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Evaluating The Effects Of Rumen-Protected Glucose (Rpg) On Production, Metabolism, And Inflammation In Transitioning Dairy Cows, Carrie Suzanne Mccarthy Jan 2019

Evaluating The Effects Of Rumen-Protected Glucose (Rpg) On Production, Metabolism, And Inflammation In Transitioning Dairy Cows, Carrie Suzanne Mccarthy

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Objectives were to evaluate the effects of rumen-protected glucose supplementation on milk production, post-absorptive metabolism, and inflammatory biomarkers in transition dairy cows. Fifty-two multiparous cows were blocked by previous 305 mature equivalent milk yield and randomly assigned to one of two iso-energetic and iso-nitrogenous treatments: 1) control diet (CON; n = 26) or 2) a diet containing RPG (RPG, pre-fresh 8.4% RPG DM basis, post-fresh 9.5% RPG DM basis; n = 26). Cows received their respective dietary treatments from d -21 to 28 relative to calving. Weekly body weight (BW), milk composition, and fecal pH were recorded until 28 d ...


Quantifying Resilience In Sows And Wean-To-Finish Pigs, Austin Michael Putz Jan 2019

Quantifying Resilience In Sows And Wean-To-Finish Pigs, Austin Michael Putz

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Resilience is defined as the ability of an animal to maintain a high level of performance in any environment. Swine breeding companies are organized in a pyramid-like structure. As a result of management differences between the different tiers of the pyramid, genotype-by-environment (GxE) interactions have become a much bigger issue that continues today. Genetic selection for resilience can be accomplished in at least two ways, i) measuring indicator traits in the nucleus, such as antibody levels, and ii) measuring performance phenotypes in commercial testing herds. Both of these techniques provide opportunities to improve resilience in livestock.

Total lost productivity in ...


Influence Of Stress Induction On Trace Mineral Homeostasis And Metabolism In Ruminants, Katherine Vanvalin Jan 2019

Influence Of Stress Induction On Trace Mineral Homeostasis And Metabolism In Ruminants, Katherine Vanvalin

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Cattle are exposed to stressors throughout the production cycle, many of which occur simultaneously. These stressors may include weaning, transportation, vaccination, and arrival into the feedlot which can be associated with co-mingling, as well as adaptation to dietary changes. Furthermore, these factors can create numerous challenges in terms of supplying adequate trace mineral nutrition to cattle, as these periods are also associated with decreased feed intake, which can further exacerbate a trace mineral deficiency. However, there is limited understanding of how stress impacts trace mineral homeostasis in the ruminant. Thus, by improving our understanding of alterations to trace mineral homeostasis ...


Characterization Of Corn Stover Pelleted With Soybean Meal Or Dried Distillers Grains On Lactating Cow Performance, Eating Behavior, And Rumen Function, Brooke C. Dooley Jan 2019

Characterization Of Corn Stover Pelleted With Soybean Meal Or Dried Distillers Grains On Lactating Cow Performance, Eating Behavior, And Rumen Function, Brooke C. Dooley

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

The objective of this study was to determine the effects of alkali-treated corn stover pelleted with soybean meal (STV-SBM) or dried distillers grains (STV-DDG), on milk yield (MY), eating behavior and rumen fermentation in dairy cows. Fourty-five Holstein cows were used in replicated 5 × 5 Latin squares with 28-d periods, using a 2 × 2 + 1 augmented factorial arrangement of treatments. Diets were formulated to contain 10 or 15% corn stover-based pellets that replaced corresponding proportions of corn gluten feed pellets in the control diet. Treatments were: 1) Control (CON); 2) SBM10; 3) SBM15; 4) DDG10; and 5) DDG15. In each ...


Phenotypic, Additive Genetic And Non-Additive Genetic Analysis Of Health And Nutrient Composition Data In Beef Cattle, Luke Kramer Jan 2019

Phenotypic, Additive Genetic And Non-Additive Genetic Analysis Of Health And Nutrient Composition Data In Beef Cattle, Luke Kramer

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

The bovine respiratory disease complex (BRDC) is a major concern for the beef industry throughout the United States of America and the rest of the world. In the USA, BRDC is estimated to cost more than $700 million dollars every year in losses due to reduced production of the beef cattle, loss of health, and increased rates of morbidity and mortality. To address this pressing concern, many producers use vaccines to provide protection within their herds. These vaccines have been developed and designed by many companies, all with a goal of reducing the incidence rate of BRDC in cattle herds ...


