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Full-Text Articles in Life Sciences

Vines In The Neotropics: Phylogenomics, Biogeography And Systematics In Passion Flowers (Passiflora Subgenus Decaloba Section Decaloba), Serena Acha Nov 2019

Vines In The Neotropics: Phylogenomics, Biogeography And Systematics In Passion Flowers (Passiflora Subgenus Decaloba Section Decaloba), Serena Acha

Dissertations

With 600 species, Passiflora is a large, morphologically complex and broadly distributed genus in Passifloraceae that represents a major challenge to scientists interested in understanding the evolutionary history of tropical vines. Passiflora has been divided into subgenera, super sections and sections. One of the most enigmatic and species-rich (~120 spp.) groups in Passiflora is section Decaloba, which occurs in the Neotropics and is particularly diverse in Andean montane forests. In this study, we used phylogenomic and population genomic approaches to investigate the evolutionary history, biologeography, species boundaries, and taxonomy of Passiflora section Decaloba. We sampled herbarium specimens, extracted DNA, and ...


A Computational Study Of Sleep And The Hemispheres Of The Brain, Tera Ashley Glaze Oct 2019

A Computational Study Of Sleep And The Hemispheres Of The Brain, Tera Ashley Glaze

Dissertations

Sleep and sleep cycles have been studied for over a century, and scientists have worked on modeling sleep for nearly as long as computers have existed. Despite this extensive study, sleep still holds many mysteries. Larger and more extensive sleep-wake models have been developed, and the circadian drive has been depicted in numerous fashions, as well as incorporated into scores of studies. With the ever-growing knowledge of sleep comes the need to find more ways to examine, quantify, and define it in the context of the most complex part of the human anatomy – the brain. Presented here is the development ...


Developmental And Sex Modulated Neurological Alterations In Autism Spectrum Disorder, Azeezat Azeez Aug 2019

Developmental And Sex Modulated Neurological Alterations In Autism Spectrum Disorder, Azeezat Azeez

Dissertations

Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) was first described in 1943 by Dr. Leo Kranner in a case study published in The Nervous Child. It is a neurodevelopment disorder, with a range of clinical symptoms. According to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5), used by clinicians to diagnose mental disorders, a child needs to have persistent social deficits, language impairments, and repetitive behaviors, that cannot be explained by neurological damage or intellectual disability. It is known that children diagnosed with ASD are often are developmentally delayed therefore alterations in the typical developmental trajectory should be a major factor in ...


Engineering Of Escherichia Coli 2-Oxoglutarate Dehydrogenase Complex With Mechanistic And Synthetic Goals, Joydeep Chakraborty Aug 2019

Engineering Of Escherichia Coli 2-Oxoglutarate Dehydrogenase Complex With Mechanistic And Synthetic Goals, Joydeep Chakraborty

Dissertations

The Escherichia coli 2-oxoglutarate dehydrogenase complex (OGDHc) compromises multiple copies of three enzymes - 2-oxoglutarate dehydrogenase (E1o), dihydrolipoyl succinyltransferase (E2o), and dihydrolipoyl dehydrogenase (E3). OGDHc is found in the Krebs cycle and catalyzes the formation of the all-important succinyl-Coenzyme A (succinyl-CoA). OGDHc was engineered to understand the catalytic mechanism and optimized for chemical synthetic goals.

Succinyl-CoA formation takes place within the catalytic domain of E2o via a transesterification reaction. The succinyl group from the thiol ester of S8-succinyldihydrolipoyl-E2o is transferred to the thiol group of CoA. Mechanistic studies were designed to investigate enzymatic transthioesterification. His375 and Asp374 was shown to be ...


Fouling And Aging In Membrane Filtration : Hybrid Afm-Based Characterization, Modelling And Reactive Membrane Design, Wanyi Fu May 2019

Fouling And Aging In Membrane Filtration : Hybrid Afm-Based Characterization, Modelling And Reactive Membrane Design, Wanyi Fu

Dissertations

Membrane filtration has been extensively used in water and wastewater treatment, desalination, dairy making, and biomass/water separation. However, membrane fouling, aging and insufficient removal efficiency for dissolved organic matters remain major challenges for wider industrial applications. In order to tackle these challenges, this doctoral dissertation investigates mechanisms of membrane fouling and development of antifouling membrane filtration technologies. Specifically, four major research areas are explored: (i) nanoscale physicochemical characterization of the chemically modified polymeric membranes; (ii) quantitative modelling between membrane properties and membrane fouling and defouling kinetics; (iii) development of quantitative structure-activity relationships for membranes that undergo thermal and chemical ...


