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Full-Text Articles in Life Sciences

Expansion Of And Reclassification Within The Family Lachnospiraceae, Kelly N. Haas Nov 2016

Expansion Of And Reclassification Within The Family Lachnospiraceae, Kelly N. Haas

Doctoral Dissertations

Many of the taxa in the family Lachnospiraceae are currently misclassified as Clostridium spp. Here attempt to rectify many of these issues, beginning with an in-depth genomic and physiologic analysis of Clostridium methoxybenzovorans, culminating in the assertion that is a heterotype of Clostridium indolis, followed by reclassification of the broader group in which this organism resides. We propose two novel genera, Lacriformis and Enterocloster, to reclassify this clade, this includes reclassification of Clostridium sphenoides, Clostridium indolis, Clostridium saccharolyticum, Clostridium celerecrescens, Clostridium xylanolyticum, Clostridium algidixylanolyticum, Clostridium aerotolerans, Clostridium amygdalinum, and Desulfotomaculum guttoideum as Lacriformis sphenoides, comb. nov., Lacriformis indolis, comb. nov ...


A Genetic Analysis Of Cichlid Scale Morphology, Kenta C. Kawasaki Nov 2016

A Genetic Analysis Of Cichlid Scale Morphology, Kenta C. Kawasaki

Masters Theses

Epidermal appendages are found on every vertebrate this world has to offer. In fish, these are commonly represented by scales. While we have a solid grasp of how scales develop, little is known about the underlying genetic mechanisms behind these phenotypic changes. Using two species of African cichlids (Labeotropheus fuelleborni and Tropheops “red cheek”) with varying scale phenotypes, we sought to examine their F2 hybrid offspring and statistically link the responsible genetic elements to their respective parental phenotypes through Quantitative Loci Trait (QTL) analysis.

Scales were removed from six different locations across the midline of each individual. Then, numerous traits ...


Novel Advancements For Improving Sprout Safety, Kyle S. Landry Jul 2016

Novel Advancements For Improving Sprout Safety, Kyle S. Landry

Doctoral Dissertations

All varieties of bean sprouts (mung bean, alfalfa, broccoli, and radish) are classified as a “super-food” and are common staples for health conscious consumers. Along with the proposed health benefits, there is also an inherent risk of foodborne illness. When sprouts are cooked, there is little risk of illness. The purpose of this dissertation was to explore novel techniques to minimize or prevent the incidence of foodborne illness associated with the consumption of sprouts. Three areas were investigated: 1) the use of a biocontrol organism, 2) the use of a novel spontaneous carvacrol nanoemulsion, and 3) the influence of the ...


Population Genetic Analysis Of Atlantic Horseshoe Crabs (Limulus Polyphemus) In Coastal Massachusetts., Katherine T. Johnson Mar 2016

Population Genetic Analysis Of Atlantic Horseshoe Crabs (Limulus Polyphemus) In Coastal Massachusetts., Katherine T. Johnson

Masters Theses

Atlantic horseshoe crabs (Limulus polyphemus) have endured decades of intense harvest pressure. Genetics studies have shown evidence of distinct sub-groups spanning the coast, although few fine-scale studies have been done to delineate these groups on a local level. Massachusetts lies directly between two of these sub-groups. With documented differences in prosomal widths of horseshoe crabs from either side of Cape Cod, it is possible that Cape Cod is a barrier to gene flow and that there are two distinct genetic groups within Massachusetts. Regulations currently consider all horseshoe crabs to be of one stock. I examined 6 microsatellite loci from ...


Evolvability Of The Skull: A Study Of Genetic Basis And Integration In The Teleost Craniofacial Skeleton, Yinan Hu Mar 2016

Evolvability Of The Skull: A Study Of Genetic Basis And Integration In The Teleost Craniofacial Skeleton, Yinan Hu

Doctoral Dissertations

As the field of evolutionary biology pivots away from a gene-centric view of how adaptive evolution proceeds, renewed emphasis is placed on the origin of phenotypic variation. Understanding the developmental processes that underlie the production of novel traits, and how they might influence evolvability, is considered a primary goal in the on-going “extended evolutionary synthesis”. The following dissertation explores these questions in the context of adaptive radiations in fish, with a focus on morphological variation in the craniofacial skeleton. Specifically, the first chapter investigates the genetic and developmental basis of shape (co-)variation in the feeding apparatus of African cichlid ...


Uncovering The Genetic Basis For Biofuel-Related Traits In Brachypodium Distachyon, Scott J. Lee Jan 2016

Uncovering The Genetic Basis For Biofuel-Related Traits In Brachypodium Distachyon, Scott J. Lee

Doctoral Dissertations

Biofuels derived from plant biomass present a promising avenue to address the negative aspects of fossil-fuel dependence. The sustainability of biofuel production relies in part on the efficient degradation of lignocellulosic feedstocks. In order to capitalize on the potential of lignocellulosic biofuels, the genes underlying natural genetic variation for conversion efficiency must be determined. We have developed a robust and high-throughput assay to measure feedstock quality using the anaerobic bacterium Clostridium phytofermentans. We have measured biomass accumulation phenotypes and utilized this assay to perform quantitative trait locus (QTL) mapping and a genome-wide association study (GWAS) in the model grass species ...