reports

Soil-borne pests and pathogens, such as Verticillium dahliae, can devastate a wide range of annual and perennial crops. Current management options for organic production are limited and sustainable management of pathogens, weeds, and arthropods is important for staying profitable and reducing the use of harmful chemicals. Organic soil amendments play an important role in supplying some of the nutritional needs of vegetable crops and improving soil structure, while also contributing to pest control. The objective of this research was to determine the effects of grape and olive-based composts on soil pathogen load, arthropod communities, and weed biomass and diversity. Field ...


Strawberries And Gut Health In Postmenopausal Women, Morgan T. Macneill Jun 2019

Strawberries And Gut Health In Postmenopausal Women, Morgan T. Macneill

Master's Theses and Project Reports

The gut microbiota has been implicated in both health and disease. As such, diet is a significant determinant of gut health, whereby diet induced dysbiosis is associated with cardiometabolic risk. Interestingly, a higher proportion of Firmicutes and a lower proportion of Bacteroidetes are implicated in obesity. Strawberry polyphenols have been shown to reduce cardiovascular disease risk in addition to exhibiting prebiotic activity by increasing probiotic bacteria in the gut. Polyphenols have also been shown to reduce the ratio of Firmicutes to Bacteroidetes. Therefore, dietary modifications such as strawberry consumption may help improve health outcomes through the gut. The objective of ...


Evaluation Of Host Resistance And The Utilization Of Organic Amendments To Manage Macrophomina Crown Rot Of Strawberry In California, Jonathan W. Winslow Jun 2019

Evaluation Of Host Resistance And The Utilization Of Organic Amendments To Manage Macrophomina Crown Rot Of Strawberry In California, Jonathan W. Winslow

Master's Theses and Project Reports

The production of strawberries can be severely limited by soilborne plant pathogens, insects and weeds. Macrophomina phaseolina is a problematic soilborne fungal pathogen in California strawberry production inciting the disease Macrophomina crown rot. When established, the pathogen can cause extensive plant decline and mortality. Host resistance will be a critical tool for managing this disease and guiding breeding programs in the post methyl bromide era. Evaluation of host resistance in strawberry germplasm to M. phaseolina was evaluated through phenotypic assessments of disease incidence. A total of 90 strawberry cultivars and elite selections were included in a replicated field trial conducted ...


Saponin Removal From Quinoa By Abrasion Processing, Luke Lundberg Jun 2019

Saponin Removal From Quinoa By Abrasion Processing, Luke Lundberg

Master's Theses and Project Reports

Quinoa is coated with a thin layer of saponins, glycosylated triterpenoids, that produce a bitter flavor when consumed. The average saponin content in commercial varietals from Bolivia average around 2.7% saponins and organoleptic testing shows the threshold for noticing a bitter flavor is below 0.12% (Medina-Meza et al., 2016). Current industrial processing methods use a combination of abrasion and turbulent water flow to remove saponin. This study will address the following research question: How will grain-to-grain and grain-to-surface abrasion affect the processing time to remove saponin from quinoa? In particular, can effective saponin removal be achieved in less ...


An Analysis Of Changes In Stream Temperature Due To Forest Harvest Practices Using Dhsvm-Rbm, Julia B. Ridgeway Jun 2019

An Analysis Of Changes In Stream Temperature Due To Forest Harvest Practices Using Dhsvm-Rbm, Julia B. Ridgeway

Master's Theses and Project Reports

Forest harvesting has been shown to cause various changes in water quantity and water quality parameters, highlighting the need for comprehensive forest practice rules. Studies show a myriad of impacts to ecosystems as a result of watershed level changes, such as forest harvesting. Being able to better understand the impact that forest harvesting can have on stream temperature is especially critical in locations where federally threatened or endangered fish species are located. The overall goal of this research project is to assess responses in stream temperature to various riparian and forest harvest treatments in a maritime, mountainous environment. The results ...


Carbonate Chemistry Characterization In A Low-Inflow Estuary With Recent Seagrass Loss, Jolie Higgins Jun 2019

Carbonate Chemistry Characterization In A Low-Inflow Estuary With Recent Seagrass Loss, Jolie Higgins

Master's Theses and Project Reports

Estuaries are dynamic environments that are strongly affected by natural variability, as well as direct and indirect anthropogenic impacts. A better understanding of the drivers of carbon fluxes and biogeochemical variability in estuarine systems is needed, particularly with the increasing threat of ocean acidification. Morro Bay in Central California is a small nationally protected estuary, with seasonally low freshwater inputs. Since 2007, the bay has experienced a significant loss of native seagrass, Zostera marina, which is an important component of the marine ecosystem. Because seagrass photosynthesis decreases carbon dioxide and increases oxygen in the water column, the loss of seagrass ...