Electrochemically Reactive Membranes For Efficient Biomass Recovery, Pollutant Degradation And Commercialization, Likun Hua May 2019

Electrochemically Reactive Membranes For Efficient Biomass Recovery, Pollutant Degradation And Commercialization, Likun Hua

Dissertations

Micropollution in natural waters such as rivers and groundwater aquifers is a widespread problem that prevents these potentially potable sources from being used as drinking water. In the United States, approximately two-thirds of the over 1,200 most serious hazardous waste sites in the nation are contaminated with trichloroethylene (TCE), a potentially carcinogenic compound. Other emerging and environmentally persistent organic micropollutants include polyromantic hydrocarbons (PAHs), organophosphate flame retardants, endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs), pesticides, herbicides, pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs). Membrane filtration is one of the most efficient separation processes widely used for water treatment and pollutant removal. However, traditional ...


Phylogeographic Relationships Of Coereba Flaveola And Their Malaria Parasites, Meghann Humphries May 2019

Phylogeographic Relationships Of Coereba Flaveola And Their Malaria Parasites, Meghann Humphries

Dissertations

This dissertation is broadly focused on elucidating how the geographic structure and demographic changes in host and parasite populations relate to one another, and how such interactions contribute to the generation and maintenance of biological diversity.

I begin by investigating the population structure of the Coereba flaveola (bananaquit) population within Puerto Rico, which is the apparent source of several expansions of the species into the Lesser Antilles. These findings indicate that both island and taxon effects influence the observed demographic changes. Because susceptibility to antagonists is related to both host species-specific characteristics and to geographical location, coevolutionary outcomes of these ...


The Development Of Socio-Sexual Behavior In Beluga Whales (Delphinapterus Leucas), Malin K. Lilley Apr 2019

The Development Of Socio-Sexual Behavior In Beluga Whales (Delphinapterus Leucas), Malin K. Lilley

Dissertations

The reproductive success of the beluga whale is critical for a species facing extinction in its endangered Cook Inlet, Alaska population. To date, little is known about the mating behavior of these whales in wild populations. On the other hand, observations of beluga whales in human care allow researchers to better understand many aspects of their daily lives and life histories that are difficult to assess in wild populations. Thus far, a catalog of socio-sexual behavior has been established based on observations of belugas; however, the developmental trajectory of socio-sexual behavior is not well-understood. The present study explored how socio-sexual ...


Bottlenose Dolphin (Tursiops Truncatus) Vocal Responses To Sonar And Spectrally Pink Background Noise, Maria Zapetis Apr 2019

Bottlenose Dolphin (Tursiops Truncatus) Vocal Responses To Sonar And Spectrally Pink Background Noise, Maria Zapetis

Dissertations

As human populations rise, the level of man-made noise increases globally. Naval sonar and boat traffic are underwater sound sources of particular concern to marine mammal welfare. To better understand the impact of these noise increases on cetaceans, studies can explore animals’ behavioral changes in response to noise. Studies have investigated the ‘dose-response’ relationship between the received sound pressure level of sonar signals and the behavior of cetaceans in the wild, but exposure studies in controlled environments are limited. The studies in this dissertation examined bottlenose dolphin vocal modifications during various experimental noise treatments. Acoustic recordings previously obtained for bottlenose ...


Redefining Burnout: Exploring Common Conceptualizations And The Neurophysiology Of Chronic Stress To Establish An Integrated Allostatic Model, Danny A. Guzzi Apr 2019

Redefining Burnout: Exploring Common Conceptualizations And The Neurophysiology Of Chronic Stress To Establish An Integrated Allostatic Model, Danny A. Guzzi

Dissertations

Burnout is a widely researched stress-related phenomenon associated with numerous adverse outcomes for employees and organizations. Unfortunately, burnout is not well understood and research to this point has been flawed due to a lack of consensus on the definition, dimensionality, and context of the construct. Prevalent conceptualizations of burnout have been criticized for being arbitrarily developed without solid theoretical foundation and for failing to clearly distinguish burnout from depression or other work-related conditions such as compassion fatigue, secondary traumatization, and vicarious traumatization. The current project first examines relevant literature to identify commonalities among prevalent burnout conceptualizations. Then relevant stress research ...


