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Electronic Theses and Dissertations

2008

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Articles 1 - 28 of 28

Full-Text Articles in Life Sciences

Elucidating The Role Of The Α7 Nicotinic Receptor In The Etiology Of Schizophrenia., Michelle Johnson Chandley Dec 2008

Elucidating The Role Of The Α7 Nicotinic Receptor In The Etiology Of Schizophrenia., Michelle Johnson Chandley

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

The α7 subunit of the nicotinic receptor, a ligand gated ion channel with an affinity for nicotine, has long been implicated in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia due to the extremely high rate of smoking within the patient population. However, the exact role of the receptor has never fully been determined. In the following studies, various functions the receptor may assume in disease state are evaluated. There is a strong relationship between the immune system and schizophrenia, with the α7 subunit possibly serving as the link between the two. One of the following studies looks at the possibility of the receptor ...


Urinary Excretion Of (1-3)-Beta-D-Glucans., Debra K. Head Dec 2008

Urinary Excretion Of (1-3)-Beta-D-Glucans., Debra K. Head

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

(1→3)-β-D-Glucans are carbohydrate polymers that are present in the cell wall of various fungi and bacteria; they are pathogen associated molecular patterns that circulate during infection and modulate immunity. Our laboratory has previously established the pharmacokinetics of intravenously and orally administered glucans; the present studies investigated the renal excretion of (1→3)-β-D-glucans following intravenous and oral administration. Three fluorescently-labeled glucans were administered to adult male rats in the presence or absence of toxic challenge. Urine specimens were collected and analyzed by fluorescence spectroscopy, size-exclusion chromatography and GPC/MALLS. 71 ± 3% of fluorescence remained in the >5K MWCO ...


Iron Acquisition In Rhodococcus Erythropolis Strain Igts8: Characterization Of A Mutant Strain That Over Produces Siderophore., Melanie Anne Pratt Dec 2008

Iron Acquisition In Rhodococcus Erythropolis Strain Igts8: Characterization Of A Mutant Strain That Over Produces Siderophore., Melanie Anne Pratt

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Iron is an essential nutrient for most bacteria because enzymes like nitrate reductase and cytochromes use it as a cofactor. However, in most aerobic, neutral pH environments, iron is essentially insoluble and not easily available for bacteria to use. Many bacteria respond to this problem by releasing small organic compounds called siderophores that bind and effectively solubilize iron so that it can be transported into the cell for growth. The focus of this study was to learn more about the iron acquisition and especially the transport of iron by the soil bacterium Rhodococcus erythropolis. To fulfill this aim, mutant strains ...


Herpes Simplex Virus Glycoprotein D/Host Cell Surface Interaction Stimulates Chlamydia Trachomatis Persistence Via A Novel Pathway., Jennifer Vanover Dec 2008

Herpes Simplex Virus Glycoprotein D/Host Cell Surface Interaction Stimulates Chlamydia Trachomatis Persistence Via A Novel Pathway., Jennifer Vanover

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

When presented with certain unfavorable environmental conditions, C. trachomatis reticulate bodies (RBs) enter into a viable, yet noncultivable state called persistence. Two hallmarks of persistent chlamydiae are swollen, aberrantly shaped RBs, as viewed by transmission electron microscopy and a decrease in infectious progeny. Several models of chlamydial persistence have been described, including interferon-γ (IFN-γ), IFN-α, IFN-β, and tumor necrosis factor-α-exposure and nutrient deprivation. Previously, we established an in vitro co-infection model of two of the most common sexually transmitted pathogens in the United States, C. trachomatis and Herpes Simplex Virus-2 (HSV). Data from this tissue culture model indicate that: i ...


