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Full-Text Articles in Life Sciences

Multi-Segment Foot Coordination Of The Treated Clubfoot, Amy Whited Nov 2015

Multi-Segment Foot Coordination Of The Treated Clubfoot, Amy Whited

Masters Theses

Idiopathic congenital clubfoot can be treated either operatively (comprehensive surgical release (CSR)) or conservatively (ponseti technique (PCT)). This thesis compared the mid-term outcomes after CSR and PCT treatments to a typically developing sample. A Dynamical Systems Analysis (DSA) approach and a multi-segment foot model were used to examine group differences in multi-segment foot and lower extremity kinematics, kinetics, coordination and coordination variability during walking. Ten children with clubfoot treated with PCT and seven children with clubfoot treated with CSR were evaluated retrospectively and compared to ten typically developing children. Multi-segment foot and lower extremity kinematic (240 Hz) and kinetic (1080 ...


Evaluation Of The Springfield Menu Program, Hannah Stenger Nov 2015

Evaluation Of The Springfield Menu Program, Hannah Stenger

Masters Theses

Studies have shown that many low-income and disadvantaged Americans have a poor diet quality, which increases obesity and chronic disease risk. According to the Massachusetts Department of Public Health, education and income levels of Springfield residents are well below state averages, and racial diversity in Springfield has increased significantly over the past few decades. Springfield’s demographics increase the risk of health disparities in the community, and higher rates of diabetes, heart disease, and obesity are seen in Springfield. To promote healthy eating behaviors among Springfield residents, Mason Square Health Task Force (MSHTF), a Live Well Springfield (LWS) partner, created ...


Generating Best Management Practices For Avian Conservation In A Land-Sparing Agriculture System, And The Habitat-Specific Survival Of A Priority Migrant, Jeffrey D. Ritterson Nov 2015

Generating Best Management Practices For Avian Conservation In A Land-Sparing Agriculture System, And The Habitat-Specific Survival Of A Priority Migrant, Jeffrey D. Ritterson

Masters Theses

A large amount of the world’s biodiversity is located in a disproportionately small amount of area, namely the tropics. Many of these areas are experiencing rapid landscape changes, mainly in the form of deforestation for agricultural practices. Current conservation efforts are focused on agricultural areas and their ability to provide habitat. The conservation value of a novel land-sparing agroforestry system, known as Integrated Open Canopy (IOC), was recently demonstrated on the study site when applied to coffee. IOC coffee supports forest species that are uncommon or absent in shade grown coffee. I generated best management practices for IOC farms ...


The Human Intruder Test: An Anxiety Assessment In Rhesus Macaques (Macaca Mulatta), Emily J. Peterson Nov 2015

The Human Intruder Test: An Anxiety Assessment In Rhesus Macaques (Macaca Mulatta), Emily J. Peterson

Masters Theses

The human intruder test (HIT) is a noninvasive tool widely used for assessing anxiety in rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta). This thesis explores the HIT procedure and applies it to a population of monkeys with a self-injurious behavioral pathology. Individual variation on this test can be used to assess anxiety and temperament. The first experiment of this thesis applied two different procedures of the HIT to 17 monkeys at UMass. Monkeys displayed little response to the intruder, and no significant differences were detected for the two procedures. To determine whether these responses were unique to the UMass monkeys, their behavior was ...


Density-Dependent Survival In The Larval Stage Of An Invasive Insect: Dispersal Vs. Predation, Adam A. Pepi Nov 2015

Density-Dependent Survival In The Larval Stage Of An Invasive Insect: Dispersal Vs. Predation, Adam A. Pepi

Masters Theses

1. The success of invasive species is often thought to be due to release from natural enemies. This hypothesis relies on the assumption that species are regulated by top-down forces in their native range and implies that species are likely to be regulated by bottom-up forces in the invasive range. Neither of these assumptions has been consistently supported with insects, a group which include many highly destructive invasive pest species.

2. Winter moth (Operophtera brumata) is an invasive defoliator in North America that appears to be regulated by mortality in the larval stage in its invasive range. To assess whether ...