The Influence Of Stressful Life Events On The Development Of Type 2 Diabetes, Joshua Minks Mar 2019

The Influence Of Stressful Life Events On The Development Of Type 2 Diabetes, Joshua Minks

Dissertations

This study examined the relationship between distress and the development of Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) in the presence of established risk factors. Distress secondary to mental health disparities, stressful life events, and work conditions has been shown to promote insulin resistance and the development of T2DM.

Subjects (N=79) diagnosed with T2DM within the previous six months were recruited from SSM Health Centers and VA Medical Centers in the greater St. Louis area. They completed the Recent Life Changes Questionnaire, ENRICHD Social Support Instrument, and a demographic survey and analyses were conducted to determine differences between the veteran and ...


Stress Response Mechanisms Of Listeria Monocytogenes, Oindrila Paul Dec 2018

Stress Response Mechanisms Of Listeria Monocytogenes, Oindrila Paul

Dissertations

Listeria monocytogenes is a Gram-positive, facultative intracellular food-borne pathogen that causes the disease listeriosis. In order to establish an infection, L. monocytogenes must survive multiple stressors encountered within the gastrointestinal tract, including alterations in pH, bile, salt, and oxygen availability. This dissertation focused on understanding the stress response of L. monocytogenes to bile. Bile acts as a bactericidal agent by disrupting the membrane integrity and causing instability to macromolecules like DNA. Thus, a bacterium must be able to maintain its membrane architecture, composition and integrity.

Often times, bacteria will modulate their fatty acid composition in the membrane to cope with ...


Divergent Rnai Biology In Mites And Development Of Pest Control Strategies, Md Mosharrof Hossain Mondal Aug 2018

Divergent Rnai Biology In Mites And Development Of Pest Control Strategies, Md Mosharrof Hossain Mondal

Dissertations

RNA interference (RNAi) has transformed genetics research by revolutionizing reverse genetics in the nearly three decades that have passed since its discovery. ~19-31 nt small non-coding RNAs play a central role in RNAi biology, and are found in all multicellular eukaryotes. In these animals, three major classes of small RNAs have been described: microRNA (miRNA), small interfering RNA (siRNA), and Piwi interacting RNA (piRNA), which are produced in distinct yet occasionally overlapping pathways. While miRNAs are involved in tuning endogenous gene expression, piRNAs and siRNAs are essential for defense against viruses and transposons. Argonaute proteins are the main effectors in ...


The Influence Of The Educational Environment On College Student Activity Behaviors, Helen M. Ziegler Jul 2018

The Influence Of The Educational Environment On College Student Activity Behaviors, Helen M. Ziegler

Dissertations

Healthy Campus 2020, an initiative that provides a framework to support campuses in improving the health of their students, staff, and faculty, recognizes physical activity as one of the top eleven priorities for positively influencing health risk behaviors in college populations (American College Health Association, 2012). However, there is not much research to support the best way to influence physical activity behaviors and what types of programs and facilities can provide the greatest impact. The purpose of this study was to investigate which components or programs within the higher education environment have the greatest influence on college students’ intention to ...


The Effect Of An Historical Geology Course On Students’ Attitudes Towards Science And Their Knowledge Of Deep Time As A Threshold To Their Knowledge Of Evolution, Allan Nolan Jul 2018

The Effect Of An Historical Geology Course On Students’ Attitudes Towards Science And Their Knowledge Of Deep Time As A Threshold To Their Knowledge Of Evolution, Allan Nolan

Dissertations

In America there exists a conflict between a small group of its citizens and the concept of evolution. Researchers have studied this conflict and the ways in which teachers might approach educational methodologies that not only address evolution in a sensitive manner, but also remain legally acceptable.

This research was designed to address teaching evolution in the context of deep time – the concept that time is vast and that geology and biology operate in a timescale of hundreds of millions to billions of years. In previous peer-reviewed works, it has been stated that deep time acts as a threshold concept ...


"Understanding Lgbtq+ Intimate Partner Violence & Challenges In, Dr. Juanita Yates Jun 2018

"Understanding Lgbtq+ Intimate Partner Violence & Challenges In, Dr. Juanita Yates

Dissertations

This research project is a focus on Intimate Partner Violence (IPV) within LGBTQ+

community and the challenges associated with seeking family support. IPV is defined as a violent

or aggressive behavior within the home, typically involving the violent abuse of an intimate spouse

or partner. However, IPV can happen on the street, in one’s home or even in a public place. Those

exposed to IPV can be children, men and women. IPV is a prevalent issue in our society (Bright

2008). According to Ristock (2005), violence in LGBTQ+ relationships may be referred to as

partner violence, relationship violence, or ...


