Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

Life Sciences Commons

Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

Articles 1 - 30 of 313

Full-Text Articles in Life Sciences

Accounting For Soil Inorganic Carbon In The Ecosystem Services Framework For United Nations Sustainable Development Goals, Garth Raymond Groshans Dec 2017

Accounting For Soil Inorganic Carbon In The Ecosystem Services Framework For United Nations Sustainable Development Goals, Garth Raymond Groshans

All Theses

Soil inorganic carbon (SIC) is currently not included in the list of key soil properties related to ecosystem services (e.g., provisioning, regulating, cultural, and supporting services). Soil inorganic carbon is a dynamic key soil property used in soil classification, taxonomy and fertility, therefore its inclusion in the framework of ecosystem services is important. With soils rapidly changing due to human use and climate change, the soil ecosystem services framework should not include only soil organic carbon (SOC), but SIC as well since it is of global importance to soil fertility and the long-term carbon cycle, especially in semiarid and ...


Influence Of Exurban Neighborhoods On Riparian Vegetation And Stream Salamanders In The Southern Appalachian Mountains, Nathaniel Weaver Dec 2015

Influence Of Exurban Neighborhoods On Riparian Vegetation And Stream Salamanders In The Southern Appalachian Mountains, Nathaniel Weaver

All Theses

The southern Appalachian Mountains have experienced large population growth and a change in land use in the past 30 years. The majority of development has been low density, suburban land, known as exurban development. Lotic Systems and riparian areas are severely degraded by conversion from urban to rural land uses. The long-term effects of exurbanization on riparian vegetative communities and stream salamanders in the southern Appalachian Mountains are not well known. We sought to determine if vegetative community composition and structure change with time since neighborhood development or with the amount of impervious surface within the watershed. In order to ...


Development And Testing Of Supplemental Materials For An Undergraduate Healthy Food Product Development Curriculum, Breanne Halteman Dec 2015

Development And Testing Of Supplemental Materials For An Undergraduate Healthy Food Product Development Curriculum, Breanne Halteman

All Theses

ABSTRACT The goal of this research project was three-fold: (1) to follow up with students who had taken the Applied Interdisciplinary Product Development (AIPD) course two years prior to assess the long-term effect of the course on perceived self-confidence in product development skills, connectedness with the department, and preparedness to enter the industry; (2) to design, implement, and evaluate course materials educating undergraduate students about the subjects of herbs, spices, and sensory science; and (3) to evaluate the success of dissemination of a sophomore-level hybrid course on healthy food product development. A Subject Knowledge Assessment (SKA) was designed to measure ...


Development And Implementation Of Hay Yield Monitoring Technology, Henry Ramsey Dec 2015

Development And Implementation Of Hay Yield Monitoring Technology, Henry Ramsey

All Theses

Three independent technologies related to hay yield monitoring were developed and studied. One technology involved comparison of infrared and ultrasonic sensors on a self-propelled forage harvester. Sensor response related to grass height and was used to estimate yield. Plots that were harvested ranged from 20-40 ft. in length while a bin mounted on the back of the mower collected the crop for weighing and sampling. The infrared sensors data demonstrated accuracies across plots between 5.9% and 9.5% error. The infrared sensors quickly deteriorated and eventually proved to be useless for data acquisition. As for the ultrasonic sensors, they ...


Comparative Aquatic Toxicity Of A Commercial Naphthenic Acid And Processes For Mitigating Risks, Ciera Kinley Dec 2015

Comparative Aquatic Toxicity Of A Commercial Naphthenic Acid And Processes For Mitigating Risks, Ciera Kinley

All Theses

Comparative toxicity data can inform predictions of relative risk, and can be used to implement strategies for altering exposures to mitigate risk. Naphthenic acids (NAs) are a complex group of carboxylic acids that naturally occur in petroleum sources and energy-derived process waters (e.g. refinery effluents and oil sands process affected waters). These compounds are relatively persistent in water and can be a source of toxicity to aquatic organisms. In the first experiment of this thesis, responses of sentinel aquatic organisms to 7-d exposures of commercial (Fluka) NAs were measured (in terms of acute toxicity) to discern relative sensitivities. In ...