An Assessment Of Alternative Feed Ingredients In Practical Diets For Florida Pompano (Trachinotus Carolinus) Held In Low Salinity Recirculating Systems, Terhea Nichole Williams Dec 2008

An Assessment Of Alternative Feed Ingredients In Practical Diets For Florida Pompano (Trachinotus Carolinus) Held In Low Salinity Recirculating Systems, Terhea Nichole Williams

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

The identification of alternative protein sources for partial or whole replacement of fishmeal (FM) is a priority in the development of suitable, low cost feed formulations for the Florida pompano (Trachinotus carolinus). To evaluate alternative feed ingredients for the potential replacement of FM in diets fed to juvenile pompano, a series of four experiments were conducted. The objectives of Experiments 1 and 2 were to determine the apparent digestibility of crude protein (ADCP), energy (ADE), and apparent amino acid availability (AAAA) of three plant based ingredients (soybean meal (SBM), soy protein isolate (SPI), corn gluten meal (CGM)) and three by-product ...


Study Of Basic Wood Decay Mechanisms And Their Biotechnological Applications, Yuhui Qian Dec 2008

Study Of Basic Wood Decay Mechanisms And Their Biotechnological Applications, Yuhui Qian

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

The overall objective of this thesis was to gain further understanding of the non-enzymatic mechanisms involved in brown-rot wood decay, especially the role of pH, oxalic acid, and low molecular catecholate compounds on the dissolution and reduction of iron, and the formation of reactive oxygen species. Another focus of this study will be the potential application of a biomimetic free radical generating system inspired from fungi wood decay process, especially the non-enzymatic mechanism. The possible pathways of iron uptake and iron redox cycling in non-enzymatic brown-rot decay were investigated in this study. UV-Vis spectroscopy and HPLC were employed to study ...


Polymer Supported Optical Biosensors, Ignacio Joseph Garcia Nov 2008

Polymer Supported Optical Biosensors, Ignacio Joseph Garcia

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

The use of various polymer supports adhering phospholipid multibilayers to an internal reflection element have been investigated. The polymer supports studied range from polystyrene (PS), and 100 nm wide PS nanospheres to triethylaminated poly(vinyl benzyl chloride) (PVBC). The PS nanospheres showed the most promise as an adhesion layer since they appear to be the most robust with repeated washings. They also appear to stabilize their adjacent phospholipid multibilayer by increasing the lipid melting temperature. The triethylaminated DVBC also provided an increase of lipid melting temperature, but not quite to the same degree as the PS nanospheres. The cooperativity of ...


Amphetamine Sensitization And In Vivo Microdialysis Of The Nucleus Accumbens Core Of Adult Male And Female Rats D2-Primed As Neonates., Zackary Adam Cope Aug 2008

Amphetamine Sensitization And In Vivo Microdialysis Of The Nucleus Accumbens Core Of Adult Male And Female Rats D2-Primed As Neonates., Zackary Adam Cope

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Neonatal administration of quinpirole produces significant increases in D2 receptor sensitivity that persists into adulthood. This phenomenon, known as D2 receptor priming, is consistent with pathology in schizophrenia. Rats were administered quinpirole or saline postnatally and raised to adulthood. In adulthood, rats were administered d-amphetamine sulfate or saline every other day and were placed in a locomotor arena where activity was measured over 7 trials. Results showed that D2-primed rats receiving amphetamine were higher in locomotor activity across all days of testing compared to other groups. This effect was more prominent in males than in females ...


Identification Of Chlamydial Iron-Responsive Proteins During Intracellular Growth., Brian D. Dill Aug 2008

Identification Of Chlamydial Iron-Responsive Proteins During Intracellular Growth., Brian D. Dill

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Chlamydia trachomatis is an obligate intracellular bacterium and the most prevalent cause of bacterial sexually transmitted disease. Genital chlamydial infections, marked by chronic, intense inflammation, can lead to genital tissue scarring and infertility and is a contributing factor to development of pelvic inflammatory disease and ectopic pregnancy. Iron is required as a cofactor for numerous highly conserved pathways, and nearly all studied organisms rely on iron for growth. In response to iron restriction, the chlamydial developmental cycle arrests at the intracellular reticulate body stage, resulting in a phenomenon termed persistence. Persistence likely plays a role in chlamydial pathogenesis through the ...