A Novel Environmental Enrichment Laser Device Stimulated Broiler Chicken Active Behavior And Improved Performance Without Sacrificing Welfare Outcomes, Meaghan Meyer Jan 2019

A Novel Environmental Enrichment Laser Device Stimulated Broiler Chicken Active Behavior And Improved Performance Without Sacrificing Welfare Outcomes, Meaghan Meyer

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

The modern commercial broiler chicken is a genetic hybrid selected for fast growth, feed efficiency, and a large proportion of breast muscle tissue. As birds reach market weight within a typical 6- week commercial cycle, they are increasingly inactive and prone to leg disorders and contact dermatitis of the feet and breasts. Environmental enrichment can be used to increase activity and natural behavior in captive animals. The goal of this thesis was to incorporate environmental enrichment to stimulate broilers to voluntarily move and feed, whilst maintaining leg health and performance. The environmental enrichment was a novel device that projected red ...


The Influence Of Dietary Zinc Concentration During Periods Of Rapid Growth Induced By Ractopamine Hydrochloride Or Dietary Energy And Dietary Fiber Content On Trace Mineral Metabolism And Performance Of Beef Steers, Remy Nicole Carmichael Jan 2019

The Influence Of Dietary Zinc Concentration During Periods Of Rapid Growth Induced By Ractopamine Hydrochloride Or Dietary Energy And Dietary Fiber Content On Trace Mineral Metabolism And Performance Of Beef Steers, Remy Nicole Carmichael

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

The trace mineral zinc (Zn) is an important constituent of many biological processes associated with growth and maintenance. While Zn is currently recommended to be supplemented to cattle at 30 mg Zn/kg dry matter (DM), this recommended concentration stems from studies conducted in cattle genetically and phenotypically very different than the feedlot cattle of today. Prior research has shown a greater growth response when cattle fed ractopamine hydrochloride were also fed Zn at increasing supplemental concentrations as a blend of inorganic ZnSO4 and Zn-amino acid complex. Therefore, the objective of this dissertation was to investigate if improvements in cattle ...


Lipid-Soluble Compounds In Late-Cutting Alfalfa Maximize Host Immune Responses And Beneficially Modulate The Colon Microbiota Of Mice During Citrobacter Rodentium Infection, Krysten Craft Jan 2019

Lipid-Soluble Compounds In Late-Cutting Alfalfa Maximize Host Immune Responses And Beneficially Modulate The Colon Microbiota Of Mice During Citrobacter Rodentium Infection, Krysten Craft

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Bioactive, plant-sourced feed additives for use in animal diets appeal to consumer demand for ‘naturally-raised’ animal products. Alfalfa offers a source of potential nutraceuticals attributed to its membership in the legume (Fabaceae) family, which has been associated with benefits in human and animal health. As a forage, alfalfa contains a high amount of indigestible, insoluble fiber which typically limits its use in non-ruminant livestock diets, as these animals lack the fermentative capacity to extract adequate energy from high-fiber diets. This has created a niche for examining feeding strategies to maximize alfalfa-associated benefits without the limitation of fiber. Extracts provide a ...


Heat Lamps And Heat Mats In The Farrowing House: Effect On Piglet Production, Piglet And Sow Behavior And Energy Usage, Karli Lane Jan 2019

Heat Lamps And Heat Mats In The Farrowing House: Effect On Piglet Production, Piglet And Sow Behavior And Energy Usage, Karli Lane

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

There is opportunity to capitalize on piglet and sow behavior in the farrowing to aide in the decrease of pre-weaning mortality. However, there is limited knowledge in the scientific literature concerning how supplemental heat sources affect piglet and sow behavior and performance during parturition and lactation. Additionally, the farrowing house represents a significant portion of energy usage in farrow-to-wean swine production. However, energy use studies have not expanded on the costs associated with providing different supplemental heat sources including implementation. The overall thesis goal was to create a comparison of heat lamps and heat mats as supplemental heat sources in ...


Effects Of Drinking Water On Feed Intake, Growth Performance, Health Status, Nutrient Digestibility And Composition Of Gut Microbiota In Young Dairy Calves, Handagala Kaluwalaya Janaka Priyankara Wickramasinghe Jan 2019

Effects Of Drinking Water On Feed Intake, Growth Performance, Health Status, Nutrient Digestibility And Composition Of Gut Microbiota In Young Dairy Calves, Handagala Kaluwalaya Janaka Priyankara Wickramasinghe

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

There is a lack of data on water consumption and its role in dairy calves. The water requirements of dairy calves are negligibly defined. Producers pay little attention to whether calves consume enough drinking water (also called free water) as they consider water in milk or milk replacer would satisfy the total water requirement. A recent USDA survey revealed that dairy producers wait on average 17 d to first offer drinking water to newborn calves. Unlike milk or milk replacer directly shunted to the abomasum, drinking water first enters the rumen and then moves to the rest of the gastrointestinal ...


