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Full-Text Articles in Life Sciences

Botswana’S Elephant-Back Safari Industry – Stress-Response In Working African Elephants And Analysis Of Their Post-Release Movements, Tanya Lama Jul 2017

Botswana’S Elephant-Back Safari Industry – Stress-Response In Working African Elephants And Analysis Of Their Post-Release Movements, Tanya Lama

Masters Theses

Understanding how African elephants (Loxodonta africana) respond to human interactions in ecotourism operations is critical to safeguarding animal and human welfare and sustaining wildlife ecotourism activities. We investigated the stress response of elephants to a variety of tourist activities over a 15-month period at Abu Camp in northern Botswana. We compared fecal glucocorticoid metabolite (FGM) concentrations across three elephant groups, including: eight elephants in an elephant-tourism operation (Abu herd), three elephants previously reintroduced back into the wild from the Abu herd, and wild elephants. There were no differences in FGM concentrations between the three groups of elephants. The highest observed ...


I. The High Strain Rate Response Of Hollow Sphere Steel Foam; Ii. The Dynamic Response Of An American Elm Tree, Ignacio Cetrangolo Mar 2017

I. The High Strain Rate Response Of Hollow Sphere Steel Foam; Ii. The Dynamic Response Of An American Elm Tree, Ignacio Cetrangolo

Masters Theses

PART I

Hollow-sphere (HS) steel foam is a relatively new material whose cellular morphology and material properties qualify it as a metallic foam. This is an innovative foam-like material that exhibits high stiffness paired with low relative densities. Technological advancements in the past few decades have enabled the manufacturing of this material by a sintering process and, as a result, research has begun to accelerate as a multi-school collaboration effort for this particular work. Even though commercialization has been a challenge for metallic foams, it is imperative that researchers continue to prove and promote the advantages of metallic foams despite ...


Characterization Of Corticotropin-Releasing Factor Cells In The Medial Prefrontal Cortex Of Rats, Yi-Ling Lu Mar 2016

Characterization Of Corticotropin-Releasing Factor Cells In The Medial Prefrontal Cortex Of Rats, Yi-Ling Lu

Doctoral Dissertations

Corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) is the major peptide involved in regulating the body’s autonomic, hormonal, and behavioral responses to stress. Cells that produce and release this peptide are widely distributed throughout the brain. This dissertation focuses on a specific population of CRF cells residing in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) that could potentially influence a number of higher order functions through modulation of local circuits. The prefrontal cortex is known to function sub-optimally in patients suffering from various stress-related psychiatric conditions including alcohol use disorder (AUD), and dysregulated CRF signaling may be an underlying mechanism. Surprisingly little is known about ...


Interactions Between The Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Adrenal (Hpa) Axis, Oxytocin System, And Behavior In Differently Reared Rhesus Monkeys (Macaca Mulatta), Amanda F. Hamel Aug 2015

Interactions Between The Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Adrenal (Hpa) Axis, Oxytocin System, And Behavior In Differently Reared Rhesus Monkeys (Macaca Mulatta), Amanda F. Hamel

Doctoral Dissertations

Adverse experiences that occur during early critical periods of development modify activity of neuroendocrine systems, such as the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and oxytocin system. This dissertation examines the effects of nursery rearing, an established model of adverse early experiences, on activity of the HPA axis and oxytocin system in infant and adult rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta). In addition, influence of oxytocin system activity on the HPA axis and behavioral reactivity was examined. In infant monkeys, nursery-rearing was associated with lower HPA axis, yet higher oxytocin system activity, following the acute stress of developmental assessment. Nursery rearing may result in dysregulation ...


Increased Body Weight In Adulthood Following A Peripubertal Stressor And Proposed Mechanism For Effects Of Increased Adiposity On Estrogen-Dependent Behaviors, Christina F. Gagliardi Nov 2014

Increased Body Weight In Adulthood Following A Peripubertal Stressor And Proposed Mechanism For Effects Of Increased Adiposity On Estrogen-Dependent Behaviors, Christina F. Gagliardi

Masters Theses

Exposure to certain stressors during a sensitive period around puberty can lead to enduring effects on an animal’s response to estradiol. In estradiol-influenced behaviors, such as sexual receptivity, hippocampal-dependent learning and memory, depression-like behavior, and anxiety-like behaviors, exposure to a peripubertal stressor such as shipping stress or an injection of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) can eliminate or even reverse the normal response to estradiol. In addition to regulating these behaviors, estradiol play a role in the regulation of body weight. While some of the previous studies touched on short-term effects on body weight, no systemic long-term study of the effects of ...