Root Dynamics Of Crop Plants In A High Carbon Dioxide World: Effects Of Elevated Versus Ambient Carbon Dioxide Levels And No-Till Versus Conventional Agricultural Management, Charlotte Barker May 2018

Root Dynamics Of Crop Plants In A High Carbon Dioxide World: Effects Of Elevated Versus Ambient Carbon Dioxide Levels And No-Till Versus Conventional Agricultural Management, Charlotte Barker

Dissertations

Due to the continuing increases is atmospheric carbon dioxide levels and its potential effect on food sources, there is an interest in evaluating the effect of elevated CO2 concentration versus ambient CO2 concentration in agricultural crop plants although more studies have focused on the aboveground portions of plants rather than the roots. Additionally, the conservation agricultural method, no-till, has been widely suggested as a possible method of increasing soil organic carbon and increasing soil moisture in a hotter world.

This research involves two major agricultural plants, Sorghum bicolor (sorghum), and Glycine max (soybean) grown under four conditions including ...


Roles Of Phospholipases And Ribosomal S6 Kinase In Lipid Remodeling And Growth In Arabidopsis Response To Phosphate Deprivation, Yuan Su Apr 2018

Roles Of Phospholipases And Ribosomal S6 Kinase In Lipid Remodeling And Growth In Arabidopsis Response To Phosphate Deprivation, Yuan Su

Dissertations

Phosphate (Pi) is one of three macronutrients for plants, which is vital for plant growth and development. Understanding the mechanism by which plants respond and adapt to Pi deficiency not only unveils functions of genes and pathways involved, but also provides potential tools to manipulate crops to better stand Pi stress in low Pi-containing lands. One of the significant metabolic changes in plants under Pi starvation is the membrane lipid remodeling that converts Pi-containing lipids such as phospholipids to Pi-free lipids, such as glycolipids. To elucidate the metabolism and regulation of lipid remodeling, this dissertation characterizes the role of two ...


The Ecology Of Nest Cavity Use By Arboreal Ants In The Brazilian Cerrado: Resource Availability, Nest Modification, And Trophic Interactions, Galen Priest Apr 2018

The Ecology Of Nest Cavity Use By Arboreal Ants In The Brazilian Cerrado: Resource Availability, Nest Modification, And Trophic Interactions, Galen Priest

Dissertations

Arboreal ants in the Brazilian Cerrado rely on cavities in living trees as nest sites. These cavities are created by a community of, wood-boring beetles, which act as ecosystem engineers. Despite the importance of these cavities as a resource, little is known about their natural abundance and heterogeneity, how ants use and modify them as nest sites, and how this interaction between cavities and their ant occupants influences trophic interactions on cerrado trees. Here I use natural history observations and manipulative experiments to address these questions. In the first chapter I quantified the occurrence, heterogeneity, and use of beetle-created cavities ...


The Ecology And Feeding Behavior Of Mosquitoes In The Galapagos Islands, Samoa S. Asigau Apr 2018

The Ecology And Feeding Behavior Of Mosquitoes In The Galapagos Islands, Samoa S. Asigau

Dissertations

Mosquitoes remain important vectors in transmitting wildlife diseases. This dissertation aims to understand the role that mosquitoes play in transmitting wildlife diseases such as avian malaria, a protozoan parasite belonging to the genus Plasmodium. Using data from wild-caught mosquitoes captured in multiple years and across multiple islands on the Galapagos Archipelago, we describe distributional patterns of mosquitoes, their range limits and assess whether there exists a disease-free refuge as occurs in Hawaii. We show that altitudinal ranges for disease transmission of avian malaria may not be bounded by a stable disease-free refuge, since mosquitoes are found at all elevations, and ...


Interactions And Pathogen Transmission Between Carnivores In Madagascar, Fidisoa Rasambainarivo Apr 2018

Interactions And Pathogen Transmission Between Carnivores In Madagascar, Fidisoa Rasambainarivo

Dissertations

Introduced carnivores exert considerable pressure on native predators through predation, competition and disease transmission. Improved understanding of determinant factors of interactions and pathogen transmission between introduced and endemic wildlife may help to predict disease emergence, avoid pathogen spillover and help control outbreaks. Using non-invasive camera traps, I identified areas where transmission of pathogens might happen through records of shared space-use within a protected area in Eastern Madagascar. I showed that indirect interactions between animals were more likely to occur near the research station which may constitute a disease transmission hotspot for carnivores in the landscape. Secondly, I investigated the associations ...


