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The Efficacy Of Atp Monitoring Devices At Measuring Organic Matter On Postharvest Surfaces, Kristin Lane Oct 2019

The Efficacy Of Atp Monitoring Devices At Measuring Organic Matter On Postharvest Surfaces, Kristin Lane

Masters Theses

The Food Safety Modernization Act (FSMA), specifically the Produce Safety Rule (PSR), requires growers to clean and sanitize food-contact surfaces to protect against produce contamination. The ATP monitoring device is a potential sanitation tool to monitor the efficacy of an on-farm cleaning and sanitation program that could help growers meet regulatory expectations mandated by PSR. The ATP device uses bioluminescence to detect all ATP (found in bacteria and produce matter cells) from a swabbed surface. Little work has been done to test the efficacy of these tools under postharvest conditions. The present study evaluated ATP measurement for postharvest surface cleanliness ...


Influence Of Shipping Container Upon Temperature, Relative Humidity, And Bacterial Growth On Broccoli, Nicholas Berus Mar 2019

Influence Of Shipping Container Upon Temperature, Relative Humidity, And Bacterial Growth On Broccoli, Nicholas Berus

Masters Theses

Temperature and relative humidity of produce throughout the cold chain can greatly affect the quality and safety of the food product. Different packaging systems or containers can provide better cooling environments for food products that could decrease temperature abuse and ultimately safety risks. In this study we compiled temperature and relative humidity profiles of broccoli packed in different shipping containers throughout the produce supply chain. The shipping containers looked at were the wax corrugated box, reusable plastic containers (RPC), and Eco Pack Green Box with and without a lid. Large differences were seen in the temperature profiles of each package ...


Biotransformation Of Resveratrol And Its Implications In Biological Activities In The Colon, Fang Li Nov 2018

Biotransformation Of Resveratrol And Its Implications In Biological Activities In The Colon, Fang Li

Doctoral Dissertations

Resveratrol (RES) is a natural polyphenol compound with a wide range of health-promoting activities, including protective effects against colon cancer and renal disease. However, the premise of these benefits has been dampened since RES shows a poor oral bioavailability due to its rapid and extensive biotransformation after oral consumption. The paradox (low bioavailability but high bioactivity) warrants further investigations to determine the contribution of RES metabolites to the health benefits associated with RES. We identified 11 metabolites of RES in mice with high-resolution HPLC-MS/MS, then quantified two major metabolites - dihydro-resveratrol (DHR) and lunularin (LUN). To further understand the chemopreventative ...


Use Of Alamarblue As An Indicator Of Microbial Growth In Turbid Solutions For Antimicrobial Evaluation, Precious Henshaw Oct 2018

Use Of Alamarblue As An Indicator Of Microbial Growth In Turbid Solutions For Antimicrobial Evaluation, Precious Henshaw

Masters Theses

The use of antibiotics in animal feed is a large cause of concern due to bacterial resistance, which occurs when bacteria change after exposure to antibiotics and become less affected by the drug. Consequently, the desire to find a replacement for these antibiotics has garnered interest in both farmers and consumers. The ideal substance would display antimicrobial activity without promoting bacterial resistance and would still function as a growth promoter in animals. One antimicrobial that fits this criterion is carvacrol, a compound found in oregano extract. Carvacrol exhibits antimicrobial activity in a number of bacteria, including E.coli O157:H7 ...


Screening Of Commercially Available Chlorine Based Sanitizers And Their Efficacy In Reducing Microbial Load Levels Of E. Coli O157:H7 At High And Low Organic Load Environments, Paola Martinez-Ramos Oct 2018

Screening Of Commercially Available Chlorine Based Sanitizers And Their Efficacy In Reducing Microbial Load Levels Of E. Coli O157:H7 At High And Low Organic Load Environments, Paola Martinez-Ramos

Masters Theses

The presence of postharvest sanitizers has shown to be an effective approach to reducing microbial cross contamination in agricultural washing operations. However, choosing an appropriate sanitizer can be challenging due to produce commodity, processing conditions and interference with organic load. Current research shows a wide variety of methods to mimic the organic load of vegetable processing conditions, with paddle mixing and blender as the most commonly used. Controlling and understanding the physiochemical properties of wash water is key in maintaining sanitizer efficacy. The effects of simulated wash water preparation method on the physiochemical properties were tested at 0 and 50 ...


Development Of Methodology For Rapid Bacterial Detection In Complex Matrices Using Sers, Madeline Tucker Jul 2018

Development Of Methodology For Rapid Bacterial Detection In Complex Matrices Using Sers, Madeline Tucker

Masters Theses

Fresh foods, including meats and produce are the fastest growing market in the supermarket and the class of foods most likely to cause a bacterial foodborne illness. As the rate of consumption of perishable products increases, rapid detection of pathogens within the food supply becomes a critical issue. Current methods used for the detection of bacteria that cause food-borne illnesses are time consuming, expensive and often require selective enrichment. In this study we adapted a separation technique originally developed for PCR to extract bacteria from ground beef using β-cyclodextrin (β-CD) and milk protein coated activated carbon (MP-CAC) as filtration agents ...