Developing And Validating A Heat Stress Model And Evaluating Nutritional Management Strategies To Mitigate Heat Stress And Immune-Challenges In Dairy Cows, Mohmmad Abdel-Nasser Arafat Al-Qaisi Jan 2019

Developing And Validating A Heat Stress Model And Evaluating Nutritional Management Strategies To Mitigate Heat Stress And Immune-Challenges In Dairy Cows, Mohmmad Abdel-Nasser Arafat Al-Qaisi

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Heat stress (HS) negatively impacts animal productivity and welfare. Precisely studying HS typically requires expensive climate-controlled facilities, resources often inaccessible to most scientists. Thus, it is of interest to develop and validate alternative and cost-effective models to study HS and to assess nutritional HS mitigation strategies using this model in lactating dairy cows. Many of the negative consequences of HS appears to be mediated by intestine-derived lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and thus HS biology can be modeled by infusing LPS. Administrating LPS decreases circulating calcium (Ca) and decreases markedly both feed intake and milk yield in dairy cows. The current dissertation centered ...


Providing Humane On-Farm Handling Tools To Move Non-Ambulatory Grow-Finish Pigs, Ella Akin Jan 2019

Providing Humane On-Farm Handling Tools To Move Non-Ambulatory Grow-Finish Pigs, Ella Akin

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

There is limited scientific knowledge in the literature that provides producers with effective handling tools for moving a non-ambulatory grow-finish pig on-farm that accounts for caretaker safety and pig welfare. Two objectives were defined to meet this goal: 1) determine durability, caretaker physiology, movement ease, overall time, and caretaker preference for sked, deer sled, modified deer sled, and wean-to-finish mat when moving 18 grow-finish pig cadavers on-farm, 2) evaluate durability, pig physiology and behavior, and overall time for the sked, revised deer sled, and ice fishing sled when moving 18 non-ambulatory grow-finish pigs on-farm.

Observed results from these studies showed ...


Supplementing Silicoglycidol Clay For The Reduction Of Aflatoxin M1 In Milk And Biomarkers Of Liver Dysfunction In Dairy Cows, Emily Hannele Branstad Jan 2019

Supplementing Silicoglycidol Clay For The Reduction Of Aflatoxin M1 In Milk And Biomarkers Of Liver Dysfunction In Dairy Cows, Emily Hannele Branstad

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Mycotoxins can compromise immune function and lead to decreased animal health and productivity. In addition, aflatoxin (AF) can be transferred from the mammary gland to milk as AFM1, a carcinogenic metabolis of AF, thus generating a human food safety concern. Since mycotoxins are ubiquitous in various animal feedstuffs, dietary interventions to prevent their absorption are pertinent.Therefore, we postulated that supplementing a dietary adsorbent would help limit AFM1 in urine and milk. Consequently, objectives were to determine the effects of supplementing a silicoglycidol clay on milk and urine AFM1 concentration, transfer %, and excretion values and to determine the response of ...


Investigation Of An Etec Challenge And Supplementation Of Direct-Fed Microbials In Weaned Pigs, Spenser Becker Jan 2019

Investigation Of An Etec Challenge And Supplementation Of Direct-Fed Microbials In Weaned Pigs, Spenser Becker

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Economic losses in the nursery phase of pork production can largely be attributed to the underdeveloped gastrointestinal tract (GIT) and immune system of weaned pigs, which greatly increases their susceptibility to potential pathogens. Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) is a common enteric pathogen that results in secretory diarrhea and leads to reductions in growth performance and increases in mortality, morbidity, and treatment costs. Vaccinations and antibiotics have traditionally been used as means of prevent or mitigating ETEC infections; however, with the increase in antibiotic resistant pathogens and pressure from the consumer population, pork producers are in need of alternative strategies. Dietary ...