Promoting Extracellular Matrix Crosslinking In Synthetic Hydrogels, Marcos M. Manganare Nov 2015

Promoting Extracellular Matrix Crosslinking In Synthetic Hydrogels, Marcos M. Manganare

Masters Theses

The extracellular matrix (ECM) provides mechanical and biochemical support to tissues and cells. It is crucial for cell attachment, differentiation, and migration, as well as for ailment-associated processes such as angiogenesis, metastases and cancer development. An approach to study these phenomena is through emulation of the ECM by synthetic gels constructed of natural polymers, such as collagen and fibronectin, or simple but tunable materials such as poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) crosslinked with short peptide sequences susceptible to digestion by metalloproteases and cell-binding domains. Our lab uses PEG gels to study cell behavior in three dimensions (3D). Although this system fosters ...


Application Of Bacteriophage Cocktail In Leafy Green Wash Water To Control Salmonella Enterica, Andrea W. Lo Nov 2015

Application Of Bacteriophage Cocktail In Leafy Green Wash Water To Control Salmonella Enterica, Andrea W. Lo

Masters Theses

Produce is responsible for 46% of all foodborne illnesses in the USA. Salmonella enterica causes 19,000 hospitalizations each year, and has been associated with produce. Presently, chlorine based sanitizers are most often used, however organic matter reduces its antimicrobial activity. Bacteriophage treatments are an all-natural, alternative method for pathogen inactivation. The objective of this study was to determine the efficacy of a five-strain bacteriophage treatment against a S. enterica cocktail in simulated wash waters at different temperatures. Bacteriophage and S. enterica were enumerated in simulated wash water solutions. One set of experiments studied bacteriophage and S. enterica growth in ...


Inter-Segment Coordination Variability Post Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction, Devin K. Kelly Nov 2015

Inter-Segment Coordination Variability Post Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction, Devin K. Kelly

Masters Theses

INTER-SEGMENT COORDINATION VARIABILITY POST ANTERIOR CRUCIATE LIGAMENT RECONSTRUCTION

SEPTEMBER 2015

DEVIN K. KELLY, B.S., UNIVERSITY OF MASSACHUSETTS AMHERST

M.S., UNIVERSITY OF MASSACHUSETTS AMHERST

Directed by: Dr. Joseph Hamill

There is an increased risk for ipsilateral graft rupture and contralateral ACL rupture following ACL reconstruction surgery (ACLR) despite return to sport clearance. The reason for this increased risk is not well understood. Previous literature has shown that decreased coordination variability is indicative of an injured system regardless of the absence of pain. PURPOSE: To quantify inter-segment coordination variability during three portions of the stance phase of gait in athletes ...


Studying Nanoparticle/Cell And Nanoparticle/Biosurface Interaction With Mass Spectrometry, Singyuk Hou Nov 2015

Studying Nanoparticle/Cell And Nanoparticle/Biosurface Interaction With Mass Spectrometry, Singyuk Hou

Masters Theses

Nanoparticles (NPs) have been used widely in various fields ranging from biomedical applications to life science due to their highly tunable properties. It is essential to understanding how NPs interact with biological systems of interest, therefore, analytical platforms to efficiently track NPs from cell to animal level are essential. In this thesis, laser desorption ionization mass spectrometry (LDI-MS) and inductively-coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) has been developed and applied to quantify NP/cell and NP/biological surface interactions. These two methods provide fast, label-free and quantitative analysis. New capability of LDI-MS to differentiate cell surface-bound and internalized NPs were established ...


Rnai Validation Of Resistance Genes And Their Interactions In The Highly Ddt-Resistant 91-R Strain Of Drosophila Melanogaster, Kyle Gellatly Nov 2015

Rnai Validation Of Resistance Genes And Their Interactions In The Highly Ddt-Resistant 91-R Strain Of Drosophila Melanogaster, Kyle Gellatly

Masters Theses

4,4’-dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) has been re-recommended by the World Health Organization for malaria mosquito control. Previous DDT use has resulted in resistance, and with continued use resistance will increase in terms of level and extent. Drosophila melanogaster is a model dipteran that has many available genetic tools, numerous studies done on insecticide resistance mechanisms, and is related to malaria mosquitoes allowing for extrapolation. The 91-R strain of D. melanogaster is highly resistant to DDT (>1500-fold), however, there is no mechanistic scheme that accounts for this level of resistance. Recently, reduced penetration, increased detoxification, and direct excretion have been identified ...


Urban Agriculture And Ecosystem Services: A Typology And Toolkit For Planners, Kathleen Doherty Nov 2015

Urban Agriculture And Ecosystem Services: A Typology And Toolkit For Planners, Kathleen Doherty

Masters Theses

This thesis makes the connection between urban agriculture and a specific suite of ecosystem services and lays out a typology and toolkit for planners to take advantage of these ecosystem services. The services investigated here are: food production, water management, soil health, biodiversity, climate mitigation, and community development benefits. Research from a variety of fields was aggregated and synthesized to prove that urban agriculture can be beneficial for human as well as environmental health.

