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Full-Text Articles in Life Sciences

One Year Change In Cognitive Function In Male And Female Common Marmosets (Callithrix Jacchus), Brianna Healey Jul 2019

One Year Change In Cognitive Function In Male And Female Common Marmosets (Callithrix Jacchus), Brianna Healey

Masters Theses

Long term cognitive studies in humans and nonhuman primates such as macaques are difficult because of their long lifespan. The common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus) is a non-human primate who shares with humans many features characteristic of primates, including a complex brain and cognitive function. They also have a short lifespan (~10 years) that makes them a great model in studies of cognitive aging. This study focuses on the rate of decline in cognitive function in male and female marmosets based on performance on reversal learning tasks over 2 years of testing.

We found that marmosets improved their overall performance from ...


Age-Related Changes In Sleep-Dependent Consolidation Of Visuo-Spatial Memory, Akshata Sonni Nov 2014

Age-Related Changes In Sleep-Dependent Consolidation Of Visuo-Spatial Memory, Akshata Sonni

Masters Theses

Healthy aging is associated with a reduction in slow-wave sleep (SWS), crucial for declarative memory consolidation in young adults; consequently, previously observed benefits of sleep on declarative learning in older adults could reflect a passive role of sleep in protecting memories from waking interference, rather than an active, stabilizing effect. To dissociate the passive and active roles of sleep, a visuo-spatial task was administered; memory was probed after a 12 hr interval consisting of either daytime wake or overnight sleep and post-wake/post-sleep stability of the memories was tested following task-related interference. Ninety five older adults (mean=65.43 yrs ...


Recovery From Muscle Fatigue In Young And Older Adults: Implications For Physical Function, Stephen A. Foulis Sep 2013

Recovery From Muscle Fatigue In Young And Older Adults: Implications For Physical Function, Stephen A. Foulis

Open Access Dissertations

As adults age, skeletal muscles become smaller and weaker, which can ultimately lead to declines in physical function and disability. In general, older adults produce less isometric force and dynamic power than younger adults. The effects of this weakness are amplified following a series of muscle contractions that result in muscle fatigue. Since daily routines consist of repeated series of activity followed by rest, it is important to understand how muscle recovers from fatigue. In particular, muscle power has been shown to be related to physical function and balance. Thus, understanding the process of recovery from muscle fatigue will help ...


Optimal Control Of Human Running, Ross Herbert Miller May 2011

Optimal Control Of Human Running, Ross Herbert Miller

Open Access Dissertations

Humans generally use two modes of locomotion as adults. At slow speeds we walk, and at fast speeds we run. To perform either gait, we use our muscles. The central questions in this dissertation were: (1) Why do humans run the way they do, and (2) How do the mechanical properties of muscle influence running performance? Optimal control simulations of running were generated using a bipedal forward dynamics model of the human musculoskeletal system. Simulations of running and sprinting were posed as two-point boundary value problems where the muscle excitation signals were optimized to maximize an optimality criterion. In the ...