Characterization Of The Pathway Leading To The Synthesis Of Salicylic Acid In Plants Resisting Pathogen Infection., Alexander Eddo Aug 2008

Characterization Of The Pathway Leading To The Synthesis Of Salicylic Acid In Plants Resisting Pathogen Infection., Alexander Eddo

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Salicylic acid is a plant hormone that accumulates with plant-pathogen interaction. This accumulation corresponds to the plant being resistant to infection and without it the plant is susceptible. In this study, primers of genes involved in the normal synthesis of SA were used in RT-PCR to compare gene expression levels in susceptible and resistant plants challenged with tobacco mosaic virus. Because SA synthesis shares chorismate as a common substrate with the synthesis of aromatic amino acids, HPLC was used to determine whether the increase in SA could be attributed to a decrease in amino acid levels. The results suggest that ...


Synthesis Of Novel Agrochemicals As Potential Plant Immunization Agents., Arrey Besong Enyong Aug 2008

Synthesis Of Novel Agrochemicals As Potential Plant Immunization Agents., Arrey Besong Enyong

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

The world's population is expected to grow from 6 billion to about 10 billion by 2050. The greatest population increase is expected to occur in Africa, Latin America, and Asia. To feed a world with huge increases in population and to sustain the well-being of humans, a large increase in food production must be achieved. The projected increase in food production must be accomplished on the existing cultivated areas because the expansion of new land is limited by environmental concerns, urbanization and increasing water scarcity.

Different compounds have been developed for the "immunization" of plants against several pathogens ...


Gene Expression And Phenotype Response Of Drosophila Melanogaster To Selection., Kenneth W. Mcdonald Aug 2008

Gene Expression And Phenotype Response Of Drosophila Melanogaster To Selection., Kenneth W. Mcdonald

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

The evolution of phenotypic plasticity is currently a topic of paramount interest in a diverse field of sub-disciplines. Salience is placed by all fields in describing the interaction of selection and phenotypic plasticity and the consequence of this interaction more broadly on evolution. Lacking in the discussion is substantial empirical description of genotype/phenotype interactions that by definition constitute the plastic response to novel and stressful environments. Here, I present empirical observations that bring the interaction of genotype and phenotype into focus. Drosophila melanogaster populations subjected to selection for tolerance to low food or high alcohol conditions each exhibited an ...


Characterization Of Heat Shock Protein A12b As A Novel Angiogenesis Regulator., Rebecca J. Steagall Aug 2008

Characterization Of Heat Shock Protein A12b As A Novel Angiogenesis Regulator., Rebecca J. Steagall

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Previously, we cloned Heat shock protein A12B (HspA12B), the newest member of a recently defined subfamily of proteins distantly related to the Hsp70 family that are enriched in atherosclerotic lesions. We have found that HspA12B is predominantly expressed in vascular endothelium, and that it is involved in angiogenesis which we probed by in vitro angiogenesis assays (Matrigel), migration assays and Directed In Vivo Angiogenesis Assay (DIVAA). Hsp70s are molecular chaperones that are inducible by stress and have been found to be anti-apoptotic (Li et al. 2000; Nylandsted et al. 2000; Garrido et al. 2001). Because of its homology to Hsp70 ...


The Effect Of Wild Blueberries On Endothelium-Dependent Vasodilation In Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats, Aleksandra S. Kristo Aug 2008

The Effect Of Wild Blueberries On Endothelium-Dependent Vasodilation In Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats, Aleksandra S. Kristo

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

The effect of wild blueberries on major endothelium-dependent vasodilation pathways and arterial blood pressure (BP) was examined in the young adult Spontaneously Hypertensive rat (SHR), used as a model of endothelial dysfunction, and the Wistar Kyoto (WK) rat, with functional endothelium, used as the control. Male SHR and WK rats were fed a control (SHR-C and WK-C), or a wild blueberry-enriched (SHR-B and WK-B) diet for nine weeks. By the age of 21 weeks, thoracic aortae were excised and 3mm arterial rings were prepared and immersed in Radnoti tissue baths. Rings were precontractred with phenylephrine (Phe) (10"6M), followed by ...


