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Evolutionary Dynamics Of Influenza Type B In The Presence Of Vaccination: An Ecological Study, Lindsey J. Fiedler Jun 2019

Evolutionary Dynamics Of Influenza Type B In The Presence Of Vaccination: An Ecological Study, Lindsey J. Fiedler

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Understanding the evolutionary dynamics of influenza type B in human hosts is a public health concern as we strive to minimize the disease burden in seasonal epidemics. Vaccination is considered the best defense against contracting influenza, and everyone over the age of 6 months is advised to get vaccinated before each season. The effect that vaccine-acquired immunity has on the evolution of influenza B remains unclear. In the U.S., vaccine-uptake is irregular across the states, and the differing coverages present an opportunity to study how vaccination influences viral evolution. This thesis analyzes the evolutionary patterns of influenza B in ...


The Sting Of Inflammatory Adjuvants: Is The Toll Too High?, Ross Darling Jan 2019

The Sting Of Inflammatory Adjuvants: Is The Toll Too High?, Ross Darling

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

The worldwide impact of vaccines on human health through the prevention of death, disease, and suffering caused by infectious disease cannot be overstated. The use of inactivated or live-attenuated microbes, as wells as alum or oil-in-water adjuvanted vaccines has been successful in limiting or eradicating disease across the world. However, each of these existing vaccine formulations carries its own shortcomings and limitations associated with their use. These deficiencies will need to be addressed and overcome through the identification and development of new vaccine adjuvants and/or delivery platforms. It would also be beneficial to those populations of individuals who exhibit ...


Combination Nanovaccines Against Respiratory Pathogens, Sean Kelly Jan 2019

Combination Nanovaccines Against Respiratory Pathogens, Sean Kelly

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Evidence of mass pandemic plagues dates back to the earliest recorded history, with the Book of Exodus describing plagues inflicted upon Egypt that devastated citizens and livestock. Since then, countless plagues have been recorded, including the Plague of Athens (430-416 BCE), Justinian’s plague (541-542 AD), and the Black Death (1346-1352 AD), which are responsible for the deaths of hundreds of millions of people throughout history.

Among the deadliest pathogens are Yersinia pestis, the causative agent of the plague, and Bacillus anthracis, the causative agent of anthrax. Y. pestis is responsible for Justinian’s plague and the Black Death and ...


A Comparison Of Brachyspira Hampsonii Isolates And The Evaluation Of Proteinase K Vaccine Preparations In Swine, Christine Muehlenthaler Jan 2019

A Comparison Of Brachyspira Hampsonii Isolates And The Evaluation Of Proteinase K Vaccine Preparations In Swine, Christine Muehlenthaler

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Brachyspira hampsonii has been an emerging cause of swine dysentery (SD) since the mid to late 2000’s. Before the isolation of B. hampsonii, Brachyspira hyodysenteriae was the thought to be the sole etiologic agent of swine dysentery and the primary cause of mucohemmorhagic diarrhea in pigs (MHD). Research has been performed examining both whole cell and engineered B. hyodysenteriae vaccines, but little to no research has been reported for B. hampsonii. Quantification of Brachyspira cultures has been determined by CFUs, PCR, and whole cell counts; however, these methods have not previously been compared within the same study. Limitations with ...


Cost-Effectiveness Analysis Of Targeted Herpes Zoster Vaccination In Adults 50-59 At Increased Cardiovascular Risk, Kathleen M. Glassner Nov 2017

Cost-Effectiveness Analysis Of Targeted Herpes Zoster Vaccination In Adults 50-59 At Increased Cardiovascular Risk, Kathleen M. Glassner

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Background: Over the last twenty years the incidence of herpes zoster (HZ) infection, also known as shingles, has been increasing among adults for unknown reasons. The economic burden of HZ is currently estimated at over $1 billion per year in the United States (U.S.) and is expected to increase as the susceptible adult population ages. HZ is caused by a re-activation of the varicella zoster virus (VZV), chicken pox, and more than 95% of adults living today carry the virus with a lifetime risk of 1 in 3 for developing HZ. In 2006 the FDA approved a vaccine for ...