Management And Impacts Of Wild Hogs (Sus Scrofa) In South Carolina, Susan Sullivan Dec 2015

Management And Impacts Of Wild Hogs (Sus Scrofa) In South Carolina, Susan Sullivan

All Theses

Wild hogs (Sus scrofa) are an invasive species that can damage native ecosystems, negatively impact native wildlife, and potentially act as disease reservoirs in the U.S. To better understand how natural resource professionals in South Carolina approach wild hog management, I conducted a web-based survey of natural resource professionals focused on aspects of wild hog impacts and management. Generally, there was agreement among natural resource professionals regarding the approaches used to control wild hog populations and their subsequent effectiveness. The majority of respondents indicated high priority impacts needing to be addressed in wild hog management were agricultural damage and ...


Weeds, Nitrogen, And Yield: Measuring The Effectiveness Of An Organic No-Till System, David Robb Dec 2015

Weeds, Nitrogen, And Yield: Measuring The Effectiveness Of An Organic No-Till System, David Robb

All Theses

Previous research in the mid-Atlantic and midwestern USA has identified advantages and drawbacks of "organic no-till" vegetable production, but few studies have been conducted in the warmer southeastern region. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of tillage [no-till (NT) vs. conventional tillage (CT) of a cereal rye/crimson clover cover crop] and three nitrogen fertilization rates on organic tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) and summer squash (Cucurbita pepo L.) yield, weed suppression, and soil N dynamics in two years in a soil series in Clemson, SC. Squash yields were similar between tillage treatments in both years. NT ...


Environmental Effects On Fish Escape Responses: Impact Of Flow On The Escape Performance Of The Hawaiian Stream Goby, Sicyopterus Stimpsoni, Kelly Diamond Aug 2015

Environmental Effects On Fish Escape Responses: Impact Of Flow On The Escape Performance Of The Hawaiian Stream Goby, Sicyopterus Stimpsoni, Kelly Diamond

All Theses

The ability of fish to escape from predators is a critical behavior for their survival. Experimental measurements of escape performance in fishes have typically been based on trials conducted in still water; however, such environmental conditions are rare in nature due to waves and currents that expose fishes to unsteady and/or directional flow. I examined the effects of water flow and predator attack direction on the escape behavior of fish, using juveniles of the amphidromous Hawaiian goby Sicyopterus stimpsoni as a model system. In nature, these fish must escape ambush predation by the Hawaiian sleeper, Eleotris sandwicensis, while exposed ...


Assessing The Impacts Of Macroalgal Competition And Parrotfish Grazing On Coral Cover In The Middle Florida Keys, Kylie Smith Aug 2015

Assessing The Impacts Of Macroalgal Competition And Parrotfish Grazing On Coral Cover In The Middle Florida Keys, Kylie Smith

All Theses

The coral reefs of the Florida Keys National Marine Sanctuary (FKNMS) are diverse ecosystems that support thousands of marine organisms. Unfortunately, the live coral cover on these reefs has dramatically decreased over the last 30 years even in the most protected areas of the sanctuary. Environmental changes have contributed to this decline in coral cover by creating optimal conditions for macroalgal growth. These macroalgae species are fast growing and out-compete slow growing corals for space and nutrients. Herbivores known to forage on macroalgae, including long-spined sea urchins and parrotfishes, have decreased in abundance. A synthesis of data from across the ...


Relationships Between Growth Rate And Gene Expression In Ruegeria Pomeroyi Dss-3, A Model Marine Alphaproteobacterium, Nattasha Vinas Aug 2015

Relationships Between Growth Rate And Gene Expression In Ruegeria Pomeroyi Dss-3, A Model Marine Alphaproteobacterium, Nattasha Vinas

All Theses

Microbes are important contributors to ecosystem processes such as biogeochemical cycling. Their activities vary, depending on environmental parameters such as carbon type and concentration, temperature, and salinity. Current estimates of in situ microbial growth is limited to gross estimates or rely on incubation based methods that disturb the natural state of the community. The goal of this master’s thesis is to develop molecular methods to directly assess microbial growth rates in the environment at the level of a taxonomic group. Here we grew Ruegeria pomeroyi DSS-3 under different temperatures (15 °C or 30 °C) and different carbon ...


