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Full-Text Articles in Life Sciences

Nanoparticle Building Blocks For Functional Structures, Youngdo Jeong Nov 2014

Nanoparticle Building Blocks For Functional Structures, Youngdo Jeong

Doctoral Dissertations

A major goal in material science is achieving a desired function using structures fabricated with designed building blocks. Advanced synthetic and self-assembly techniques allow various nanomaterials to become promising building blocks, providing the control of the interaction between building blocks. The unique properties of nanomaterials can be transferred to structured systems. Among nanomaterials, inorganic nanoparticles such as gold nanoparticles (AuNPs), magnetic particles, and quantum dots (QDs) provide useful physical properties stemming from their inorganic core, large surface areas, and oriented surface functionalities. My research has focused on fabricating functional systems using gold nanoparticles (AuNPs), manipulating the interaction between AuNPs, bio-entities ...


Properties Of Potential Substrates Of A Cyanobacterial Small Heat Shock Protein, Yichen Zhang Nov 2014

Properties Of Potential Substrates Of A Cyanobacterial Small Heat Shock Protein, Yichen Zhang

Masters Theses

Most proteins must fold into native three-dimensional structures to be functional. But, newly synthesized proteins are at high risk of misfolding and aggregating in the cell. Stress, disease or mutations can also cause protein aggregation. A cyanobacterial small heat shock protein, Hsp16.6, can act as a chaperone to prevent irreversible protein aggregation during heat stress. This thesis is focused on the properties of proteins that were associated with Hsp16.6 during heat stress, and which therefore may be “substrates” of Hsp16.6. Bioinformatics were used to determine if Hsp16.6 preferentially binds to proteins with certain properties, and biochemical ...


Expression And Purification Of Human Lysosomal Β-Galactosidase From Pichia Pastoris, Sarah E. Tarullo Nov 2014

Expression And Purification Of Human Lysosomal Β-Galactosidase From Pichia Pastoris, Sarah E. Tarullo

Masters Theses

Lysosomal storage diseases are genetically inherited diseases caused by the dysfunction of lysosomal enzymes. In a normal cell, lysosomal enzymes cleave specific macromolecules as they are transported to the lysosome. However, in diseased cells, these lysosomal enzymes are either absent or malfunctioning, causing macromolecular substrates to accumulate, becoming toxic to the cell. Over fifty lysosomal storage diseases have been identified, collectively occurring in one out of 7,700 live births. We investigated the lysosomal enzyme β-galactosidase (β-gal). In order to study the biochemistry and enzymology of this protein a robust expression system was needed. The GLB1 gene has been inserted ...


Engineering Camelina Sativa For Biofuel Production Via Increasing Oil Yield And Tolerance To Abiotic Stresses, Kenny Ablordeppey Nov 2014

Engineering Camelina Sativa For Biofuel Production Via Increasing Oil Yield And Tolerance To Abiotic Stresses, Kenny Ablordeppey

Masters Theses

In an effort to engineer Camelina sativa for enhanced oil yield and tolerance to abiotic stresses, we have cloned and overexpressed Camelina γ-Glutamyl Cyclotransferase (GGCT2;1); a gene involved in oxidative stress tolerance via glutathione homeostasis and Wrinkled 1; a transcription factor that regulates genes involved in fatty acid biosynthesis to increase triacylglycerol (TAG) accumulation in seeds. The GGCT gene family in Camelina consists of three genes-GGCT1, GGCT2;1 and GGCT2;2. Camelina GGCT genes showed differential expression under oxidative stress caused as a result of exposure to various abiotic stresses. The GGCT2;1 gene, which showed strong up-regulation ...


Protein Behavior Directed By Heparin Charge And Chain Length, Burcu Baykal Minsky Aug 2014

Protein Behavior Directed By Heparin Charge And Chain Length, Burcu Baykal Minsky

Doctoral Dissertations

Glycosaminoglycans (GAGs), highly charged biological polyelectrolytes, are of growing importance as biomaterials and pharmaceutical drugs due to their immense range of physiological functions. They bind to many proteins; however, the degree of structural selectivity in GAG-protein interactions is largely unknown .Our studies have focused on the importance of heparin (a model GAG) charge and chain length in protein binding in order to explore its potential applications in biofunctional tissue scaffold materials, as polysaccharide drugs in anticoagulation, and as inhibitory agents in protein aggregation. We used electrospray ionization mass spectrometry, capillary electrophoresis, size exclusion chromatography, dynamic/static light scattering and electrostatic ...


Structural Biology And Pharmacology Of Human Cathepsin A And Neuraminidase 1, Nilima Kolli Aug 2014

Structural Biology And Pharmacology Of Human Cathepsin A And Neuraminidase 1, Nilima Kolli

Doctoral Dissertations

Human cathepsin A (also known as Protective Protein/Cathepsin A, PPCA; E.C. 3.4.16.5) is a lysosomal serine carboxypeptidase. Cathepsin A is also involved in a complex with two other lysosomal enzymes: lysosomal neuraminidase (NEU1, E.C. 3.2.1.18) and β-galactosidase (GLB1, E.C. 3.2.1.23). Deficiency in cathepsin A and NEU1 result in the lysosomal storage diseases, galactosialidosis and sialidosis respectively. Deficiency in GLB1 results in GM1 gangliosidosis and Morquio B diseases.

Cathepsin A protease activity is spatially regulated by activation of the inactive precursor form to the mature form in ...


Engineering Probes To Detect Cholesterol Accessibility On Membranes Using Perfringolysin O, Benjamin B. Johnson Aug 2014

Engineering Probes To Detect Cholesterol Accessibility On Membranes Using Perfringolysin O, Benjamin B. Johnson

Doctoral Dissertations

Cholesterol is an essential component of mammalian cell membranes and it is important to regulate the structure and function of lipid bilayers. Changes in cholesterol levels are involved in many physiological and pathological events such as the formation of arterial plaques, viral entry into cells, sperm capacitation, and receptor organization. Determination of cholesterol trafficking and distribution is essential for understanding how cells regulate cholesterol.

A key factor in the regulation of cholesterol is cholesterol accessibility. Through it interactions in the membrane, cholesterol is sequestered below the surface of the membrane. Based on the composition of the membrane, a certain amount ...


Ligand-Receptor Interactions For Supramolecular Disassembly With Applications In Screening And Drug Delivery, Diego Amado Torres Aug 2014

Ligand-Receptor Interactions For Supramolecular Disassembly With Applications In Screening And Drug Delivery, Diego Amado Torres

Doctoral Dissertations

Proteins have the capacity to bind specific sets of compounds known as ligands, these are small molecules with a recurrent theme in their molecular design that is a characteristic exploited here to (i) identify particular affinities of small molecules for proteins with the aim of using them as ligands, inhibitors, or targeting moieties in more complex systems by means of a methodology that screens small molecules based on protein affinity; (ii) decorate a self-assembling supramolecular system at different positions, making it responsive to a complementary protein with the aim of exploring differences in disassembly and sensitivity of the release of ...