A set of urban agriculture typologies was generated to illustrate best practices to maximize a particular set of ecosystem services. The typologies are: production farm, stormwater ...


Development Of Nanoemulsion-Based Delivery Systems For Evaluation Of Triglycerides Bioactivity In Caernohabditis Elegans, Jose D. Colmenares Nov 2015

Development Of Nanoemulsion-Based Delivery Systems For Evaluation Of Triglycerides Bioactivity In Caernohabditis Elegans, Jose D. Colmenares

Masters Theses

Digestion and absorption of bioactive free fatty acids have been studied using the nematode Caernohabditis elegans (C. elegans). However, fatty acids mostly occur in foods in the form of triglycerides, which are highly hydrophobic molecules with low water-solubility, thereby making it difficult to study the fate of ingested fatty acids in C. elegans. The purpose of this research was to develop a method to deliver hydrophobic bioactives, including triglycerides, into C. elegans. Nanoemulsions containing triglyceride nanoparticles were prepared by sonication, and nanoparticle ingestion was confirmed by optical and confocal microscopy, and quantified by spectrometry. Changes in fatty acid composition were ...


The Evolution Of Thermotolerance A Characterization Of A Directionally Evolved Cyanobacterium, Nathen Emil Bopp Nov 2015

The Evolution Of Thermotolerance A Characterization Of A Directionally Evolved Cyanobacterium, Nathen Emil Bopp

Masters Theses

Chaperone proteins are essential components in the maintenance and turnover of the proteome. Many chaperones play integral functions in the folding and unfolding of cellular substrates under many conditions, including heat stress. Most chaperones can be characterized into two categories; the typical ATP dependent chaperones and the ATP independent chaperones. One ATP independent chaperone class it the Small Heat Shock Proteins (sHSPs), which as molecular life vests and are thought to protect misfolding proteins from irreversible aggregation. One such organism, the cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803, is an excellent model for the study and understanding of these proteins and their ...


Regulation Of Jak1 And Jak2 Synthesis Through Non-Classical Progestin Receptors, Hillary Adams Nov 2015

Regulation Of Jak1 And Jak2 Synthesis Through Non-Classical Progestin Receptors, Hillary Adams

Masters Theses

The anteroventral periventricular (AVPV) nucleus of the hypothalamus integrates estradiol (E2) and progesterone (P4) feedback signals from the ovaries to stimulate gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH) neurons and trigger an ovulatory surge in luteinizing hormone (LH). E2 maintains the daily cyclic LH surge and P4 quickly amplifies the surge and limits it to one day. P4 amplification of the surge and rapid signaling in the AVPV may occur through its non-classical progestin receptors. Previous in vitro studies using a microarray analysis with N42 mouse embryonic hypothalamic neurons suggest that progesterone membrane component 1 (Pgrmc1) regulates genes ...


Biotransformation Of Polymethoxyflavones By Gut Microbiome And Molecular Characterization Of Polymethoxyflavones By Surface Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy, Changchu Ma Nov 2015

Biotransformation Of Polymethoxyflavones By Gut Microbiome And Molecular Characterization Of Polymethoxyflavones By Surface Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy, Changchu Ma

Doctoral Dissertations

Polymethoxyflavones (PMFs), a unique class of flavonoids found in citrus fruits has shown beneficial bioactivities. Biological fate of PMFs in the gastrointestinal tract is critical for their bioactivities. PMFs can be biotransformed to produce various metabolites with different bioactivities, and PMFs can also interact with the food matrix, which in turn affects their bioactivities. Therefore, we investigated the biotransformation of two PMFs, namely nobiletin (NBT) and 5-hydroxylnobiletin (5HN) by the gut microbiome. Mice were fed with NBT or 5HN, and small intestinal contents were collected and subjected to anaerobic fermentation by gut microbiome isolated from mice and human volunteers. HPLC ...


Association Of Dietary Factors With Menstrual Cycle Characteristics, Radhika Natarajan Nov 2015

Association Of Dietary Factors With Menstrual Cycle Characteristics, Radhika Natarajan

Doctoral Dissertations

Abnormal menstrual cycle length, pattern and bleed duration are associated with reduced fecundity and increased risk of miscarriage. The menstrual cycle is governed by the hypothalamus-pituitary-ovarian (HPO) axis, and nutritional factors may affect menstrual characteristics by influencing the HPO axis. Identifying these factors may lead to cost effective ways to improve reproductive outcomes.

