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Full-Text Articles in Life Sciences

Impact Of Bodyweight On Tissue-Specific Folate Status, Genome Wide And Gene-Specific Dna Methylation In Normal Breast Tissues From Premenopausal Women, Armina-Lyn Frederick Jul 2018

Impact Of Bodyweight On Tissue-Specific Folate Status, Genome Wide And Gene-Specific Dna Methylation In Normal Breast Tissues From Premenopausal Women, Armina-Lyn Frederick

Masters Theses

Obesity has reached an epidemic level in the United States. A number of epidemiological studies have established obesity as a critical risk factor for postmenopausal breast cancer (post-BC), whereas a reverse association holds prior to menopause. A significant scientific gap exists in understanding the mechanism(s) underpinning this epidemiological phenomenon, particularly the reverse association between obesity and premenopausal breast cancer (pre-BC). This study aimed to understand how folate metabolism and DNA methylation informs the association between obesity and pre-BC. Fifty normal breast tissue samples were collected from premenopausal women who underwent reduction mammoplasty. We developed and measured the breast tissue ...


Impacts Of Genome And Nuclear Architecture On Molecular Evolution In Eukaryotes, Xyrus Maurer-Alcalá Mar 2018

Impacts Of Genome And Nuclear Architecture On Molecular Evolution In Eukaryotes, Xyrus Maurer-Alcalá

Doctoral Dissertations

The traditional view of genomes suggests that they are static entities changing slowly in sequence and structure through time (e.g. evolving over geological time-scales). This outdated view has been challenged as our understanding of the dynamic nature of genomes has increased. Changes in DNA content (i.e. polyploidy) are common to specific life-cycle stages in a variety of eukaryotes, as are changes in genome content itself. These dramatic genomic changes include chromosomal deletions (i.e. paternal chromosome deletion in insects; Goday and Esteban 2001; Ross, et al. 2010), developmentally regulated genome rearrangements (e.g. the V(D)J system ...


Multiple Testing Correction With Repeated Correlated Outcomes: Applications To Epigenetics, Katie Leap Oct 2017

Multiple Testing Correction With Repeated Correlated Outcomes: Applications To Epigenetics, Katie Leap

Masters Theses

Epigenetic changes (specifically DNA methylation) have been associated with adverse health outcomes; however, unlike genetic markers that are fixed over the lifetime of an individual, methylation can change. Given that there are a large number of methylation sites, measuring them repeatedly introduces multiple testing problems beyond those that exist in a static genetic context. Using simulations of epigenetic data, we considered different methods of controlling the false discovery rate. We considered several underlying associations between an exposure and methylation over time.

We found that testing each site with a linear mixed effects model and then controlling the false discovery rate ...


Inhibition Of Dna Methylation In Acquired Tamoxifen-Resistant Breast Cancer: Cell Line Model And Clinical Implications, Stephanie Zimmers Jul 2016

Inhibition Of Dna Methylation In Acquired Tamoxifen-Resistant Breast Cancer: Cell Line Model And Clinical Implications, Stephanie Zimmers

Doctoral Dissertations

One out of every eight American women will develop invasive breast cancer throughout their lifetime. Approximately 70% of breast cancers are estrogen receptor alpha (ER)-positive and can therefore be treated with an anti-estrogen such as tamoxifen. Although tamoxifen treatment has been successful at reducing breast cancer death rates, nearly one-third of women treated with tamoxifen for 5 years will have disease recurrence. Therefore, it is imperative that researchers investigate the mechanisms involved in developing acquired tamoxifen resistance and identify biomarkers that are predictive of acquired resistance.

DNA methylation is known to play a role in the development of breast ...