Effects Of Fish Introductions On The Geographic Distribution And Native Invertebrate Biodiversity Of Naturally Fishless Lakes In Maine, Emily Gaenzle Schilling Aug 2008

Effects Of Fish Introductions On The Geographic Distribution And Native Invertebrate Biodiversity Of Naturally Fishless Lakes In Maine, Emily Gaenzle Schilling

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Widespread fish stocking has led to a worldwide decline in naturally fishless lakes and their associated communities. Little is known about the historical distribution or native communities of these freshwater ecosystems. The objectives of this study were to: 1) develop a quantitative method to remotely detect naturally fishless lakes in Maine, 2) conduct a landscape-scale assessment of unique attributes of fishless lake macroinvertebrate communities, 3) identify macroinvertebrate bioindicators of fish absence, and 4) assess effects of introduced fish on native macroinvertebrates. I identified two physiographic types of naturally fishless lakes in Maine: kettle lakes in the eastern lowlands and foothills ...


Antigen Trafficking Within Chlamydia Trachomatis-Infected Polarized Human Endometrial Epithelial Cells., David Kelley Giles May 2008

Antigen Trafficking Within Chlamydia Trachomatis-Infected Polarized Human Endometrial Epithelial Cells., David Kelley Giles

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Chlamydia trachomatis serovars D-K are the leading cause of bacterially-acquired sexually transmitted infections in the United States. As an obligate intracellular pathogen, C. trachomatis infects columnar epithelial cells of the genital mucosae and can cause deleterious sequelae such as pelvic inflammatory disease, infertility, and ectopic pregnancy. Several chlamydial antigens reach the host cell cytosol prior to the natural release of chlamydiae at the end of the developmental cycle. While some of these extra-inclusion antigens traffic to the host cell surface, others remain intracellular where they are proposed to influence vital host cell functions and antigen trafficking and presentation. The research ...


Gender-Specific Differences In Spatial Behavior Of The Flesh Fly, Sarcophaga Crassipalpis., Caleb Joseph Paquette May 2008

Gender-Specific Differences In Spatial Behavior Of The Flesh Fly, Sarcophaga Crassipalpis., Caleb Joseph Paquette

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Territoriality in the flesh fly, Sarcophaga crassipalpis (Diptera: Sarcophagidae) was studied in the laboratory. In rectangular enclosures, male flies exhibited a lower tolerance (occupation of the same physical space) of same-sex conspecifics than did female flies. In circular arenas, male flies showed significantly higher levels of spatial separation among themselves (as determined from nearest neighbor analyses) than did females: males were distributed uniformly whereas females were nearly random. The male spatial behavior occurred during the photophase but not the scotophase of light-dark cycles, suggesting that visual cues are required for maintenance of inter-individual spacing. No significant differences in male spacing ...


Structural And Biochemical Investigation Of The Molecular Mechanisms Of Dna Response And Repair In Humans And Escherichia Coli., Steven Michael Shell May 2008

Structural And Biochemical Investigation Of The Molecular Mechanisms Of Dna Response And Repair In Humans And Escherichia Coli., Steven Michael Shell

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

The genomes of all living cells are under constant attack from both endogenous and exogenous agents that damage DNA. In order to maintain genetic integrity a variety of response pathways have evolved to recognize and eliminate DNA damage. Replication protein A (RPA), the eukaryotic single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) binding protein, is a required factor for all major DNA metabolisms. Although much work has been done to elucidate the nature of the interaction between RPA and ssDNA currently there is no structural information on how the full-length protein binds to ssDNA. This study presents a novel examination of the full nucleoprotein complex ...


Lipid Aldehydes Are Substrates And Transcriptional Regulators Of Cytochromes P450., Immaculate Amunom May 2008

Lipid Aldehydes Are Substrates And Transcriptional Regulators Of Cytochromes P450., Immaculate Amunom

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

4-hydroxy-2-nonenal (4-HNE) and propene-2-al (acrolein) are highly reactive á,â-unsaturated aldehydes. 4-HNE and acrolein are generated in vivo as products of lipid peroxidation. These aldehydes are implicated in the onset of several diseases including atherosclerosis and neurodegenerative disease. They also react with nucleophilic cellular macromolecules including proteins, DNA and phospholipids. Some of these reactions in vivo lead to inhibition of enzyme activities, depletion of glutathione and oxidative stress. Because of their pathophysiological relevance, attention has focused during the last decade on the ability of mammals to metabolize these lipid aldehydes. The purpose of this study was therefore to determine the ...