The Characterization Of The Transcription Factor Msab And Its Role In Staphylococcal Virulence, Justin Batte Apr 2018

The Characterization Of The Transcription Factor Msab And Its Role In Staphylococcal Virulence, Justin Batte

Dissertations

Staphylococcus aureus is a common human pathogen that is responsible for a wide range of infections, ranging from relative minor skin infections to life-threatening disease such as bacteremia, septicemia, and endocarditis. S. aureus possesses many different virulent factors that aid in its ability to cause this wide array of infections. One major virulence factor includes the production of capsular polysaccharide (CP). The production of CP plays a major role in the virulence response during infection specifically by providing S. aureus an antiphagocytic mechanism that allows the pathogen to evade phagocytosis during an infection. S. aureus has developed complex genetic regulatory ...


The Influence Of Conservation Tillage And Conventional Tillage On Soil Bacterial Diversity In Southern Illinois, Nasser Syed Apr 2018

The Influence Of Conservation Tillage And Conventional Tillage On Soil Bacterial Diversity In Southern Illinois, Nasser Syed

Dissertations

Agriculture in the Midwest United States (Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Michigan, Minnesota, Ohio, and Wisconsin) is a critically important component of the United States economy and also for world exports of food grain. This is well reflected in the 2012 Census of Agriculture which showed that these states had a market value of crop and livestock products sold in excess of $80,000,000,000 (USDA, 2012). Within the U.S. the three Midwest states, Illinois, Iowa, and Minnesota are ranked 2nd, 3rd, and 4th for the economic value of crops sold. This economic value of agriculture in the Midwest encompasses ...


A Mechanistic Understanding Of Self-Propagating Amyloid-Β Oligomer Conformations In Alzheimer Disease, Dexter Nathanael Dean Apr 2018

A Mechanistic Understanding Of Self-Propagating Amyloid-Β Oligomer Conformations In Alzheimer Disease, Dexter Nathanael Dean

Dissertations

Alzheimer disease (AD) is a fatal neurodegenerative disorder characterized by the widespread deposition of proteinaceous plaques abundant in amyloid-β (Aβ) aggregates. Although the plaques mainly contain high molecular weight, insoluble Aβ fibrils, the low molecular weight soluble aggregates called oligomers have been shown as the primary toxic species responsible for synaptic dysfunction and neuronal loss in AD. The process of aggregation is nucleation-dependent, but also highly stochastic and inhomogeneous resulting in biophysically diverse assemblies. Recent advances in the field indicate a potential correlation between the phenotypic diversity observed in AD subtypes and aggregate polymorphism. Therefore, understanding the molecular mechanisms which ...


Thermodynamics In Large Hairpin Polyamide-Dna Interactions, Yang Song Mar 2018

Thermodynamics In Large Hairpin Polyamide-Dna Interactions, Yang Song

Dissertations

Human papillomavirus (HPV) is a common sexually transmitted virus responsible for cervical cancers, and its infection is currently incurable. Only a few vaccines against high-risk HPV strains are available. Hairpin polyamides (PAs) in different sizes (8-20 units long) bind DNA in different lengths. They have been shown to have different anti-HPV activities in cell culture.

The interaction between PA and DNA is stabilized by two types of molecular forces: attractive and repulsive forces. Attractive forces include hydrogen bonds, van der Waals contacts and electrostatic forces between PA and DNA. Repulsive forces include the hydrophobic effect, which forces the PA out ...


Personality In California Sea Lions (Zalophus Californianus) And Harbor Seals (Phoca Vitulina): Methodological Convergence And Species-Specific Emotional Repertoires., Amber De Vere Feb 2018

Personality In California Sea Lions (Zalophus Californianus) And Harbor Seals (Phoca Vitulina): Methodological Convergence And Species-Specific Emotional Repertoires., Amber De Vere