The Use Of Dietary Fat And Cricket Powder As Alternatives In Diets Fed To Healthy Adult Dogs, Logan Kilburn Jan 2019

The Use Of Dietary Fat And Cricket Powder As Alternatives In Diets Fed To Healthy Adult Dogs, Logan Kilburn

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Consumers are becoming more aware of how to nutritionally provide for their pets which is leading to the demand for new pet foods such as the use of less processed diets and sustainable protein sources. Pet foods may be formulated with decreased starch to meet consumer demands for less processed diets. Fats and oils may be added to low starch diets to meet energy requirements, but little is known about its effects on canine health. The study objective was to evaluate the effects of feeding healthy adult dogs low carbohydrate, high-fat diets on apparent total tract digestibility, fecal characteristics, and ...


Effects Of Processing Method And Non-Meat Binding Ingredients On Batter Stability, Yield And Texture Of Frankfurters, Benjamin Lee Ruther Jan 2019

Effects Of Processing Method And Non-Meat Binding Ingredients On Batter Stability, Yield And Texture Of Frankfurters, Benjamin Lee Ruther

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

The effects of processing method and added non-meat ingredients on the processing yield, batter stability, and texture profile of frankfurters were investigated. Five ingredient treatments (control, sodium alginate, iota carrageenan, transglutaminase, and pork collagen) of frankfurters were produced using three different processing methods (coarse grinding, chopping in a bowl chopper and passing through an emulsion mill). Emulsion stability (water separation, fat separation and total liquid separation) was measured on the resulting batter. Processing yield was measured after cooking and chilling the frankfurters. A texture profile analysis (TPA) of the finished frankfurters was also conducted with a focus on the TPA ...


Investigating Automated Sensor Measures As Possible Indicator Traits Of Feed Intake And Health Traits In Dairy Cattle., Cori Jeanne Siberski Jan 2019

Investigating Automated Sensor Measures As Possible Indicator Traits Of Feed Intake And Health Traits In Dairy Cattle., Cori Jeanne Siberski

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Feed intake and efficiency are extremely important traits in the dairy industry, due to their impact on sustainability and profitability. Unfortunately, measuring these traits in commercial settings is difficult. Identification of indicator traits of feed intake or efficiency would be of great value. As sensor use on dairy farms has become more common, these technologies could be applied as proxies for feed intake, if first evaluated on research farms that possess feed intake measuring equipment. Thus, the objectives of this study were to assess the usability of automated sensor technologies as indicator traits for dairy cattle. Dry matter intake was ...


An Investigation Of Habitat Suitability Factors And Their Interactions For Predicting Gopher Tortoise Habitat, Abigail V. Lavallin Oct 2018

An Investigation Of Habitat Suitability Factors And Their Interactions For Predicting Gopher Tortoise Habitat, Abigail V. Lavallin

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

This thesis evaluates the interaction between four habitat factors vital to the gopher tortoise in Florida. Federally and state listed as threatened throughout its entire range, the gopher tortoise is vital to protect, not only for itself individually but its burrows provide an essential habitat to over 300 species making it a key stone species within its environment. Historic habitat modeling methods are reviewed for the gopher tortoise to highlight the gap on this topic. This research expanded on the methods utilized by Baskaran et al. (2006) evaluating the soil, landcover, percentage of canopy cover and the depth to water ...


Extending Spectrophotometric Pht Measurements In Coastal And Estuarine Environments, Nora Katherine Douglas Apr 2018

Extending Spectrophotometric Pht Measurements In Coastal And Estuarine Environments, Nora Katherine Douglas

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Nearshore and estuarine environments play a vital role in the cycling of carbon, but the effects of ocean acidification in estuarine waters have not been studied as extensively as in the open ocean. One reason for this is the limitation of pH measurement capabilities in low-salinity waters. Typically, pH in these environments has been measured using potentiometric methods that are subject to uncertainties on the order of 0.01. Spectrophotometric methods for measuring pHT offer precision and accuracy superior to those of potentiometric methods. However, previous characterizations for purified sulfonephthalein indicators, used for marine spectrophotometric measurements, are not applicable to ...


Novel Observations Of Peroxiredoxin-2 Profile And Protein Oxidation In Skeletal Muscle From Pigs Of Differing Residual Feed Intake And Health Status, Brian Michael Patterson Jan 2018

Novel Observations Of Peroxiredoxin-2 Profile And Protein Oxidation In Skeletal Muscle From Pigs Of Differing Residual Feed Intake And Health Status, Brian Michael Patterson

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

The objective of this thesis was to determine the impact of health challenge in the form of a dual respiratory and enteric bacterial health challenge on the antioxidant protein peroxiredoxin-2 (Prdx-2) and protein oxidation in the skeletal muscle of pigs selected for differing residual feed intake (RFI), a measure of feed efficiency. It was hypothesized that differences would exist in Prdx-2’s profile based on RFI line and infection status (IS) and that high RFI (less efficient) and health challenged pigs would present a higher degree of protein oxidation due to increased oxidative stress.

