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Electronic Theses and Dissertations

2002

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Articles 1 - 30 of 54

Full-Text Articles in Life Sciences

The Effects Of Prescribed Fire On Millipede And Salamander Populations In A Southern Appalachian Deciduous Forest., Alison Baird Gagan Dec 2002

The Effects Of Prescribed Fire On Millipede And Salamander Populations In A Southern Appalachian Deciduous Forest., Alison Baird Gagan

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Prescribed fire has increased as a forest management practice in southern Appalachia, but investigations into the effects of this silvicultural treatment on non-game wildlife inhabiting the region is limited. This study investigated the effects of prescribed fire on millipede and salamander populations. Seventeen sites within the Cherokee National Forest in east Tennessee that were treated once with prescribed fire between 1998 and 2002 were examined in the spring of 2002. Each burned plot was paired with an adjacent unburned plot.

The number of individual millipedes and salamanders collected from burned plots was compared to the corresponding control plot. Millipedes declined ...


Effects Of Post-Harvest Treatments On The Microbiological Quality And Pesticide Residues Of Lowbush Blueberries, Kristi Michele Crowe Dec 2002

Effects Of Post-Harvest Treatments On The Microbiological Quality And Pesticide Residues Of Lowbush Blueberries, Kristi Michele Crowe

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Lowbush blueberries of the species Vaccinium angustifohm are native to the Northeast United States. In the state of Maine, lowbush blueberries are commercially managed and harvested each year to be marketed as either IQF (individually quick fiozen) or fiesh pack. Since IQF berries are processed at the field level, post-harvest treatments must be effective in ensuring crop quality and safety. Furthermore, with the increase in concern for microbiological and chemical food safety, post-harvest treatment of lowbush blueberries must be effective in reducing microbial populations and pesticide residues. Currently, the Maine Wild Blueberry Industry incorporates a 50-100ppm chlorinated water spray into ...


Systematics Of The Cumacea (Crustacea), Pilar A. Haye Dec 2002

Systematics Of The Cumacea (Crustacea), Pilar A. Haye

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Cumaceans are small benthic crustaceans. They have a marine cosmopolitan distribution with diversity increasing with depth. There are approximately 1,400 described species of cumaceans. Despite the fact that they offer a good model for the study of morphological evolution and biogeography, the studies on the Order Cumacea are almost restricted to work at the alpha taxonomy level. This thesis contributes to the systematics of Cumacea. The phylogenetic relationships within the Cumacea were studied using newly obtained partial amino acid sequences from the mitochondria1 gene Cytochrome Oxidase I. Among other findings, phylogenetic analyses revealed that the families Bodotriidae, Leuconidae, and ...


Analysis Of Protistan Grazing On Bioremediative Bacteria Using In Wvo Fluorescent Protein Expression And Flow Cytometry, Yutao Fu Dec 2002

Analysis Of Protistan Grazing On Bioremediative Bacteria Using In Wvo Fluorescent Protein Expression And Flow Cytometry, Yutao Fu

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Protistan bacterivory can influence the size distribution, cell structure and composition of natural bacterial communities and is of significant concern for design of bioremediation efforts, yet adequate methods for observation and modeling are lacking. In this investigation, fluorescent protein expression and flow cytometry were used to study protistan grazing on genetically modified strains of several bacterial species that have been considered for use in bioremediation. Broad-host-range plasmids were constructed and used to introduce genes encoding GFP (green fluorescent protein) or RFP (red fluorescent protein) to prey species. A heterotrophic flagellate Paraphysomonas imperforata (Hflag) served as a model predator. Predator-prey interactions ...


Representational Analyses Of Conservation Lands In Maine, Stephanie Orndorff Dec 2002

Representational Analyses Of Conservation Lands In Maine, Stephanie Orndorff

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

The three studies reported here (i.e., statewide, southern Maine, and state and federal wildlife areas) identify what areas should be conserved to represent the natural diversity of Maine. Geographic Information System (GIs) technology was used to conduct the analyses comparing the distribution of abiotic and biotic variables representing natural diversity on and off conservation lands. In the statewide analysis, 10 environmental variables were compared on and off conservation lands using ArcGrid with a cell resolution of 1.86 x 1.86 km. The areas found to contain variables that were underrepresented were. combined to identify and map regions with ...