Effects Of Barotrauma On Four Species Of Pacific Rockfishes (Sebastes Spp.), Lesley Salter Jun 2019

Effects Of Barotrauma On Four Species Of Pacific Rockfishes (Sebastes Spp.), Lesley Salter

Master's Theses and Project Reports

Physoclistic fish, such as Pacific rockfishes (genus Sebastes), have closed swim bladders that help them regulate their buoyancy. When anglers catch these fish and reel them to the surface, gases within their swim bladder expand due to the decrease in pressure. This can cause their swim bladder to over inflate––a condition known as barotrauma. Overly buoyant fish experiencing barotrauma often struggle to swim back to dwelling depth if released at the ocean’s surface. These fish may experience high rates of mortality by thermal shock caused by the warmer surface temperatures, starvation, predation, or vision problems caused by barotrauma ...


The Effect Of Alcohol And Bitterness Levels On Brewing Yeast Viability, Nichole Elizabeth Bryant Mar 2019

The Effect Of Alcohol And Bitterness Levels On Brewing Yeast Viability, Nichole Elizabeth Bryant

Master's Theses and Project Reports

Two of the most popular beer styles within the craft brewing industry are India Pale Ales (IPA’s) and those with high alcohol by volume (ABV). Production of these styles requires high gravity fermentation and high amounts of bittering hops in order to reach the required values for ABV and International Bitterness units (IBU) respectively. The aim of this study was to determine the impact of high gravity fermentation and high IBU levels on yeast viability and repitching cycles.

An initial experiment on high gravity fermentations was done in order to assess the effects this variable had alone. Successive five ...


Effectiveness Of Windrow Composting Methodology In Killing A Thermo-Tolerant Species Of Salmonella During Mortality Composting, Spencer Gabriel Myers Feb 2019

Effectiveness Of Windrow Composting Methodology In Killing A Thermo-Tolerant Species Of Salmonella During Mortality Composting, Spencer Gabriel Myers

Master's Theses and Project Reports

In a large agricultural operation, such as the one at Cal Poly San Luis Obispo, disposal of deceased animals is an immense issue. The cost of transporting and rendering every dead animal is inhibitory to the general function of the agricultural operations and their thin budget. Therefore, we propose that composting mortalities could be an economical alternative. Composting is a recognized method for taking animal waste products along with carbon waste and turning it into a pathogen-free, nutrient-rich topsoil. Carcass composting is in fact performed in other countries and states to varying degrees of success. However, the California EPA limits ...


California Livestock Owners: An Assessment Of Familiarity With New Antimicrobial Rules And Access To Educational Outreach, Philip Theodor Paulson Jan 2019

California Livestock Owners: An Assessment Of Familiarity With New Antimicrobial Rules And Access To Educational Outreach, Philip Theodor Paulson

Master's Theses and Project Reports

The purpose of this research is to support the California Department of Food & Agriculture (CDFA) with education and outreach about recent changes regarding antimicrobial use in livestock, and to enhance their emergency communications network. This was done by characterizing a population of small-scale livestock owners underserved with regards to educational outreach about animal health issues, such as antimicrobial use rules. The project also seeks to enhance public understanding of the importance of responsible antimicrobial use in animal and human health.

To accomplish this, the study used a survey administered in person at local farm supply stores and online to investigate ...


The Thermal Ecology Of Sceloporus Occidentalis, Luis Patricio Burgos Dec 2018

The Thermal Ecology Of Sceloporus Occidentalis, Luis Patricio Burgos

Master's Theses and Project Reports

With temperatures rising globally, assessing the possible impacts of the changing climate becomes more and more urgent. Ectotherms are excellent indicators of potential climatic ramifications on biodiversity because of their heavy reliance on the environment for their thermoregulation. Studies have historically looked at thermal tolerance values to establish predictive models for population and species extinctions.

In chapter 1, we looked at recent studies that suggest that thermal tolerance may be a plastic trait and test the effects empirically. Most studies are based on captive lizards acclimated to laboratory conditions that do not necessarily reflect natural environments, and if thermal tolerance ...