Evaluation Of Pre- And Post-Vaccination Influenza A Virus Antibody Responses In Breeding Age Replacement Gilts From Twelve Production Systems In The United States, James Scott Carlson Jan 2017

Evaluation Of Pre- And Post-Vaccination Influenza A Virus Antibody Responses In Breeding Age Replacement Gilts From Twelve Production Systems In The United States, James Scott Carlson

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Influenza A virus (IAV) is an important respiratory pathogen of swine in the United States. Whole virus, inactivated vaccines are a common method used to control infection and clinical disease. However, homologous IAV vaccine antibody responses are rarely evaluated in the field and many influenza serological evaluations are lacking. New replacement gilts are an unstudied population in breeding farms and have been shown to affect viral ecology through introducing new IAV or lacking protection against resident viruses. Serological evaluations are uncommon in the current literature and could prove important in evaluating vaccine responses. This study sought to address all of ...


Mycoplasma Hyorhinis Disease Model, Proteomics, And Vaccine Efficacy, Brian Thomas Martinson Jan 2016

Mycoplasma Hyorhinis Disease Model, Proteomics, And Vaccine Efficacy, Brian Thomas Martinson

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

ABSTRACT

The studies discussed herein were conducted to develop a vaccine for use in alleviating Mycoplasma hyorhinis associated disease in swine. This goal necessitated the development of a consistent and robust challenge model. We exploited M. hyorhinis’ affinity to infect tissue culture and have generated a cell-associated challenge material. This material was then administered in a consecutive-day, variable route model resulting in a high degree of lameness, arthritis and polyserositis in caesarian derived, colostrum deprived pigs. We further demonstrated an age limitation of the pigs for susceptibility to M. hyorhinis infection in this model. An inactivated whole-cell vaccine was developed ...


Design And Evaluation Of Immunogens Based On Gp41 Membrane-Proximal External Region For Development Of A Vaccine Against Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1, Saikat Banerjee Jan 2015

Design And Evaluation Of Immunogens Based On Gp41 Membrane-Proximal External Region For Development Of A Vaccine Against Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1, Saikat Banerjee

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Since its discovery in 1981, HIV-1 has infected ~78 million people and killed ~39 million people. Developing an HIV-1 vaccine remains one of the top priorities in the fight against this devastating pandemic. The modest efficacy showed by the recent RV144 trial suggests that achieving this goal might be possible. As the search for an effective vaccine continues, the induction of antibodies that can neutralize a large number of antigenically distinct viruses from different clades remains a major goal. In recent years, a number of broadly neutralizing antibodies (bnAbs) that target the HIV-1 envelope have been isolated from virus-infected patients ...


Cross-Protection In Fostera™ Prrs Vaccinated Nursery Swine Against Contemporary, Heterologous Porcine Reproductive And Respiratory Syndrome Virus (Prrsv) Field Isolates From Different Lineages, Drew Robert Magstadt Jan 2015

Cross-Protection In Fostera™ Prrs Vaccinated Nursery Swine Against Contemporary, Heterologous Porcine Reproductive And Respiratory Syndrome Virus (Prrsv) Field Isolates From Different Lineages, Drew Robert Magstadt

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) emerged worldwide approximately 25 years ago, and continues to be the most costly disease of modern swine production. The genetic diversity of PRRSV is one of the major hurdles encountered in attempts to reduce the effects of the virus through vaccines that provide broad cross-protection. The objective of this research is to examine the efficacy of a recently approved vaccine, FosteraTM PRRS, in growing pigs against separate challenges with heterologous PRRSV strains belonging to lineage 9 and lineage 1. The selected challenge viruses were isolated from recent PRRSV field infections in swine ...