Critical Amino Acids Of The Gα2 Subunit Helical Domain In Dictyostelium Discoideum, Steven Martin Rauch Dec 2002

Critical Amino Acids Of The Gα2 Subunit Helical Domain In Dictyostelium Discoideum, Steven Martin Rauch

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

In Dictyostelium discoideum organism, the Gα2 subunit of the heterotrimeric G-protein signaling complex plays a pivotal role during the aggregation stage in the Dictyostelium life cycle. The biochemical functions of the G-protein complex include separation of the G-protein coupled receptor from the G-protein subunits, GDP displacement by GTP in the Gα subunit, separation of the Gα monomer from the βγ complex, GTP hydrolysis to GDP, activation of adenylyl cyclase as a downstream effector, and activation of guanylyl cyclase as a separate downstream effector. Upon release from the heterotrimer, the βγ subunits lead to downstream activation of the membrane bound adenylyl ...


Evolution Of Lake Malawi Cichlid Fishes (Perciformes: Teleostei), Peter F. Smith Dec 2002

Evolution Of Lake Malawi Cichlid Fishes (Perciformes: Teleostei), Peter F. Smith

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

The cichlid fish species flocks of East Africa provide a compelling model system in which to study the process of speciation. In Lake Malawi, greater than 1000 species of cichlids have emerged since the filling of the lake basin about 1 million years ago. Over 99% of the Lake Malawi haplochromine cichlids are endemic, suggesting that most of this diversification has taken place within the temporal and spatial boundaries set by the Lake's shores. Moreover, many of these species are endemic to small areas within the lake, indicating that speciation has occurred very recently or perhaps is in progress ...


Modeling The Role Of No-Take Marine Reserves In Fisheries Management, Deidre F. Gilbert Dec 2002

Modeling The Role Of No-Take Marine Reserves In Fisheries Management, Deidre F. Gilbert

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

In recent years there has been increasing interest in the potential of no-take marine reserves to benefit fisheries management. Scientific reviews have shown that reserves often lead to substantial increases in the density, biomass, size and diversity of marine fishes inside their boundaries. However, little empirical work has been done to determine the effect of reserves on the fisheries outside their boundaries, such as potential changes in yield, size of fleet, or variability in catch. In order to explore the interaction between the biological growth and dispersion processes of the harvested stock and the changing economic incentives of harvesters created ...


Satellite-Measured Chlorophyll Variability Within The Upwelling Zone Near Heceta Bank, Oregon, Jennifer Bosch Dec 2002

Satellite-Measured Chlorophyll Variability Within The Upwelling Zone Near Heceta Bank, Oregon, Jennifer Bosch

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Heceta Bank, a unique shallow bank on the southern Oregon shelf, is located within the California Current upwelling system. Four years (1998-2001) of 1-km resolution SeaWiFS ocean color satellite data of the Oregon coast are used to provide the first systematic description, and quantification of seasonal and interannual surface chlorophyll variability in the Heceta Bank region of coastal Oregon. The variability over the bank is examined with respect to wind forcing and surface temperature, and compared to the variability observed in topographically simpler shelf regions north and south of the bank. A seasonal cycle with lowest concentrations in the fall ...


Validation Of Physical Activity Recording By Adolescent Girls, Alison Camesano Dec 2002

Validation Of Physical Activity Recording By Adolescent Girls, Alison Camesano

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Physical activity is recorded in bone mineralization studies because physical activity increases bone mass and decreases the risk of osteoporosis. The purpose of this research was to validate a method of physical activity recording used in a longitudinal bone study of adolescent girls. The physical activity recording method was a combination of a diary and an interview-administered recall. The method was validated against an objective measure of physical activity. Twenty-four adolescent girls between the ages of 9.8 and 14.1 wore Stayhealthy RT3 Research Trackers (tri-axial accelerometers) arid recorded their activity for 24 hours on a diary form. The ...