Barrows (50±7 kg, total ...


The Impact Of Aging Time, Storage Type And Early Postmortem Sarcoplasmic Proteome Variations On Pork Loin Quality, Matthew David Schulte Jan 2018

The Impact Of Aging Time, Storage Type And Early Postmortem Sarcoplasmic Proteome Variations On Pork Loin Quality, Matthew David Schulte

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Consumers value and are willing to pay for consistently tender and juicy pork products. However, large variations in pork quality exist in the current market place. Predicting pork quality is difficult due to it being a multifactorial issue. To better understand the development of pork quality we performed two studies to analyze the impact of different storage and aging practices as well as variations in the sarcoplasmic proteome between tough and tender pork products. Finding robust and consistent measurements for determining differences in pork quality is essential to identifying variations in pork quality in the current marketplace.

The objective of ...


Investigating The Interplay Of Physiological And Molecular Mechanisms Underpinning Programmable Aspects Of Heat Stress In Pigs, Jacob Seibert Jan 2018

Investigating The Interplay Of Physiological And Molecular Mechanisms Underpinning Programmable Aspects Of Heat Stress In Pigs, Jacob Seibert

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Heat stress (HS) undermines production efficiency in all animal agriculture, culminating in major economic losses annually. The effects of HS in pigs is realized through depressed growth, altered body composition, and impaired reproductive performance. Pigs, unlike other mammals, do not possess functional sweat glands, making them rely on other mechanisms to thermoregulate during a heat challenge. Continual investigation of hyperthermia in pigs is crucial for developing new strategies and/or technologies that mitigate the effects of HS imposed on the pork industry. The studies conducted in this dissertation investigate the complex interplay of whole-animal physiology as well as cellular and ...


Predictors For Wean-Finish Mortality Events In A Commercial Swine Production System, Gregory Thomas Krahn Jan 2018

Predictors For Wean-Finish Mortality Events In A Commercial Swine Production System, Gregory Thomas Krahn

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

The objectives of this study were to evaluate water disappearance deviations, environmental stressors, common management practices, presence of pathogens and interaction effects for the start of high mortality events (SHME) in commercial wean-finish pigs. Data utilized in this study were compiled from 26 lots of pigs in Illinois and Iowa, on farms operated by The Maschhoffs, LLC (Carlyle, IL, USA) from July 2014 through January 2016. Change in mortality (CM) was calculated as the previous seven-day average mortality rate subtracted from the subsequent three-day average mortality rate, and SHME was defined as one standard deviation above the mean CM within ...


Evaluation Of Peri-Partum Supplementation Of Methionine Hydroxy Analog On Cow-Calf Performance, Colby Allen Redifer Jan 2018

Evaluation Of Peri-Partum Supplementation Of Methionine Hydroxy Analog On Cow-Calf Performance, Colby Allen Redifer

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

The objective was to evaluate the effects of peripartum supplementation of methionine hydroxy analog (MFP; Novus International, Inc. St. Charles, MO) to nulliparous beef females on dam and progeny performance. Yearling Angus heifers (n = 60) were blocked by expected parturition date, stratified by body weight (BW) and body condition score (BCS), and randomized to 1 of 15 pens (4 females/pen). Pens were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 dietary treatments; a basal diet supplemented with either 1) 0 g � animal-1 � d-1 of MFP (M0); 2) 15 g ...


The Potential Role Of Nitrite-Embedded Film Technology In Extending The Color Stability And Shelf Life Of Alternatively-Cured Meat Products, Michael Stephen Cropp Jan 2018

The Potential Role Of Nitrite-Embedded Film Technology In Extending The Color Stability And Shelf Life Of Alternatively-Cured Meat Products, Michael Stephen Cropp

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Meat preservation in the form of salting, curing, and packaging have been centric to meat consumption for centuries. Current research in processed meats is heavily focused on alternatively-cured meats. Alternatively-cured meats have a greater potential for reduced color stability and shelf life (compared to conventionally-cured counterparts), due to limiting vegetable-like flavors. Development of vegetable-like flavors and natural/organic labeling requirements, meat processors generally reduce the amount of ingredients used, which can lead to quality and shelf life concerns. This study was designed to determine the effects of nitrite-embedded film (NEF) technology on fully cooked all-beef bologna. Specific emphasis was given ...