Estimating Tiger (Panthera Tigris) Prey Density Using Camera Traps And Fecal Accumulation Rates, Jenifer Bunty Aug 2015

Estimating Tiger (Panthera Tigris) Prey Density Using Camera Traps And Fecal Accumulation Rates, Jenifer Bunty

All Theses

The conservation of tiger populations requires the preservation of their prey. Assessing prey populations is therefore important, but challenges arise due to the elusive nature of many prey species. We used two indirect methods to estimate the density of sika deer (Cervus nippon), an elusive tiger prey species, in the Sikhote-Alin Biosphere Reserve in the Russian Far East. The fecal accumulation rate (FAR) is widely used and provides estimates of ungulate density based on the accumulation of fecal pellet groups in previously cleared plots. More recently, the random encounter model (REM) was developed to estimate population density from the rates ...


Interkingdom Communication: Study Of Caenorhabditis Elegans And Vibrio Cholerae Interactions, Joseph Angeloni Aug 2015

Interkingdom Communication: Study Of Caenorhabditis Elegans And Vibrio Cholerae Interactions, Joseph Angeloni

All Theses

Vibrio cholerae is a Gram-negative, rod-shaped bacterium that is mainly found in water environments, and is the causative agent of the disease cholera in humans. It is critical for this bacterium to communicate via quorum sensing to persist and survive in the environment, as well as cause infection. Recently, it has been shown that eukaryotes are able to sense and respond to certain quorum sensing molecules, known as autoinducers, which are produced by different bacteria. Caenorhabditis elegans is a particularly useful model for studying this interaction. During preliminary experiments, it was noticed that C. elegans were strongly attracted to V ...


Assessing The Vulnerability Of Coastal Marsh Birds To Sea Level Rise In The South Atlantic Coast, Nicolette Roach May 2015

Assessing The Vulnerability Of Coastal Marsh Birds To Sea Level Rise In The South Atlantic Coast, Nicolette Roach

All Theses

Global wetland degradation and loss is occurring at a rapid rate, and in the United States over 50% of wetlands in the lower 48 states have been altered since European settlement. In some cases, wetlands that were historically transformed for agriculture are now managed as wetland habitat. We conducted occupancy surveys for black rails (Latterallus jamaicensis) in managed and unmanaged areas of coastal South Carolina. We modeled landscape and local factors potentially influencing occupancy and we assessed whether these habitat associations indicated vulnerability following expected alterations from sea level rise. Black rails occupied 17 of 344 sites surveyed. Landscape factors ...


Characterizing The Novel Gig Operon In Legionella Pneumophila , Kathleen Jwanowski May 2015

Characterizing The Novel Gig Operon In Legionella Pneumophila , Kathleen Jwanowski

All Theses

Legionella pneumophila is the number one cause of waterborne outbreaks in the US. It contaminates man-made water systems increasing exposure risk for Legionnaire’s Disease. Copper/silver ionization is one common method for managing L. pneumophila in water systems, but bacterial response mechanisms to these metals are not well described in Legionella. We identified an operon, lpg2105-2108, that is homologous to known gold/copper response genes in Cupriavidus metallidurans. Using a GFP reporter gene system, we measured transcriptional activity of the lpg2105-2108 operon in L. pneumophila strain Lp02 in response to 20µM or 50µM of HAuCl4 or CuSO4 in planktonic ...


Chemical Separation And Analyses Of Bioactive Compounds In Chloroform Fraction Of Oplopanax Horridus (Devil's Club), Lauren Wiseman May 2015

Chemical Separation And Analyses Of Bioactive Compounds In Chloroform Fraction Of Oplopanax Horridus (Devil's Club), Lauren Wiseman

All Theses

O. horridus (a member of the family Araliaceae) is a plant traditionally used by the tribe of Pacific Northwest America for medicinal as well as spiritual purposes. O. horridus is found in the temperate forests of northwestern North America as an understory shrub capable of growing in well-drained to poorly drained, shady sites. Traditional medical preparations of O. horridus include decoction or infusion, preparation as a tea, preparation as a poultice, or preparation as a tonic. O. horridus is used as a form of treatment for cancer, hypoglycemia, diabetes, tough pneumonia, and for colds. A practical and reliable extraction method ...