Evaluation Of Three Potential Methods For Preventing The Spread Of The Salmon Louse, Lepeophtheirus Salmonis (Kreyer, 1837), Micheal Pietrak Dec 2002

Evaluation Of Three Potential Methods For Preventing The Spread Of The Salmon Louse, Lepeophtheirus Salmonis (Kreyer, 1837), Micheal Pietrak

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Lepeophtheirus salmonis or salmon lice infections are one of the most prevalent parasitic infections in the salmon aquaculture industry. Salmon lice cause an estimated loss of 3% of the production of Maine's salmon industry annually. Within the State of Maine only a portion of the farm sites experience salmon lice infections on an annual basis, while some sites have never had infections of Lepeophtheirus salmonis. Because of the potential impact that salmon lice infections could mean to those areas that to date have been fiee of L. salmonis infections, there has been concern both on the part of the ...


A New Apex Predator In The Gulf Of Maine? Large, Mobile Crabs (Cancer Borealis) Control Benthic Community Structure, Amanda V. Leland Dec 2002

A New Apex Predator In The Gulf Of Maine? Large, Mobile Crabs (Cancer Borealis) Control Benthic Community Structure, Amanda V. Leland

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Apex predators can control community structure by preying on strongly interacting species at lower trophic levels. Fishing of apex predators in the marine realm often results in herbivore dominated systems. In the Gulf of Maine, coastal subtidal communities became dominated by grazing green sea urchins (Strongylocentrotus droehachiensis) following the extirpation of large, predatory groundfish from coastal zones. Subsequent depletion of sea urchins since the late 1980s functionally eliminated this dominant herbivore from vast regions. Sea urchin recruitment is low or nonexistent in communities dominated by fleshy algae that have developed since the decline of sea urchin populations. We hypothesized that ...


The Effect Of Temperature On The Development, Growth And Survival Of Atlantic Cod (Gadus Morhua) During Early Life-Histories, Adrian Jordaan Dec 2002

The Effect Of Temperature On The Development, Growth And Survival Of Atlantic Cod (Gadus Morhua) During Early Life-Histories, Adrian Jordaan

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

For poikilothennic animals, and in particular those that inhabit aquatic habitats, temperature has a significant effect on all life processes. The purpose of this research was to investigate the contribution of temperature on embryonic development and survival and its effect on vital rates. Of particular interest was what aspect(s) of egg and larval life-histories are most affected by temperature and what consequence temperature effects may have on cumulative mortality. Three batches of Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) eggs were acquired from a Newfoundland source of adult broodstock held at 4555°C. The eggs were divided andacclimated to four constant temperature ...


Two Bioeconomic Studies On Haddock Culture: Live Feed And Juvenile Production, Kate M. Waning Dec 2002

Two Bioeconomic Studies On Haddock Culture: Live Feed And Juvenile Production, Kate M. Waning

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

The State of Maine is reliant upon its natural resources. Wild catches of marine finfish, especially ground fish such as cod and haddock, are declining. In addition, several new restrictions have been placed on the culture of Atlantic salmon due to its listing under the Endangered Species Act. These issues serve as an impetus to explore the development of alternative species for cold-water marine aquaculture. This research focuses on early haddock culture. The two areas where haddock culture varies from production of other species are the need for live feeds and proximity to seawater. Unlike salmon, haddock spend their entire ...


Effects Of Different Lowbush Blueberry Purees On Lipid Oxidation In Pre-Cooked Ground Turkey Patties, Kathleen Gabriel Buzzard Dec 2002

Effects Of Different Lowbush Blueberry Purees On Lipid Oxidation In Pre-Cooked Ground Turkey Patties, Kathleen Gabriel Buzzard

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

A growing trend in the food industry is the development of pre-cooked, ready-to-eat, meat products that only require reheating. However, reheating meats creates off-flavors that have been identified as warmed-over flavors (WOF). The off-flavors pose a problem to product development specialists during the development of cooked meat products. Lipid oxidation has been determined to effect warmed-over flavor, texture, and the appearance of reheated meat products. Ground turkey undergoes lipid oxidation rapidly because of its high-unsaturated fat content. Blueberries contain antioxidants, including anthocyanins and phenolic acids, which could potentially retard the rate of lipid oxidation in precooked meats. Blueberries are assorted ...