Development Of Gold Nanoparticle-Based Antigen Delivery Platform For Vaccines Against Hiv-1, Feng Lin Jan 2015

Development Of Gold Nanoparticle-Based Antigen Delivery Platform For Vaccines Against Hiv-1, Feng Lin

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

As one of the world’s most devastating viruses, HIV-1 has killed more than 39 million people, and around two million cases of newly infected individuals are recorded every year. However, no effective vaccine has been developed to stop this pandemic since its onset in the 1980s. Since vaccine development is moving slowly, delivery platforms as an essential element to enhance both the efficiency and efficacy of vaccines have drawn increased attention. Gold nanoparticles (GNPs) as a novel delivery platform has been studied in drug and vaccine delivery. My research goal is to apply this delivery platform in the AIDS ...


Mechanisms Of Immunity And Pathology During Canine Leishmaniasis: Leading The Way To Prevention And Treatment, Kevin Jan Esch Jan 2013

Mechanisms Of Immunity And Pathology During Canine Leishmaniasis: Leading The Way To Prevention And Treatment, Kevin Jan Esch

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) caused by certain species of the genus Leishmania results in a significant disease burden worldwide. This is most pronounced in some of the world's poorest communities. In South America and the Mediterranean basin, dogs are the major domestic reservoir for Leishmania infantum, one cause of human VL. In addition, dogs infected with L. infantum have an immune response and pathophysiology similar to human cases, making them a representative naturally-occurring animal model of VL. Chronic infection with Leishmania infantum can result in asymptomatic infection for a long period of time or symptomatic, potentially life-threatening visceralizing disease. Immunopathology ...


Polyanhydride Particle Platform For Design Of Novel Influenza Vaccines, Lucas Mark Huntimer Jan 2013

Polyanhydride Particle Platform For Design Of Novel Influenza Vaccines, Lucas Mark Huntimer

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Vaccines remain the most effective medical intervention to disease in which effective vaccines are available. Designing vaccines that elicit protective immunity while minimizing adverse events is difficult. Exacerbating the challenges of vaccine design is the increased emphasis on using pure preparation of antigens that alleviate safety concerns but also show decreased potency. Therefore the need for safe adjuvants to boost immunity of subunit immunizations is great. This work demonstrates the capability of a novel bio-erodible polyanhydride particle platform to enhance humoral and cellular immunity. Encapsulation of 25 µg of Ovalbumin (Ova) antigen in microparticles elicits humoral immune responses equivalent to ...


Porcine Reproductive And Respiratory Syndrome Virus: Diagnostic Update And Search For Novel Modified Live Vaccines, Joshua Scott Ellingson Jan 2013

Porcine Reproductive And Respiratory Syndrome Virus: Diagnostic Update And Search For Novel Modified Live Vaccines, Joshua Scott Ellingson

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus continues to be a significant problem for pork producers. The aim of this body of work was to help stakeholders control and prevention infection with this virus. A literature review of currently available diagnostic tests and guidelines for their interpretation serves as a resource for producers, practitioners, and researchers. The research focus was to evaluate two novel methods to develop improved modified live vaccines. The efficacy of viral chimeras constructed from a commercially available vaccine and a virulent wild-type isolate and the ability to attenuate wild-type isolates with a unique cell passage process are ...


Exercise-Mediated Changes In Plasmacytoid Dendritic Cell Production Of Ifnα And The Effects Of Moderate Intensity Exercise On Immune Response To Influenza Infection And Influenza Vaccine, Justus Hallam Jan 2013

Exercise-Mediated Changes In Plasmacytoid Dendritic Cell Production Of Ifnα And The Effects Of Moderate Intensity Exercise On Immune Response To Influenza Infection And Influenza Vaccine, Justus Hallam

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Epidemiological studies suggest that moderate exercise is associated with improved resistance to infection; it has also been shown that acute exhaustive exercise is associated with increased susceptibility to infection, particularly upper respiratory tract infections. Seasonal influenza virus is a contagious upper respiratory tract infection that can lead to widespread morbidity and mortality each year, despite the availability of a vaccine for influenza. Type I interferons (IFNs) are one of the body's first lines of defense against viral infection. Influenza vaccines containing interferon-alpha (IFNa) have been shown to increase antigen-specific antibody titer. The purpose of the experiments carried out in ...