The Effects Of Chronically Elevated N And S Deposition On The Nutrition And Physiology Of Sugar Maple At The Bear Brook Watershed In Maine, Suzanne Bethers May 2008

The Effects Of Chronically Elevated N And S Deposition On The Nutrition And Physiology Of Sugar Maple At The Bear Brook Watershed In Maine, Suzanne Bethers

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

The Bear Brook Watershed in Maine is a paired watershed system; one watershed has been acidified bimonthly with granular ammonium sulfate ((NH4)2SO4) since 1989. The adjacent watershed is used as a reference. This acid deposition treatment presents unique opportunities to look at the long term affects of acidification on vegetation. Acidic deposition continues to be a concern for the health of sugar maple (Acer saccharum Marsh.) in northern hardwood forests. Many studies show a connection between base cation depletion induced by acid deposition and sugar maple decline. In this text we review sugar maple ecology and ...


The Ttc7Fsn/Fsn Mutation Results In Hyperactivation Of Lymphocytes And Overproduction Of Il-4 Leading To The Development Of Systemic Autoimmunity, Beth Lindroth Hill May 2008

The Ttc7Fsn/Fsn Mutation Results In Hyperactivation Of Lymphocytes And Overproduction Of Il-4 Leading To The Development Of Systemic Autoimmunity, Beth Lindroth Hill

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Ttc7fsn/fsn mice exhibit systemic autoimmunity characterized by hyperactivated B cells, increased interleukin-4, autoantibodies, kidney disease and reduced lifespan. Because the pathology is similar to systemic lupus erythematosus, Ttc7fsn/fsn mice are a useful model with which to study early events that lead to autoimmune disease. Although the Ttc7fsn mutation has been identified the gene function is unknown. The phenotype of Ttc7fsn/fsn mice mimics the Th2 autoimmunity of the IL-4 transgenic (Erb et al 1997). It was previously unknown whether the over-production of IL-4 was an intrinsic defect of Ttc7fsn/fsn lymphocytes that led ...


Evaluation Of A Simple Intervention To Increase Self- Efficacy For Independent Exercise In Cardiac Rehabilitation Participants, Sherry A. Barkley Jan 2008

Evaluation Of A Simple Intervention To Increase Self- Efficacy For Independent Exercise In Cardiac Rehabilitation Participants, Sherry A. Barkley

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Purpose: While benefits of exercise after a cardiac event are well documented, participation in and adherence to cardiac rehabilitation (CR) programs is often low. The purpose of this study was to test the effectiveness of a self- efficacy coaching intervention (SCI): a simple theory-based behavioral intervention to increase self-efficacy for independent exercise as well as independent exercise behavior in CR patients. It was hypothesized that persons receiving the SCI treatment (T) would have higher levels of self-efficacy for exercise and greater participation in independent exercise than participants in an attention control (C) group.
Methods:
People referred to a hospitalbased CR ...


Methodology And Assessment Of The Susceptibility Of Potato Genotypes To Phytophthora Erythrosetpica Causal Organism Of Pink Rot, Erica Fitzpatrick-Peabody Jan 2008

Methodology And Assessment Of The Susceptibility Of Potato Genotypes To Phytophthora Erythrosetpica Causal Organism Of Pink Rot, Erica Fitzpatrick-Peabody

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Phytophthora erythroseptica Pethyb., causal organism of potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) pink rot is a soil-borne ubiquitous oomycete pathogen that can cause severe losses in both the field prior to harvest and during storage. The efficacy of the most effective fungicide, mefenoxam for control of P. erythroseptica is in jeopardy due to the widespread development of resistance in the US. Cultivar resistance may provide the best option for management of P. erythroseptica in the future. Recently published reports of cultivars susceptible to P. erythroseptica are based on evaluation techniques involving detached tubers and nontuber germplasm rather than field evaluations. Screening detached ...