Dissertations

Despite the wide acceptance of animal personality as a valid area of study, research on marine mammal personality remains remarkably scarce. What literature does exist predominantly focuses on bottlenose dolphins (Frick, 2016; Highfill & Kuczaj, 2007; Kuczaj, Highfill & Byerly, 2012; Lilley, de Vere, Yeatre & Kuczaj, 2018; Moreno, Highfill & Kuczaj, 2017). There is also strong evidence for individual differences in grey seals (Robinson et al., 2015; Twiss & Franklin, 2010; Twiss, Culloch & Pomeroy, 2011; Twiss, Cairns, Culloch, Richards & Pomeroy, 2012), and preliminary research has provided evidence of broad personality factors in pinniped species using behavioral coding (de Vere, Lilley & Highfill, 2017) and trait rating methods (Ciardelli, Weiss, Powell & Reiss, 2017). Several aspects of personality are not well documented across many taxa, including age-related patterns, the species-relevance of emotional trait words, potential issues associated with the non-human Dominance factor, and the convergent validity of multiple methods. The current study therefore aimed to address these issues in two pinniped species, California sea lions and harbor seals, and provides the first cross-method validation of personality dimensions in these taxa. There was some evidence that pinniped trainers could reliably rate the emotional states experienced by these species. Trait rating assessments produced three personality factors for each species; these exhibited good cross-method convergence in California sea lions, but not harbor seals. Dominance rankings were correlated with one behavioral and one rating factor in each species, although this was somewhat confounded by the extremely close correspondence of dominance and age.


Haemosporidian Parasites And Host Immune Function Of Galapagos Avifauna, Maricruz Jaramillo Feb 2018

Haemosporidian Parasites And Host Immune Function Of Galapagos Avifauna, Maricruz Jaramillo

Dissertations

The large number of emergent infectious diseases witnessed in the past few decades has increased interest in the ecology and distribution of potentially threatening pathogens worldwide. Island species are often considered more vulnerable to parasites due to their impoverished parasite communities, long isolation from disease and low genetic diversity. Avian surveys done by our group on the Galapagos Islands have found various pathogens infecting their endemic avifauna, including haemosporidian parasites of the genera Plasmodium and Haemoproteus. My research seeks to understand the relationships between two haemosporidian parasites (blood parasites) and their multiple bird hosts in Galapagos and to explore the ...


Nitric Oxide Inhibits Biofilm Formation By Vibrio Fischeri Via The Nitric Oxide Sensor Hnox, Cecilia Thompson Jan 2018

Nitric Oxide Inhibits Biofilm Formation By Vibrio Fischeri Via The Nitric Oxide Sensor Hnox, Cecilia Thompson

Dissertations

Nitric oxide (NO) is an important signal secreted by the squid, Euprymna scolopes, and is thought to limit symbiotic biofilm formation, the initial step in colonization by the bacterium, Vibrio fischeri. Previous work demonstrated that a mutant defective for NO-sensor HnoX (heme nitric oxide/oxygen binding) had a competitive advantage over wild-type V. fischeri, but the mechanism by which this occurred remains unknown. HnoX is encoded upstream of hahK, a recently identified positive regulator of biofilm formation. I thus hypothesized that HnoX inhibits colonization by controlling HahK-induced biofilm formation during the initiation of colonization.

I assessed the impact of an ...


Molecular Determinants Of Trim5Α Restriction And Recruitment Of Autophagic Effectors, Sabrina Imam Jan 2018

Molecular Determinants Of Trim5Α Restriction And Recruitment Of Autophagic Effectors, Sabrina Imam

Dissertations

TRIM5α is an anti-viral restriction factor that inhibits the lifecycle of retroviruses. TRIM5α binds to and forms a hexameric lattice around the retroviral capsid, thereby initiating its antiviral activities, which include: (1) inhibition of viral infection; (2) inhibition of viral reverse transcription; (3) disassembly of the capsid; and (4), activation of innate signaling pathways. The formation of this assembly also activates the E3 ubiquitin ligase function of TRIM5α. Ubiquitin modification is associated with directing substrates to particular cellular pathways. We and others have shown that TRIM5α cytoplasmic bodies colocalize with proteins involved in the autophagy pathway, and we hypothesized that ...


Uncovering The Mechanisms Underlying The Immunogenicity Of Adenovirus Vaccine Vectors, Natalie Nidetz Jan 2018

Uncovering The Mechanisms Underlying The Immunogenicity Of Adenovirus Vaccine Vectors, Natalie Nidetz

Dissertations

Vaccination is historically the most effective tool for preventing infectious disease but current vaccine strategies fail to generate robust immunity to major infectious diseases such as HIV and malaria. Therefore, newer vaccine approaches are needed. Vaccines generated from viral, adenovirus based, vectors (AdVs) have proven highly immunogenic in multiple disease models. However, the clinical use of many AdVs is limited by the presence of pre-existing antibodies in human populations, which prevent expression of antigenic genes during immunization with AdVs based on common adenovirus (Ad) serotypes, such as HAdV-5C. Immunization with rare serotype based AdVs, such as HAdV-28D, are not affected ...