A Comparison Of Strength And Resistance Curves For The Internal And External Rotators Of The Shoulder., Daniel Cason Hannah Aug 2002

A Comparison Of Strength And Resistance Curves For The Internal And External Rotators Of The Shoulder., Daniel Cason Hannah

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Progressive overload through the range of motion (ROM) is important for proper rehabilitation of muscle strength, yet varies across types of resistance for a given exercise. The purpose of this study was to compare strength curves (SC) for shoulder internal (IR) and external rotation (ER) with resistance curves (RC) for two application angles (A and B) of Thera-Band® resistance to determine which application angle best overloads IR and ER through the ROM. Thirty volunteer subjects participated in this study. SCs were obtained experimentally by measuring maximal isometric torque for IR and ER from 30° to 135°. RCs were calculated using ...


Systematics Of Northeastern Meadow Vole (Microtus Pennsylvanicus) Subspecies, With Empasis On The Island Endemic (M. P. Shattucki, Howe 1901) In Penobscot Bay, Maine, Jennifer Marie Lowry Aug 2002

Systematics Of Northeastern Meadow Vole (Microtus Pennsylvanicus) Subspecies, With Empasis On The Island Endemic (M. P. Shattucki, Howe 1901) In Penobscot Bay, Maine, Jennifer Marie Lowry

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

The Penobscot meadow vole (Microtus pennsylvanicus shattucki) (PMV) is an insular subspecies of meadow vole (M. pennsylvanicus) inhabiting the islands of North Haven, Islesboro, and Tumbledown Dick in Penobscot Bay, Maine. It is one in a suite of island meadow vole subspecies which has been described from southern New England through eastern Canada. The subspecific recognition of M. p. shattucki, along with the others in this group, was solely based on a univariate analysis of a few morphological characters, which has fostered debate about the validity of the subspecies. Despite this uncertainty, the taxonomy is widely applied and conservation issues ...


An Assessment Of Methods For Testing The Reliability Of Wildlife Occurrence Models Used In Gap Analysis, Sandra M. Schaefer Aug 2002

An Assessment Of Methods For Testing The Reliability Of Wildlife Occurrence Models Used In Gap Analysis, Sandra M. Schaefer

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Habitat association models designed to predict species occurrence are often tested by comparing predictions to field observations. Two types of error are then reported, omission (Yo of species not predicted but present on a site) and commission (% of species predicted but not present on a site). The purpose of this research was to assess the Maine Gap Analysis vertebrate predictions using the traditional site-specific approach and to determine what factors influence the amounts of error reported. I also developed a species-specific approach for testing the accuracy of the vertebrate predictions and compared these results to the site-specific method. When tested ...


Tradeoff Analysis And Evaluation In The Management Of Forests For Multiple Uses. The Use Of Euclidean Distances As A Decision Support Tool, Milagros Alvarez Aug 2002

Tradeoff Analysis And Evaluation In The Management Of Forests For Multiple Uses. The Use Of Euclidean Distances As A Decision Support Tool, Milagros Alvarez

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

This research proposes the use of Euclidean distances as a decision support tool in forest ecosystem management in a framework of analysis that integrates linear programming, growth and yield simulation software and Geographic Information Systems. The developed methodology, which integrates economic, ecological and ecological values, helps decision makers better understand the implications of their decisions and the tradeoffs that occur when forest values compete. The study also tests the hypothesis that forest management directions that favor the greatest variety of conditions lead to a greater aggregate value than those directions that favor narrower goals. The study area is composed of ...


Relationships Between Stream Geomorphology And Fish Community Structure And Diversity In Maine, Emily Gaenzle Aug 2002

Relationships Between Stream Geomorphology And Fish Community Structure And Diversity In Maine, Emily Gaenzle

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Predicting patterns in species distribution and abundance for resource management and conservation is a major focus of applied ecology. The primary objective of this study was to determine if there is a predictable relationship between stream geomorphology and fish community structure, native species richness, and native salmonid abundance in Maine. Specifically, I examined relationships between fish assemblages and geomorphic stream types, as delineated by the Rosgen classification system (Rosgen 1996). Fifty-three stream reaches in Maine were classified, and fish communities within the reaches were characterized using backpack electrofishing. Species richness was lowest in A-type streams (i.e., steep, entrenched, confined ...