Molecular Dynamics Of P21 And Fluorescent Sphingomyelin In Keratinocytes Exposed To Uvb, Tyler Malcolm Fraser Dec 2018

Molecular Dynamics Of P21 And Fluorescent Sphingomyelin In Keratinocytes Exposed To Uvb, Tyler Malcolm Fraser

Master's Theses and Project Reports

Non-melanoma skin cancer (NMSC) is the most common malignant tumor, representing more than a third of all malignant tumors combined and the incidence is increasing every year. Ultraviolet (UV) radiation from the sun is the most dominant factor contributing to tumor initiation and progression. The condition is most prevalent in populations with lighter skin and older age. Current pharmaceutical molecular research targets the inhibition of the Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor (EGFR), a receptor which is commonly over-expressed or dysregulated in skin malignancies. This study evaluates the content and location of the damage marker p21 within keratinocytes that were incubated in ...


Indirect Food Web Interactions: Sea Otter Predation Linked To Invasion Success In A Marine Fouling Community, Maggie F. Jenkins Dec 2018

Indirect Food Web Interactions: Sea Otter Predation Linked To Invasion Success In A Marine Fouling Community, Maggie F. Jenkins

Master's Theses and Project Reports

Humans have caused grave ecological and economic damage worldwide through the introduction of invasive species. Understanding the factors that influence community susceptibility to invasion are important for controlling further spread of invasive species. Predators have been found to provide biotic resistance to invasion in both terrestrial and marine systems. However, predators can also have the opposite effect, and facilitate invasion. Therefore, recovery or expansion of native predators could facilitate the spread of invasive species. Needles et al. (2015) demonstrated that the threatened southern sea otter (Enhydra lutris nereis) facilitated the invasion of an exotic bryozoan, Watersipora subatra. However, the underlying ...


Cold Acclimation Response Of Non-Native Italian Wall Lizard (Podarcis Siculus) Populations From New York And California, Daniel Haro Dec 2018

Cold Acclimation Response Of Non-Native Italian Wall Lizard (Podarcis Siculus) Populations From New York And California, Daniel Haro

Master's Theses and Project Reports

Understanding how organisms respond to climatic variability and novel conditions is becoming an increasingly important task for ecologists. For ectotherms in the northern hemisphere, the response to cold is of special interest, considering that poleward range expansion events and increasing variability of temperatures during winter are already being observed as consequences of a warming planet. Though direction of change in physiological variables in response to cold is well studied in ectotherms, the extent to which traits can change and the rate at which they can change is not.

We compared the extent and rate of change in cold tolerance (CT ...


Effect Of Evapotranspiration Rate On Almond Yield In California, Dafne Isaac Serrano Oct 2018

Effect Of Evapotranspiration Rate On Almond Yield In California, Dafne Isaac Serrano

Master's Theses and Project Reports

Since 2011, California has been under drought conditions. These conditions have not only affected water availability for farmers, but also production. California’s second most valuable crop, almonds, has been affected by drought conditions. This study used three models (Model 1-3) to describe almond yield variability from year to year and almond yield variability within a year in Kern County, CA. The study evaluated 185 almond farms that were classified in three locations (east side, west side and north west side). The years of the study were 2011 (wet year) and 2013-2015 (drought condition years). Model 1 determined a functional ...


Parental Perspective And Feeding Practices Effects On Food Neophobia In Elementary-Age School Children, Farnoosh Ayoughi Oct 2018

Parental Perspective And Feeding Practices Effects On Food Neophobia In Elementary-Age School Children, Farnoosh Ayoughi

Master's Theses and Project Reports

The Food neophobia (FN) behaviors in children are developed during childhood and can be influenced by parental FN and feeding behaviors. The objective of this study was to evaluate the relationship between FN and fruit and vegetable neophobia (FVN) among parents, the parents-reports on child's behavior and child self-reports. The effect of parental feeding practices and demographic variables on children’s FN and FVN were evaluated. Sixty-eight parents paired with their elementary school children (aged 7-12 years) in San Luis Coastal Unified School District participated in this study. Results indicated that parents reported their children more neophobic than children ...


Comparative Analysis Of Body Composition And Reference Values Of Visceral Adipose Tissues In Various American Collegiate Sports, Eshan M. Dandekar Sep 2018

Comparative Analysis Of Body Composition And Reference Values Of Visceral Adipose Tissues In Various American Collegiate Sports, Eshan M. Dandekar

Master's Theses and Project Reports

Background: Currently, body composition (BC) assessment is usually performed to diagnose disease states and accurately estimate certain types of tissues. In athletes, performing BC assessments helps gauge training and nutrition programs to see if they are adequately meeting the athlete’s needs to improve performance. Annual Dual Energy X-ray Absorptiometry (DXA) scans before the start of an athlete’s season can help identify an athlete’s preparedness or health before training begins.