In a cross-sectional analysis of 164 18- to 30-year-old women, we examined the association of adiposity, dietary fat intake and vitamin D status with menstrual cycle characteristics. Adiposity was measured using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA); dietary intake was assessed using a food frequency questionnaire, and fasting venous ...


Evaluation Of Spring Frost Control Methods And An Assessment Of Cold Hardiness In Cranberry (Vaccinium Macrocarporn Ait.), Faith Ndlovu Nov 2015

Evaluation Of Spring Frost Control Methods And An Assessment Of Cold Hardiness In Cranberry (Vaccinium Macrocarporn Ait.), Faith Ndlovu

Doctoral Dissertations

The American cranberry (Vaccinium macrocarpon Ait.) is an important temperate woody shrub crop whose fruit has human health benefits. Cranberry acquires cold hardiness in the autumn and loses it in spring, following deacclimation. Frost protection is necessary in cranberry production as a means to reduce bud damage due to low spring temperatures. The objectives of the field studies were to evaluate two methods of sprinkler irrigation for frost protection, the conventional approach consisting of continuous irrigation throughout the night (CON) and intermittent cycling of sprinklers (INT) incorporating cycling on and off throughout the night, by (i) assessing bud damage and ...


Utilizing In Silico And/Or Native Esi Approaches To Provide New Insights On Haptoglobin/Globin And Haptoglobin/Receptor Interactions, Ololade Fatunmbi Nov 2015

Utilizing In Silico And/Or Native Esi Approaches To Provide New Insights On Haptoglobin/Globin And Haptoglobin/Receptor Interactions, Ololade Fatunmbi

Doctoral Dissertations

Haptoglobin (Hp), an acute phase protein, binds free hemoglobin (Hb) dimers in one of the strongest non-covalent interactions known in biology. This interaction protects Hb from causing potentially severe oxidative damage and limiting nitric oxide bioavailability. Once Hb/Hp complexes are formed, they proceed to bind CD163, a cell surface receptor on macrophages leading to complex internalization and catabolism. Myoglobin, (Mb) a monomeric protein, that is normally found in the muscle but can be released into the blood in high concentrations during myocardial injury, is homologous to Hb and shares many conserved Hb/Hp interface residues. Both monomeric Hb and ...


Fabrication, Characterization And Biological Fate Of Phytochemical Delivery System, Jingjing Chen Nov 2015

Fabrication, Characterization And Biological Fate Of Phytochemical Delivery System, Jingjing Chen

Doctoral Dissertations

Polymethoxyflvones (PMFs) are a group compounds with promising cancer preventing activities and many other health benefits. There's a growing interest in fabricating delivery systems for PMFs as well as other phytochemicals due to their low water solubility. Firstly, we use nanoemulsion delivery system to encapsulate β-carotene. Sonication assisted method was developed to dissolve β-carotene to ensure minimum degradation. Powdered nanoemulsion was obtained after spray dry and freeze dry. Sample obtained after freeze dry showed better physiochemical characteristics. Then we use protein nanoparticle delivery system to encapsulate PMFS. The nanoparticle delivery system was fabricated by mixing the aqueous phase ...


Estimation Problems In Complex Field Studies With Deep Interactions: Time-To-Event And Local Regression Models For Environmental Effects On Vital Rates, Krzysztof M. Sakrejda Nov 2015

Estimation Problems In Complex Field Studies With Deep Interactions: Time-To-Event And Local Regression Models For Environmental Effects On Vital Rates, Krzysztof M. Sakrejda

Doctoral Dissertations

Field studies that measure vital rates in context over extended time periods are a cornerstone of our understanding of population processes. These studies inform us about the relationship between biological process and environmental noise in an irreplaceable way. These data sets bring ``big data'' and ``big model'' challenges, which limit the application of standard software (e.g., \textbf{BUGS}). The environmental sensitivity of vital rates is also expected to exhibit interactions and non-linearity, which typically result in difficult model selection questions in large data sets. Finally, long-term ecological data sets often contain complex temporal structure. In commonly applied discrete-time models ...