Utilities Of Reverse Genetics System As A Platform For The Development Of Porcine Reproductive And Respiratory Syndrome (Prrs) Virus Vaccine, Dong Sun Jan 2013

Utilities Of Reverse Genetics System As A Platform For The Development Of Porcine Reproductive And Respiratory Syndrome (Prrs) Virus Vaccine, Dong Sun

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) causes reproductive disorder in breeding pigs and respiratory symptoms in pigs of all ages. The virus continues to bring significant economic losses to swine industry, and is considered to be one of the most important swine pathogens. Vaccination has been utilized to aid or facilitate PRRS control. Among various types of vaccines used, attenuated live virus vaccines appear to be more efficacious than killed virus vaccines. However, the effect of vaccination with attenuated live virus vaccines is crippled by several safety and efficacy issues. First, the vaccine development process is time-consuming. Second, the ...


Synthetic Nanoparticle-Based Vaccines Against Respiratory Pathogens, Kathleen Alaine Ross Jan 2013

Synthetic Nanoparticle-Based Vaccines Against Respiratory Pathogens, Kathleen Alaine Ross

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Avian influenza A H5N1 is rapidly gaining the potential to be the next influenza pandemic threat. Human cases of H5N1 have proven to be approximately 60% fatal with a growing number of strains becoming resistant to antiviral treatments. Therefore, there is a strong need for new research to develop a pandemic H5N1 avian influenza vaccine. In this work, a synthetic polyanhydride nanoparticle-based vaccine (or nanovaccine) platform for respiratory pathogens such as H5N1 was designed. In particular, the work focused on the design of a subunit vaccine based on antigens specific to H5N1 avian influenza.

Intranasal administration of vaccines can increase ...


Enhancing The Immune Response Through Ikkbeta-Induced Activation Of Nf-Kappab, Emily Hopewell Jan 2012

Enhancing The Immune Response Through Ikkbeta-Induced Activation Of Nf-Kappab, Emily Hopewell

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) is one of the main regulators of inflammatory and immune responses. It is a family of transcription factors composed of five members: RelA, RelB, cRel, NF-κB1 (p105/p50), and NF-κB2 (p100/p52). Homo- and hetero-dimers of family members are inhibited by inhibitor of &klappaB (IκB) family members and activated by IκB kinase (IKK) family members. The IKK family is comprised of IKKα, IKKΒ, and IKKγ. The focus of my dissertation delves into the role of NF-κB activation by IKKΒ in both an immunotherapy setting and its role in T cell mediated anti-tumor immune responses.

A central focus of immunotherapy is to develop vaccine adjuvants that are capable of enhancing a protective adaptive immune response. Microbial adjuvants in vaccines activate key transcription factors, including NF-κB and interferon response factors (IRF). The individual role of these transcription factors in successful vaccines is not clear. We used constitutively active IKKΒ (CA-IKKΒ) expressed in an adenoviral vector (AdIKK) to determine the role of classical NF-κB activation in a vaccine-induced immune response. In an in vivo model, AdIKK induced rapid and sustained NF-κB-driven inflammation in the lungs compared to the control virus. AdIKK infection had no impact on the magnitude of T cell activation as measured by IFN-γ production; however pulmonary inflammation resulted in increased cellularity of draining lymph nodes (LN) at early timepoints resulting in increased early antibody and T cell responses. Taken together, these findings show that IKKΒ-induced NF-κB activation of an inflammatory response affects the kinetics, but not the magnitude of the adaptive immune response.

NF-κB is activated in many ...