An Examination Of The Georges River Clam Management Program, Kristin E. Togue Brawn Aug 2002

An Examination Of The Georges River Clam Management Program, Kristin E. Togue Brawn

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

This thesis examines the Georges River Clam Management Program, a multi-town interlocal harvesting and management plan in mid-coast Maine. It discusses relevant economic and communal action theory, and examines their application to the development of the program. Chapter 1 reviews the purposes and methods of the study. Chapter 2 reviews the relevant clam biology necessary to understand the principles of soft-shell clam management. Chapters 3 and 4 provide the history and background of clam harvesting and management in Maine. Chapter 5 discusses the Georges River Program, including the factors that led to its development and the details of its organization ...


An Ecosystem Dynamics Model Of Monterey Bay, California, Lawrence S. Klein Aug 2002

An Ecosystem Dynamics Model Of Monterey Bay, California, Lawrence S. Klein

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Monterey Bay is an upwelling region with high biological productivity in the California Coastal Current System. Several moorings, developed and maintained by the Monterey Bay Aquarium Research Institute (MBARI), have produced a long-term, highquality time series oceanographic data set for the Monterey Bay. The data set has revealed a more comprehensive picture of physical-biological interaction on seasonal and interannual variability. To improve our understanding of how the marine ecosystem responds to physical forcing, especially upwelling, an open ocean ecosystem model was modified for the Monterey Bay upwelling region. The result was a nine-component ecosystem model of Monterey Bay, which produced ...


A Pilot Study To Test Ventless Traps As A Means To Quantify Populations Of The American Lobster (Homarus Americanus), Carin Louise Poeschel Aug 2002

A Pilot Study To Test Ventless Traps As A Means To Quantify Populations Of The American Lobster (Homarus Americanus), Carin Louise Poeschel

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

The American lobster, Homarus americanus, is Maine's most valuable marine fishery. The state of Maine has an economic interest in the protection of this resource. The health of this industry depends on effective management for sustainability. However, there is little quantitative information on American lobsters less than harvestable size. A study was conducted to evaluate the utility of traps modified to catch sublegal lobsters. With the aid of fishernlen fiom six of the eight Maine coastal counties over a four-month time period (July through October, 2000), data were recorded to compare catch rates in experimental traps with no escape ...


Determination Of Residual Hexazinone In Maine's Soil And Water, L. Brian Perkins Aug 2002

Determination Of Residual Hexazinone In Maine's Soil And Water, L. Brian Perkins

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Hexazinone, a systemic herbicide registered for use on wild blueberries in 1983 is credited with increasing Maine's wild blueberry crop by three-fold over a 10 year period, while also increasing overall fruit quality. Unfortunately, the high water solubility of hexazinone gives it a high leaching potential. This solubility factor is exacerbated by the sandy soils where wild blueberries are commonly propagated. In 1991 a routine screen for pesticides used in blueberry agriculture revealed traces of hexazinone in water samples from property formerly used for blueberry production. This discovery has led to the development of solid phase extraction (SPE) and ...


Impacts Of Technology Adoption: Comparing Returns To The Farming Sector In Maine Under Alternative Technology Regimes, Aaron K. Hoshide Aug 2002

Impacts Of Technology Adoption: Comparing Returns To The Farming Sector In Maine Under Alternative Technology Regimes, Aaron K. Hoshide

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

This thesis tests if certain technology choices are associated with a reduction in the proportion of farming activities in the agro-food system in Maine. Goodman, Sorj, and Wilkinson define appropriationism as the replacement of farming sector activities by industrial inputs. Based on the concept of appropriationism, industrial fanning systems using large amounts of synthetic inputs contribute less to fanning than more agrarian systems, like organic fanning. Thus, returns to the farming sector should be greater for organic compared with conventional potato fanning in Maine since organic farming uses fewer industrial inputs. Goodman et. al. define substitutionism as the displacement of ...