Establishing A Permanent Feeding Site: Reniform Nematode Manipulation Of Soybean Genes, Nathan Wayne Redding May 2015

Establishing A Permanent Feeding Site: Reniform Nematode Manipulation Of Soybean Genes, Nathan Wayne Redding

All Theses

Reniform nematode, Rotelynchulus reniformis, is a semi-endoparasite capable of infecting more that 300 host plant species in tropical, subtropical, and warm temperate regions. Female nematodes penetrate host roots and introduce effectors that lead to the formation of multinucleate feeding sites called syncytia. The objective of our study was to identify plant genes involved in the process of syncitium formation. We used a split-root system in which half of a plant’s roots were inoculated with R. reniformis while the rest of the root system remained uninfected. Illumina RNA-seq was used to quantify gene expression patterns in replicate samples of infected ...


Variability In Movement Patterns And Habitat Use Of Two Species Of Pelecaniformes, Caroline Poli May 2015

Variability In Movement Patterns And Habitat Use Of Two Species Of Pelecaniformes, Caroline Poli

All Theses

Information regarding movement patterns of seabirds is useful for understanding prey abundance and distribution, predicting overlap between bird activity and anthropogenic stressors, and assessing the effectiveness of reserves at protecting nesting or foraging habitat(Cairns 1992, Weimerskirch 2007, Weimerskirch et al. 2010). I examined movement patterns of 40 brown pelicans (Pelecanus occidentalis) satellite tagged in December 2010 in South Carolina, USA, and tracked until July 2013. Birds exhibited individual variability in movement patterns and 25% of individuals remained near the breeding colony during nonbreeding. Birds captured in South Carolina that did migrate wintered as far south as Guatemala, prospected and ...


Finding The Needle And The Haystack: New Insights Into Locating Bog Turtles (Glyptemys Muhlenbergii) And Their Habitat In The Southeastern United States, Theresa Sonja Margareta Stratmann May 2015

Finding The Needle And The Haystack: New Insights Into Locating Bog Turtles (Glyptemys Muhlenbergii) And Their Habitat In The Southeastern United States, Theresa Sonja Margareta Stratmann

All Theses

Because rare and cryptic species can be difficult to locate, distribution maps for these species are often inaccurate or incomplete. Bog Turtles (Glyptemys muhlenbergii) are emblematic of this challenge. In fact, conducting surveys of known, historical, and potential Bog Turtle habitat is a specific need stated in the Bog Turtle Northern Population Recovery Plan and in most Comprehensive Wildlife Conservation Strategies of states within the southern range. Therefore we examined ways to better locate Bog Turtle habitat and Bog Turtles within that habitat. First we determined a detection probability for a standardized trapping method so we could effectively survey for ...


Combining Modified Atmosphere Packaging And Nisin To Extend The Shelf Life Of Atlantic Salmon (Salmo Salar), Dong Han Dec 2014

Combining Modified Atmosphere Packaging And Nisin To Extend The Shelf Life Of Atlantic Salmon (Salmo Salar), Dong Han

All Theses

Atlantic salmon is often used in laboratory experiments to represent marine fishes. Many researchers try to optimize the levels and dosage of preservatives to maintain the freshness and extend the shelf-life of Atlantic salmon. Little information has been provided about the effectiveness of combined method between MAP and nisin, especially on the preservation of Atlantic salmon. Strong evidences suggest that MAP associated with nisin may have a potential to improve Atlantic salmon storage quality. Preservation effectiveness of combining modified atmosphere package (MAP) and nisin on fresh Atlantic salmon was determined using various methods. Six groups of farmed Atlantic salmon were ...


Reniform Nematode (Rotylenchulus Reniformis) Manipulation Of Host Root Gene Expression During Syncytium Formation In Upland Cotton (Gossypium Hirsutum), Wei Li Dec 2014

Reniform Nematode (Rotylenchulus Reniformis) Manipulation Of Host Root Gene Expression During Syncytium Formation In Upland Cotton (Gossypium Hirsutum), Wei Li

All Theses

Background: The semi-endoparasitic reniform nematode (Rotylenchulus reniformis) is a major yield-limiting pest of multiple crops in the tropics and sub-tropics, including upland cotton (Gossypium hirsutum). Reniform-resistant cotton varieties are urgently needed, but genes that confer resistance to reniform nematode have not been identified in any species. Parasitism by reniform nematode involves significant developmental changes in plant roots, leading to the formation of multicellular feeding structures called syncytia. Here, we present de novo transcriptomes assembled from syncytial and non-syncytial cotton roots on three sampling dates across a 12-day time course. Results: Total mRNA samples extracted from reniform-infected and uninfected G. hirsutum ...