Studies On Influenza Virus Replicon Particle Vaccines In Pigs, Qi Chen Jan 2012

Studies On Influenza Virus Replicon Particle Vaccines In Pigs, Qi Chen

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

An influenza A virus (IAV) vaccine that provides better cross protection to pigs against heterologous strain infection and overrides maternal antibodies interference is desirable. A replicon particle (RP) platform has been developed for influenza vaccine for swine use by expressing influenza proteins.

Chapter 2 presented a review of influenza virus infection in swine, including a discussion of current vaccine approaches and techniques used for novel vaccine development.

The first animal study (Chapter 3), composing two experiments, demonstrated the efficacy of intranasal (IN) administration of RP expressing hemagglutin (HA) protein (HA RP) of Pandemic H1N1 (A/CA/04/2009) strain. Prime ...


Evaluation Of Replicon Particle Vaccines For Porcine Reproductive And Respiratory Syndrome Virus, Mark Mogler Jan 2012

Evaluation Of Replicon Particle Vaccines For Porcine Reproductive And Respiratory Syndrome Virus, Mark Mogler

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) is one of the most important diseases of domestic swine. The etiologic agent is a virus (PRRSV), and has proven to be a difficult target for control and eradication efforts. Therefore, it is desirable to develop an improved generation of PRRS vaccines to address these and other shortcomings. Alphavirus-derived replicon particle (RP) vaccines have demonstrated efficacy and safety in a wide range of disease and animal models. Recently, an RP platform derived from Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (strain, TC-83) was developed for use in veterinary vaccines, including vaccines for swine. The key attributes of ...


Therapeutic Peptide-Based Vaccination Strategies Against Hpv-Induced Cancers, Kelly Barrios Marrugo Jan 2012

Therapeutic Peptide-Based Vaccination Strategies Against Hpv-Induced Cancers, Kelly Barrios Marrugo

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

There is an urgent need for the development of an effective therapeutic vaccine against cancer caused by human papilloma virus (HPV). We focused on HPV-induced malignancies because of their high worldwide prevalence (e.g., cervical carcinoma and head & neck cancer). A successful therapeutic vaccine could prevent the 250 000 deaths/year worldwide and the 2.25 billion dollars that

are expended in related care in the US.

We used an HPV-induced mouse cancer model to test vaccines

composed of a CD8 T cell peptide epitope administered with potent adjuvants designed to generate vast numbers of high avidity cytotoxic T lymphocytes ...


Evaluation Of Environmental Effects On Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus Type 2 (Bvdv2) Antibody Levels And Response To Bvdv2 Vaccinations In Angus Calves, Erika Diane Downey Jan 2011

Evaluation Of Environmental Effects On Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus Type 2 (Bvdv2) Antibody Levels And Response To Bvdv2 Vaccinations In Angus Calves, Erika Diane Downey

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Animal health is a major concern in today's livestock industry. Not only is animal illness costly, but it also affects all aspects of the industry from the cow calf producer to the feedlot operator. Bovine respiratory disease (BRD) has large economic ramifications to the beef industry. Bovine respiratory disease has been characterized an interaction between environment, stress, and infectious pathogens. Preventative methods such as vaccination have been used to minimize the repercussions that have been associated with BRD. While vaccination has been used as a preventative method, it is only effective if an immune response is mounted to the ...


Maize For Production Of Recombinant Proteins: Fundamental And Practical Considerations, Lorena Beatriz Moeller Jan 2009

Maize For Production Of Recombinant Proteins: Fundamental And Practical Considerations, Lorena Beatriz Moeller

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

The present work addresses fundamental and practical considerations of using maize for production of recombinant proteins. Maize expressing the B subunit of the heat labile enterotoxin (LT-B) of Escherichia coli was used as a model crop. To address the fundamental aspects of the system, the role of LT-B and its native signal peptide (BSP) in plant cells was investigated using translational fusions with the green fluorescent protein. Confocal microscopy showed that fusions carrying BSP or a maize 27 kD γ-zein signal peptide (ZSP) accumulated in the secretory system of Arabidopsis and maize. Fusions lacking a signal peptide accumulated in the ...