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Full-Text Articles in Life Sciences

The Cellular Context Of Estradiol Regulation In The Zebra Finch Auditory Forebrain, Maaya Ikeda Nov 2016

The Cellular Context Of Estradiol Regulation In The Zebra Finch Auditory Forebrain, Maaya Ikeda

Doctoral Dissertations

Estradiol, traditionally known as a hormone that communicates with distant cells in the body, is also synthesized locally in the brain to act as a neuromodulator. Neuromodulators differ from neurotransmitters in that they simultaneously affect a population of neurons and their actions are not limited to the synapse. One of the many effects of estradiol signaling is rapid modulation of auditory processing in response to external stimuli. The enzyme required for estradiol synthesis, aromatase, is highly expressed in the regions that are involved in higher-order processing of sounds in humans and songbirds. Since zebra finches, a type of songbird, are ...


The Role Of The Formin Protein Family In Membrane Dynamics, Petrus Adrianus Cornelis Van Gisbergen Jul 2016

The Role Of The Formin Protein Family In Membrane Dynamics, Petrus Adrianus Cornelis Van Gisbergen

Doctoral Dissertations

Using molecular genetics, and high end imaging techniques, I assessed the function of the formin protein family in the moss Physcomitrella patens. Formins are proteins that can nucleate and elongate actin filaments. P. patens has 9 formins, divided over three classes. I found that a class II formin (For2A) is essential for polarized growth and specifically binds to the phosphoinositide PI(3,5)P2. Additionally, I show that this formin polymerizes actin filaments in vivo. I demonstrated that binding PI(3,5)P2 is essential for formin function.

My work also shows that one of the class I ...


An In Vivo Study Of Cortical Dynein Dynamics And Its Contribution To Microtubule Sliding In The Midzone, Heather M. Jordan Jul 2016

An In Vivo Study Of Cortical Dynein Dynamics And Its Contribution To Microtubule Sliding In The Midzone, Heather M. Jordan

Masters Theses

In LLC-Pk1 cells, and most cultured mammalian cells, cell division is highly regulated to achieve equal sized daughter cells. During this process, duplicated centrosomes separate and establish a bipolar array called the mitotic spindle. The mitotic spindle is responsible for aligning the chromosomes at the metaphase plate, and separating sister chromatids during anaphase. Spindle positioning and elongation are thought to be driven by the interaction between dynamic astral microtubules and cortical dynein. Extensive research has revealed that dynein is anchored to the cortex via the highly conserved NuMA/LGN/Gαi ternary complex in metaphase and the additional PIP/PIP2/NuMA ...


Studies Of Kinetochore Mechanobiology In Drosophila, Stuart Cane Mar 2016

Studies Of Kinetochore Mechanobiology In Drosophila, Stuart Cane

Doctoral Dissertations

Kinetochores are large multiprotein structures through which chromosomes engage with the microtubules of the mitotic spindle. All kinetochore pairs must ultimately adopt a bioriented configuration, with their associated sister chromatids linked to opposite spindle poles and poised to segregate equally between two daughter cells. Erroneous, non-bioriented attachments that are left uncorrected lead to chromosome mis-segregation, producing aneuploid daughter cells with unequal numbers of chromosomes. Before anaphase onset, bioriented attachments are selectively stabilized whereas non-bioriented attachments remain unstable and are eliminated. This error correction process relies heavily on the extent of outer kinetochore phosphorylation by an Aurora B kinase activity centered ...


Mammalian Egg Activation: The Roles Of Trpv3 Channels And Plcz1, Hoi Chang Lee Mar 2016

Mammalian Egg Activation: The Roles Of Trpv3 Channels And Plcz1, Hoi Chang Lee

Doctoral Dissertations

Calcium channels at the plasma membrane have been suggested to mediate Ca2+ influx during egg activation. The transient receptor potential (TRP) Ca2+ channel, TRPV3, is differentially expressed in oocytes during maturation, being fully active at MII stage. Specific stimulation of TRPV3 channels in mouse eggs promotes Ca2+ influx sufficient to induce egg activation and parthenogenesis. In chapter 2, we explore the function and distribution dynamics of the TRPV3 channel protein during oocyte maturation. Using dsRNA, TrpV3 overexpression, and inhibitors of protein synthesis, we modified the native expression of the channel and showed that the TRPV3 protein is ...