Investigating Physiological Parameters And Management Procedures In The Periparturient Period That Affect Subsequent Performance In Ungulate Species, Amanda Lynn Fordyce Jan 2018

Investigating Physiological Parameters And Management Procedures In The Periparturient Period That Affect Subsequent Performance In Ungulate Species, Amanda Lynn Fordyce

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

The following dissertation is organized into seven chapters. Chapter two is a review of the literature covering prenatal development, placental effects, and pre-weaning management effects on post-weaning performance in porcine and bovine species. Chapters three through five are a summary of research conducted to examine the effects of various antiseptic compounds and environments on umbilical cord healing and infection rates in pre-weaned dairy calves and piglets. Chapter six is a summary of research conducted to examine the effects of umbilical management and farrowing stall conditions on pre-weaning mortality, umbilical hernia incidence and 150 d weight in swine. Chapter seven is ...


The Genetic Basis Of Feed Efficiency In Swine Divergently Selected For Residual Feed Intake, Emily Mauch Jan 2018

The Genetic Basis Of Feed Efficiency In Swine Divergently Selected For Residual Feed Intake, Emily Mauch

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Feed efficiency is an economically important trait in the swine industry since feed accounts more than 50% of total production costs. A measure of feed efficiency, residual feed intake (RFI), is defined as the difference between observed and expected feed intake based on production and maintenance requirements. Since 2001 at Iowa State University (ISU), divergent selection for improved (Low RFI) and reduced feed efficiency (High RFI) has been conducted in Yorkshire pigs for ten generations. Using these selection lines, the over-arching objective of this dissertation was to further our knowledge of the biological and genetic basis of RFI in pigs ...


Influence Of Human Disturbance On Western Chimpanzee (Pan Troglodytes Verus) Nesting Behavior In A Savanna Mosaic Habitat, Southeastern Senegal, Kristine Micheletti Jan 2018

Influence Of Human Disturbance On Western Chimpanzee (Pan Troglodytes Verus) Nesting Behavior In A Savanna Mosaic Habitat, Southeastern Senegal, Kristine Micheletti

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

The human population continues to grow worldwide at an alarming rate, and, with this growth, comes expansion into new areas. These expansions can come with actions, like logging, mining, and agriculture that are harmful to the environment and the species inhabiting it. The critically endangered West African chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes verus) is one primate species affected by such human actions. In the Kedougou region of southeastern Senegal, artisanal small-scale gold mining has become a way of life and has accelerated rapidly in the last few years. I conducted research at the Bantan site, which is located a few kilometers south ...


Influence Of Nutrient Intake On Oxidative Stress In Zoo-Managed Species, Cayla Jo Iske Jan 2018

Influence Of Nutrient Intake On Oxidative Stress In Zoo-Managed Species, Cayla Jo Iske

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

A paucity of research exists investigating influence of diet on oxidative stress (OS) in zoo-managed animals. Many zoo-managed species have unknown nutrient requirements and OS can be used as a measure to evaluate dietary nutrient concentrations and narrow dietary recommendations. The overall dissertation objective was to evaluate influence of diet and nutrient intakes on markers of OS in zoo-managed animals through three objectives: 1) evaluate influence of five commercial gut-loading diets on resulting live cricket nutrient composition and impact on markers of OS in two zoo-managed toad species 2) evaluate dietary nutrient intake and nutritional husbandry influence on markers of ...


The Effects Of Gestation Diet And Uterine Environment On Offspring Development And Swine Production Efficiency, Elizabeth A. Hines Jan 2018

The Effects Of Gestation Diet And Uterine Environment On Offspring Development And Swine Production Efficiency, Elizabeth A. Hines

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Production capacity in the swine industry has increased over the past 60 years through improved sow longevity, increased litter sizes, and increased offspring growth rate. However, these improvements to efficiency are associated with decreased birth weight and increased total mortality. Currently, increased litter size in commercial production is estimated to place 10 to 30% of all offspring at risk of intra-uterine growth restriction (IUGR) during gestation. Consequently, offspring that experience IUGR exhibit hindered growth, reduced survivability, and decreased carcass quality; leading to compromised system efficiency.

Growth restriction phenomena can be observed across species and is commonly due to reduced nutrient ...