Objective: To assess the preseason BC of four collegiate sports: Men’s basketball, men’s baseball, women’s volleyball, and women’s soccer, for Fat Mass (FM), bone ...


Microfluidic Electrical Impedance Spectroscopy, John J. Foley Sep 2018

Microfluidic Electrical Impedance Spectroscopy, John J. Foley

Master's Theses and Project Reports

The goal of this study is to design and manufacture a microfluidic device capable of measuring changes in impedance valuesof microfluidic cell cultures. Tocharacterize this, an interdigitated array of electrodes was patterned over glass, where it was then bonded to a series of fluidic networks created in PDMS via soft lithography. The device measured ethanol impedance initially to show that values remain consistent over time. Impedance values of water and 1% wt. saltwater were compared to show that the device is able to detect changes in impedance, with up to a 60% reduction in electrical impedance in saltwater. Cells were ...


An Assessment Of The Greatest Impacts On Distribution Uniformity For Drip And Micro Irrigation, Brooke Ashley Worden Sep 2018

An Assessment Of The Greatest Impacts On Distribution Uniformity For Drip And Micro Irrigation, Brooke Ashley Worden

Master's Theses and Project Reports

Using the Cal Poly Irrigation Training and Research Centers (ITRC) drip/micro evaluation program, global, or system, DUlq is computed by combining the component DUlq values of: pressure variation, uneven spacing between emitters, unequal drainage and “other” causes. “Other” causes include plugging, wear and manufacturing coefficient. The program also computes what percentage of the non-uniformity is due to each component. Burt (2004) showed that over 95% of the non-uniformity is due to “Other” causes and pressure differences. This thesis looks at what specifically in those components is driving the non-uniformity by analyzing various equipment and field practices and ...


Assessment Of Granulovirus, Spinosad, And Mating Disruption For Controlling Cydia Pomonella L. [Lepidoptera: Tortricidae] In Organic Coastal California Apple Orchards, Raven Lukehart Aug 2018

Assessment Of Granulovirus, Spinosad, And Mating Disruption For Controlling Cydia Pomonella L. [Lepidoptera: Tortricidae] In Organic Coastal California Apple Orchards, Raven Lukehart

Master's Theses and Project Reports

Codling moth, Cydia pomonella[Lepidoptera: Tortricidae], is a major entomological pest of apples, pears, and walnuts cross the world (Pajac et al. 2016). Female codling moths lay eggs on the apple exocarp and larvae burrow within the fruit causing economic losses to fruit growers.Organic apple orchards in San Luis Obispo, CA currently have three codling moth, Cydia pomonella,control options commercially available including granulovirus (CpVG), spinosad, and mating disruption. In field tests on apple (Malus), we compare percent fruit injury between treatments of granulovirus (2.43 oz/ha Cyd-X® organically approved, Certis USA, Columbia MD), spinosad (4.05 oz ...


Modifying The Mineral Profile Of Crickets (Acheta Domesticus) Using A Supplemented Diet, Rhianne Morgan Le Maxwell Aug 2018

Modifying The Mineral Profile Of Crickets (Acheta Domesticus) Using A Supplemented Diet, Rhianne Morgan Le Maxwell

Master's Theses and Project Reports

Captive insectivores may consume invertebrates as all, or part of their overall diet. The challenge with feeding captive insectivores involves the limited number of invertebrate species that are commercially available, and the lack of key nutrients provided by these insects. Among these insects, a naturally occurring low concentration of calcium and an inverse calcium to phosphorus ratio may put insectivores at the risk of developing hypocalcemia. A strategy to correct this nutrient imbalance involves supplementing the insect diet with high concentrations of targeted nutrients – a term referred to as gut-loading. Current industry guidelines recommend feeding a supplemented diet for 48 ...


Quantifying The Environmental Performance Of A Stream Habitat Improvement Project, Cody Morse Aug 2018

Quantifying The Environmental Performance Of A Stream Habitat Improvement Project, Cody Morse

Master's Theses and Project Reports

River restoration projects are being installed worldwide to rehabilitate degraded river habitat. Many of these projects focus on stream habitat improvement (SHI), and an estimated 60%of the 37,000 projects listed in the National River Restoration Science Synthesis Program focus on SHI for salmon and trout species. These projects frequently lack a sufficient monitoring program or account for the environmental costs associated with SHI. The present study used life cycle assessment (LCA) techniques and topographic effectiveness monitoring to quantify environmental costs on the basis of geomorphic change. This methodology was a novel approach to assessing the cost-benefit relationship of ...