Behavioral, Neurobiological, And Genetic Analysis Of The Circadian Mutant Duper, Emily Nicole Corbett Manoogian Nov 2015

Behavioral, Neurobiological, And Genetic Analysis Of The Circadian Mutant Duper, Emily Nicole Corbett Manoogian

Doctoral Dissertations

The recently discovered circadian mutant hamster duper has a short period of ~23 hours and exhibits exaggerated phase shifts in response to a 15-min light pulse. To increase the understanding of the duper mutation, I performed behavioral, neurobiological, and genetic experiments. Behavioral studies using photic and non-photic stimuli found that large phase shifts exhibited by duper hamsters are specific to photic cues, but not to phase. Additionally, 2/3 of duper hamsters, but no WTs, displayed transient ultradian wheel-running patterns when transferred from light to dark at CT 18. This suggests that the mutation may weaken coupling among components of ...


How To Build A Spinal Cord: Exploring Radial Glial Proliferation And Their Contribution To Embryonic Neurogenesis, Kimberly A. Johnson Nov 2015

How To Build A Spinal Cord: Exploring Radial Glial Proliferation And Their Contribution To Embryonic Neurogenesis, Kimberly A. Johnson

Doctoral Dissertations

During embryonic neural development, the concerted actions of neural stem cells (NSCs) populate and pattern the tissues that will give rise to the brain and spinal cord. This heterogeneous NSC population initially consists of neuroepithelial cells, which will generate the first neurons present in the central nervous system (CNS) prior to transitioning into radial glial cells. Classically, radial glial cells are known to play a wide range of roles during CNS development, from maintaining neuronal homeostasis, as a scaffold for neuronal migration, and as a permissive growth substrate for directed axon pathfinding. Recently, radial glial cells have been proposed to ...


Gestational Diabetes, Infant Feeding Practices, And Early Indicators Of Obesity Risk In A Sample Of Mother-Infant Dyads In The U.S., Kimberly N. Doughty Nov 2015

Gestational Diabetes, Infant Feeding Practices, And Early Indicators Of Obesity Risk In A Sample Of Mother-Infant Dyads In The U.S., Kimberly N. Doughty

Doctoral Dissertations

Research suggests that the trajectory to obesity and its associated metabolic disorders begins early in life. Prenatal exposure to maternal gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is associated with increased risk, while breastfeeding is associated with reduced risk. Breastfeeding may influence obesity risk by preventing rapid postnatal weight gain. Mothers with gestational diabetes may not breastfeed as intensely as healthy mothers, potentially exacerbating the risk to their infants. We conducted three distinct investigations related to gestational diabetes, breastfeeding, and infant weight gain. All used data from the U.S. Infant Feeding Practices Study II. Multivariate logistic regression was used to estimate associations ...


An Integrative, Cost-Benefit Analysis On Animal Perturbations: Autotomy And Life-History Related Weight Gain, Chi-Yun Kuo Nov 2015

An Integrative, Cost-Benefit Analysis On Animal Perturbations: Autotomy And Life-History Related Weight Gain, Chi-Yun Kuo

Doctoral Dissertations

The variation in behavioral traits and the adaptive significance behind such variation has been a classic question in behavioral ecology. Traits that enhance while simultaneously impose high fitness costs are particularly suitable for addressing this fundamental question, as their expressions are likely under strong selection. In this dissertation, I investigate the variation in a costly antipredator behavior and the underlying cost-benefit mechanisms. The trait of interest is the voluntary shedding of the tail, or tail autotomy, in lizards. Tail autotomy allows lizards to survive close-range encounters with predators but also has severe fitness consequences, including increased energetic demand for regeneration ...


Assessing Kiln-Produced Hardwood Biochar For Improving Soil Health In A Temperate Climate Agricultural Soil, Emily J. Cole Nov 2015

Assessing Kiln-Produced Hardwood Biochar For Improving Soil Health In A Temperate Climate Agricultural Soil, Emily J. Cole

Doctoral Dissertations

Soil quality has become a major factor used in assessing sustainable land management and the overall environmental quality, food security, and economic viability of agricultural lands. Recently, biochar has been touted as having many potential uses as a soil amendment for improving soil quality, specifically improving cation exchange capacity, pH and nutrient availability. However, soil biology also plays a significant role in biogeochemical processes that influence soil health and should be included in a more comprehensive study of soil health. This dissertation describes 4 projects within the same 3-year field study with the cumulative purpose of better understanding the effect ...