The Ecology Of Wolf Spiders (Lydosidae) In Low Bush Bluberry (Vaccinium Angustifolium) Agroecosystems, Darlene Maloney Aug 2002

The Ecology Of Wolf Spiders (Lydosidae) In Low Bush Bluberry (Vaccinium Angustifolium) Agroecosystems, Darlene Maloney

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

The ecology of spiders (Araneae) in lowbush blueberry (Vaccinium angustifolium (Aiton)) fields in Washington County, Maine, was studied during the summers of 2000 and 2001. The abundance and distribution of spiders was investigated, and predation by one family of spiders, the wolf spiders (Lycosidae) was evaluated. The abundance and distribution of spiders was examined by capturing spiders using pitfall traps. Traps were set in conventionally managed, reduced input, and organic fields at different distances from the field edge (forest border or windbreak). The most commonly captured spiders were in the family Lycosidae. More lycosids were captured in May, June, and ...


An Experimental Approach To Teaching The Concept Of Functional Diversity., Cory Mckelvey Stanley May 2002

An Experimental Approach To Teaching The Concept Of Functional Diversity., Cory Mckelvey Stanley

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

This study tested an experimental approach to use in teaching the concept of functional diversity. The project culminated in a laboratory exercise for use in high schools.

Experimental design consisted of representatives of three functional groups of plants, (legumes, grasses, and forbs), planted singly, and in two, or three species combinations. Legumes were represented by Trifolium repens and Medicago lupulina, grasses were represented by Cynodon dactylon and Festuca rubra, and forbs were represented by Helianthus annus and Raphanus sativa.

Plants were grown inside a controlled growth chamber. During the growth phase, measurements were taken to highlight temporal differences in development ...


Mannose And Lipopolysaccharide Receptors On The Surface Of Granular Hemocytes From The Crayfish Procambarus Clarkii., Gelu Dobrescu May 2002

Mannose And Lipopolysaccharide Receptors On The Surface Of Granular Hemocytes From The Crayfish Procambarus Clarkii., Gelu Dobrescu

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Procambarus clarkii hemocytes have been shown to bind to both LPS and a mannose containing neoglycoprotein conjugated to fluorescent probes. A decrease in the observed number of fluorescent hemocytes indirectly indicated that the binding of FITC-LPS to these cells is impaired by initial incubation with LPS. Prior treatment of hemocytes with horseradish peroxidase, a mannose rich glycoprotein, decreased their capacity to bind mannose. Mannan had no inhibitory effect on the binding of either ligand. Mixed hemocytes and hemocyte subpopulations separated by buoyant density were incubated with both ligands and revealed that a subpopulation of granular hemocytes bound both LPS and ...


Marine Interstitial Tardigrades And Other Meiofauna Of Huntington Beach, South Carolina., Michael Scott Gaugler May 2002

Marine Interstitial Tardigrades And Other Meiofauna Of Huntington Beach, South Carolina., Michael Scott Gaugler

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

At Huntington Beach, SC meiofauna distribution was investigated. The purpose of the study was to determine tardigrade species present and any significant differences in the distribution pattern. Meiofauna were analyzed to determine if there were significant differences in their distribution patterns in relation to abiotic variables.

Cores were taken in the intertidal zone along three elevations. Each core was divided into depth samples and was processed to remove meiofauna. Each taxon (>1500 specimens) and tardigrades was statistically analyzed using three-way ANOVA to compare distribution patterns.

There were eighteen taxa identified and an estimated 330,338 specimens. The seven dominant taxa ...


A Prospective Design Identifying Etiological Risk Factors Associated With Mtss And Stress Fractures In Female Intercollegiate Athletes., Michael H. Blackburn May 2002

A Prospective Design Identifying Etiological Risk Factors Associated With Mtss And Stress Fractures In Female Intercollegiate Athletes., Michael H. Blackburn

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

The identification of risk factors associated with overuse injuries, specifically Medial Tibial Stress Syndrome (MTSS) and Tibial Stress Fractures (TSF), may help professionals with management and prevention of these injuries. The purpose of this study was to identify risk factors associated with MTSS and TSF in female intercollegiate athletes. This study used a mulitifactorial, prospective design for 13-26 weeks. Thirty-nine Division I intercollegiate female student-athletes in volleyball, soccer, and track were examined. Anatomical, physiological (eating disorder and menstrual history), and training (duration and recovery time) characteristics were examined as possible risk factors. Only two injuries were reported during the study ...