Determining The Fate Of Non-O157 Shiga Toxin-Producing Escherichia Coli In Dairy Compost During Storage Using The Optimized Detection Method, Hongye Wang Dec 2014

Determining The Fate Of Non-O157 Shiga Toxin-Producing Escherichia Coli In Dairy Compost During Storage Using The Optimized Detection Method, Hongye Wang

All Theses

Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC), a member of Enterobacteriaceae family, has been recognized as emerging pathogens. Dairy compost is commonly applied to farmland as a soil amendment. Despite the agricultural benefit of manure-based soil amendment, the inadequately treated compost can contribute to fresh produce contamination on the farm. Moreover, the epidemiological results showed that the non-O157 STEC cases have surpassed those of E. coli O157. Therefore, it is critical to evaluate the behavior of non-O157 STEC strains in the dairy manure-based compost. The objectives of this study were to: 1) optimize a culturing method for detecting non-O157 STEC from dairy ...


Relationship Between Peel Force, Opening Force, And Burst Force For A Semi-Rigid Cup And Lid, Pre- And Post-Retort, Raj Navalakha Dec 2014

Relationship Between Peel Force, Opening Force, And Burst Force For A Semi-Rigid Cup And Lid, Pre- And Post-Retort, Raj Navalakha

All Theses

This research determines if there is any relationship between the peel force, the opening force and the burst force for a semi-rigid cup and lid system, for pre- and post-retort conditions. It also compares the relationship (regression lines) between these forces pre- and post-retort. These seal results were studied by varying the sealing parameters of dwell time and temperature while keeping the pressure constant. Polypropylene cups and a peelable barrier retort lidding were used in this study. As compared to past research, a different peel testing technique was used to measure the peel and the opening force. The entire lid ...


An Almost Ideal Demand System Analysis Of Orange And Grapefruit Beverage Consumption In The United States, Catrice Taylor Dec 2014

An Almost Ideal Demand System Analysis Of Orange And Grapefruit Beverage Consumption In The United States, Catrice Taylor

All Theses

This thesis estimates a demand system for natural fruit juices and flavored citrus drinks. Consumption and price data from the Florida Department of Citrus is used to estimate a Linear Approximate Almost Ideal Demand System for natural fruit and fruit juice drink elasticities. The monthly data covers the period from October 2004 to June 2014. Elasticities show orange juice does not have a substitute among the other beverages. 100% orange juice and grapefruit juice are compliments, although other studies have found them to be substitutes.


Pilot Study Of A Budget-Tailored Culinary Nutrition Education Program For Undergraduate Food Science Students, Dorothy Kerrison Dec 2014

Pilot Study Of A Budget-Tailored Culinary Nutrition Education Program For Undergraduate Food Science Students, Dorothy Kerrison

All Theses

The primary objective of this pilot study is to provide evidence that a budget-tailored culinary nutrition program is both appropriate and applicable to undergraduate food science students both in everyday life as well as their future health careers. Two validated programs were combined into one program in order to evaluate their combined effects: Cooking With a Chef and Cooking Matters at the Store. The secondary objective of this pilot study is to evaluate the components and reliability of a questionnaire created specifically for this pilot study. A review of past literature was written, which included culinary nutrition as a source ...


Dietary Behaviors And Nutrition Intervention Preferences Of Breast Cancer Survivors, Sherry A. Stokes Dec 2014

Dietary Behaviors And Nutrition Intervention Preferences Of Breast Cancer Survivors, Sherry A. Stokes

All Theses

Breast cancer is the most commonly diagnosed cancer among women and there are expected to be 1,665,540 new cases diagnosed in 2014. Advancements in early detection, have greatly improved treatment outcomes for the majority of these patients and the 5-year survival rate is 89.2%. The newly emerging field of survivorship care is an attempt to meet the unique needs of this expanding population. Research has demonstrated that an unhealthy body weight is an important modifiable risk factor for the recurrence of breast cancer. This study used an electronic version of the Block 2005 to collect dietary information ...