Biophysical Characterization Of Katanin’S Regulation Of Microtubules, Megan E. Bailey Nov 2015

Biophysical Characterization Of Katanin’S Regulation Of Microtubules, Megan E. Bailey

Doctoral Dissertations

Microtubules, as an essential part of the cytoskeleton, require proper function as well as correct spatial and temporal localization. In order to achieve correct organization, microtubule-associated proteins (MAPs) regulate microtubule dynamics. Katanin, a known microtubule-severing enzyme from the AAA family of proteins, plays a role in regulating microtubules, but the mechanisms of microtubule control and the mechanism of severing activity remain to be elucidated.

In the following studies I examine mechanisms of katanin-based regulation of microtubule dynamics using a single molecule biophysics approach. I use this simplified in vitro approach to change specific parameters to investigate how katanin targets microtubules ...


Energetic Limitations Of Thermophilic Methanogens And Thiosulfate Reducers In The Subsurface Biosphere At Deep-Sea Hydrothermal Vents, Lucy C. Stewart Nov 2015

Energetic Limitations Of Thermophilic Methanogens And Thiosulfate Reducers In The Subsurface Biosphere At Deep-Sea Hydrothermal Vents, Lucy C. Stewart

Doctoral Dissertations

This dissertation examined the substrate and energetic limitations of hydrogenotrophic thermophiles from deep-sea hydrothermal vents. Thermophilic and hyperthermophilic organisms in diffuse hydrothermal venting are thought to represent a hot subsurface biosphere associated with deep-sea hydrothermal vents, where primary production is dominated by hydrogenotrophy rather than sulfide oxidation as at the vent/seawater interface of hydrothermal sulfide chimneys. Methanogens and sulfur-reducers are known to compete for hydrogen in mesophilic, freshwater systems, and likely do so in deep-sea hydrothermal vent environments as well. However, the exact size and biomass of the subsurface biosphere is difficult to determine through direct sampling.

Firstly, the ...


Pro- And Antioxidant Effects Of Phospholipids On Lipid Oxidation In Bulk Oil, Leqi Cui Nov 2015

Pro- And Antioxidant Effects Of Phospholipids On Lipid Oxidation In Bulk Oil, Leqi Cui

Doctoral Dissertations

The aim of this thesis is to explore how phospholipids at concentrations similar as in refined vegetable oils impact bulk oil lipid oxidation. The possible formation of association colloids and synergism with primary antioxidants are considered. The results provided a better understanding of the pro- and antioxidant activities of phospholipids.

Lipid oxidation leads to quality deterioration by generating off-flavor, nutrient loss, color alteration, texture changes, and even generation of potential toxic products. Phospholipids are important minor components in edible oil that play a role in lipid oxidation. Surface active phospholipids have an intermediate hydrophilic–lipophilic balance value, which allows them ...


Characterization Of The Role Of Intrinsic And Extrinsic Factors During Murine Endoderm Development, Siyeon Rhee Nov 2015

Characterization Of The Role Of Intrinsic And Extrinsic Factors During Murine Endoderm Development, Siyeon Rhee

Doctoral Dissertations

Yin Yang1 (YY1) is a ubiquitously expressed factor that plays multiple roles in early mouse development. We have found that an essential role of YY1 in the visceral endoderm (VE) of the yolk sac is the maintenance of VEGF. Furthermore, we have demonstrated that paracrine signals downstream of VEGF support the VE, assessed by maintenance of HNF4α. Because the VE is essential for yolk sac development, and thus for embryonic survival, we used an inducible-knockout strategy to demonstrate that YY1 is essential in the definitive endoderm (DE) for invasion of hepatoblasts into the surrounding mesenchyme. By E14.5 YY1-/- livers ...


Complex Effects Of Ungulate Browsers On Tree Recruitment And Herbaceous Layers In New England Temperate Forests, Edward K. Faison Nov 2015

Complex Effects Of Ungulate Browsers On Tree Recruitment And Herbaceous Layers In New England Temperate Forests, Edward K. Faison

Doctoral Dissertations

Browsing by ungulates is a leading biotic disturbance in northern forest ecosystems and an important determinant of habitat, biodiversity, and ecosystem services. A large body of work has revealed that white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) at high densities alter forest understories in strong and predictable ways; however, less is known about how lower densities of deer and the combined effects of multiple herbivores influence forest understory vegetation, particularly in stands following canopy disturbance. Using fenced exclosures, remote cameras and other field observations, I explored the foraging response and browsing effects of low densities of deer and moose (Alces alces) on tree ...