Relative Fitness And Behavioral Compensation Of Amphibians In A Managed Forest, Sean Michael Blomquist Jan 2008

Relative Fitness And Behavioral Compensation Of Amphibians In A Managed Forest, Sean Michael Blomquist

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Habitat loss and degradation are two of the most important factors leading to the imperilment of species worldwide including amphibians, but mechanisms underlying these changes are poorly understood. To understand the fitness potential of harvested forests, I conducted studies of a forest specialist, Rana sylvatica (Wood Frogs) and compared these results with those from identical studies with an open canopy specialist, R. pipiens (Northern Leopard Frogs) in response to an unharvested control and three forest harvesting treatments: clearcutting (with removal of all merchantable timber > 10 cm diameter), clearcutting with coarse woody debris retention, and partial harvesting with removal of < 25% canopy cover. First, I used radio-telemetry data collected on 72 adult R ...


Using Dendrochronology To Understand The Response Of Eastern Hemlock To Past Stresses And Its Current Status In Southern Maine, Sophia Demaio Jan 2008

Using Dendrochronology To Understand The Response Of Eastern Hemlock To Past Stresses And Its Current Status In Southern Maine, Sophia Demaio

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Eastern hemlock (Tsuga canadensis (L.) Carr.) is an ecologically important species that is threatened across its range by the non-native hemlock woolly adelgid (HWA, Adelges tsugae (Annand) (Hemiptera: Adelgidae)). In order to understand potential impacts of HWA in southern Maine, we conducted a treering study of 36 sites in southern Maine (York and Cumberland counties) to evaluate how stress events affected eastern hemlock increments, especially after the 1999-2002 drought. The primary objectives were to: 1) create a master chronology and identify reduced growth events 2) model abiotic factors associated with differences in drought response among plots and 3) evaluate the ...


Transcriptional Alterations During Mammary Tumor Progression In Mice And Humans, Karen Fancher Jan 2008

Transcriptional Alterations During Mammary Tumor Progression In Mice And Humans, Karen Fancher

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Family history, reproductive factors, hormonal exposures, and subjective immunihistochemical evaluations of in situ lesions, and to a lesser extent age, remain the best clinical predictors of an individual's risk of developing breast cancer. Identification of early markers predictive of impending invasive breast cancer from in situ carcinoma is a long-term goal. The latent mammary cancer transgenic mouse model of human breast cancer, C57BL/6JTg(WapTag)1Knw (Waptag1), develops characteristic stages of tumorigenesis in a highly predictable manner: atypical hyperplasia advances to ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS), which progresses to papillary adenocarcinomas and/or solid, invasive tumors. Microarray analyses of ...


Purinergic Receptors In The Circumvallate Papillae Of Rats, Alana Marselle Montoya Jan 2008

Purinergic Receptors In The Circumvallate Papillae Of Rats, Alana Marselle Montoya

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

P2X2 receptors and P2Y4 receptors are ATP-activated cell surface receptors that gate movement of K+, Na+, and Ca2+. We used immunocytochemistry for P2X2 and P2Y4 receptors as well as taste cell type markers to learn if P2X2 immunoreactivity (IR) is present in nerve processes in close apposition to Type II and/or Type III taste cells. We also tested to see if P2Y4 IR is present in Type II and/or Type III taste cells. Our results indicate that P2X2 is present only in intragemmal nerve processes. P2X2-LIR nerve processes form close contacts with Type II and Type III taste ...


Waterhole Dynamics And Chemical Signals Of African Elephants ( Loxodonta Aficana ), Stacie Marie Castelda Jan 2008

Waterhole Dynamics And Chemical Signals Of African Elephants ( Loxodonta Aficana ), Stacie Marie Castelda

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

The distribution of mammals in a savanna environment is influenced by abiotic and biotic factors. The African savanna experiences distinct wet and dry seasons. Species become spatially restricted around water resources during the dry season, resulting in increased intraspecies and interspecies resource-based aggregation. A dominate species, such as the African elephant (Loxodonta africana), may influence this aggregation. I examined the influence of wet and dry seasons and ambient temperature on the use of a waterhole by elephants as well as the co-occurrence of elephants and other mammals at the waterhole. Biodiversity scans (October 2004-June 2007) and were performed at a ...