Screening St. Augustinegrass For Usda Zone 7, Nathaniel Gambrell Dec 2014

Screening St. Augustinegrass For Usda Zone 7, Nathaniel Gambrell

All Theses

St. Augustinegrass [Stenotaphrum secundatum (Walt.) Kuntze] generally has poor cold tolerance yet excellent shade tolerance. As mostly hot summers follow cold winters in USDA Hardiness Zone 7, severely damaging tall fescue [Festuca arundineacea Schreb.] and centipedegrass [Eremochloa ophiuroides (Munro) Hack.], a St. Augustinegrass cultivar cold tolerant enough to be grown for shady lawns would greatly benefit both home owners and sod growers in USDA Hardiness Zone 7. Eight St. Augustinegrass samples were selected, including industry standards 'Raleigh' and 'Palmetto', for further testing from an established germplasm collection of material collected from lawns grown in USDA Hardiness Zone 7. Morphological differences ...


Characterization Of Biofilms On Medical Device Materials With Application To Reusable Surgical Instruments, Amanda Macaluso Dec 2014

Characterization Of Biofilms On Medical Device Materials With Application To Reusable Surgical Instruments, Amanda Macaluso

All Theses

Reusable medical devices or reprocessed single-use devices are original medical devices that have been used once and then are cleaned, sterilized, and remanufactured for the purpose of an additional single use on a single patient [4]. Improperly reprocessed devices are a significant contributor to hospital-associated infections [4]. Challenges that hinder reprocessing are related to the complexity of reusable medical device design, the necessary validation of cleaning protocols required by the U.S Food and Drug Administration (FDA), the impact of human factors throughout the reprocessing cycle, as well as economic factors within new business models that are centered on reprocessing ...


Hand Hygiene Promotion: An Essential Strategy For Preventing Foodborne Disease In Elementary Schools, Zhangqi Wang Dec 2014

Hand Hygiene Promotion: An Essential Strategy For Preventing Foodborne Disease In Elementary Schools, Zhangqi Wang

All Theses

Student absenteeism is a pervasive problem in the United States, causing a number of educational, economic, and institutional problems. Hand-hygiene interventions have been reported to be a method for reducing illness-associated student absenteeism. As an increasing number of schools offer self-service, including salad bars and bowls of whole fresh fruit, opportunities for the transmission of foodborne pathogens via hands could possibly increase illness-associated student absenteeism. To address this problem, we conducted a two-phase study. First, we conducted a systematic literature review to evaluate peer-reviewed studies (N=24) that reported an association between hand hygiene interventions and illness-associated absenteeism reduction in ...


Prevalence Of Human Noroviruses In Commercial Retail Food Establishment Without A Recently Reported Outbreak Of Gastroenteritis, Chaoyi Tang Dec 2014

Prevalence Of Human Noroviruses In Commercial Retail Food Establishment Without A Recently Reported Outbreak Of Gastroenteritis, Chaoyi Tang

All Theses

Human noroviruses (NoV) are a leading cause of acute gastroenteritis, causing nearly 58% of foodborne disease in the USA. The aim of our study was to determine the prevalence of NoV on select bathroom surfaces in food establishments in South Carolina (SC). All SC counties (N=46) were sorted by population density into high-, medium-, and low-density categories. Three counties were randomly selected from each population category. Lists of all foodservice establishments in each selected county (N=9) were obtained from the Department of Health and Environmental Control and a total of 120 foodservice establishments were randomly selected. Swabs were ...


Arsenic Targets Neural Plate Border Specifier Cells In P19 Cells, Christopher Mccoy Dec 2014

Arsenic Targets Neural Plate Border Specifier Cells In P19 Cells, Christopher Mccoy

All Theses

Epidemiological studies have shown that arsenic exposure during early embryogenesis can cause reduced weight gain and neurological deficits later on in life. In addition, in vitro and in vivo studies have indicated that arsenic suppresses neurogenesis and myogenesis. The exact mechanism of how arsenic causes these undesired developmental outcomes is poorly understood, however both skeletal muscle and sensory neuron development require the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway to initiate the specific differentiation of precursor cells. We were interested in determining the target cell population of arsenic and its metabolites. Arsenic's metabolites were of interest because they have been shown to ...