Caenorhabditis Elegans Model To Study Antimicrobial Treatment On E. Coli O157:H7, Parita Patel Jul 2018

Caenorhabditis Elegans Model To Study Antimicrobial Treatment On E. Coli O157:H7, Parita Patel

Masters Theses

An increase in antimicrobial resistance bacteria has endangered our ability to treat infectious diseases. Lack of good in-vivo model has made it difficult to study antimicrobial resistance. In this study, we have used an inexpensive and short life span in-vivo model namely, Caenorhabditis elegans (C. elegans) to study antimicrobial treatment using pathogenic Escherichia coli O157:H7, a multidrug resistance bacterium that causes life threatening infection in humans.

We have investigated the influence of live vs. heat killed non-pathogenic E. coli OP50 (OP50) as a food source on the growth and survival of infected C. elegans mutant AU37 with E. coli ...


Use Of Different Ripening Inhibitors To Enhance Antimicrobial Activity Of Essential Oil Nanoemulsion, Victor Ryu Oct 2017

Use Of Different Ripening Inhibitors To Enhance Antimicrobial Activity Of Essential Oil Nanoemulsion, Victor Ryu

Masters Theses

The objective of this research was to study the impact of ripening inhibitor level and type on the formation, stability, and activity of antimicrobial thyme oil nanoemulsions formed by spontaneous emulsification. Oil-in-water antimicrobial nanoemulsions (10 wt%) were formed by titrating a mixture of essential oil, ripening inhibitor, and surfactant (Tween 80) into 5mM sodium citrate buffer (pH 3.5). Stable nanoemulsions containing small droplets (d < 70 nm) were formed. The antimicrobial activity of the nanoemulsions decreased with increasing ripening inhibitor concentration, which was attributed to a reduction in the amount of hydrophobic antimicrobial constituents transferred to the separated hydrophobic domain, mimicking bacterial cell membranes, by using dialysis and chromatography. The antimicrobial activity of the nanoemulsions also depended on the nature of the ripening inhibitor used: palm ≈ corn > canola > coconut which also depended on their ability to transfer hydrophobic antimicrobial constituents to the separated hydrophobic domain.


Influence Of Biomimetic Chelating Packaging On Natural Antimicrobial Efficacy, Paul Castrale Oct 2017

Influence Of Biomimetic Chelating Packaging On Natural Antimicrobial Efficacy, Paul Castrale

Masters Theses

The iron chelating molecule, ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) is used in food applications for the preservation of oxidation prone ingredients. Research has suggested that EDTA is also capable of enhancing the antimicrobial effectiveness of various compounds including naturally-derived antimicrobials. With consumer demand for cleaner food labels, there remains an opportunity to introduce new chelating technology to replace synthetically-derived EDTA. Through photographting and chemical conversion, hydroxamic acid ligands were covalently bound to polypropylene films resulting in polypropylene-graft-poly(hydroxamic acid) (PP-g-PHA). The resulting films demonstrated an ability to chelate 64 nmol/cm2 from an iron saturated environment or ...


Investigating Natural And Induced Biofilm Dispersion In Listeria Monocytogenes, Brett Boulden Oct 2017

Investigating Natural And Induced Biofilm Dispersion In Listeria Monocytogenes, Brett Boulden

Masters Theses

Dispersion is a natural part of a biofilm life cycle in many bacterial species. Dispersion occurs when bacteria revert from a stationary, sessile state to a free-swimming, planktonic state and are freed from a biofilm. Bacterial biofilms consist of proteins, polysaccharides, and extracellular DNA that together make up the extracellular polymeric substances. Surrounded by this mucus-like substance, sessile cells can be extremely difficult to eradicate as compared to the planktonic form of Listeria monocytogenes. Biofilms are robust due to increased surface adherence, inhibition of diffusion of harmful compounds, and increased genetic diversity that exists within a biofilm. As a result ...


Epigallocatechin-3-Gallate Reduces Fat Accumulation In Caenorhabditis Elegans, Jinning Liu Jul 2017

Epigallocatechin-3-Gallate Reduces Fat Accumulation In Caenorhabditis Elegans, Jinning Liu

Masters Theses

Epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG), also known as epigallocatechin-3-gallate, is a polyphenol that is most abundant in tea. It has been shown from many studies that consumption of EGCG can contribute to weight loss, however, the underlying mechanism is not fully understood. To determine how EGCG acts to reduce fat, an organism model Caenorhabditis elegans (C. elegans) is introduced, which is a useful animal system in exploring crucial biological mechanisms that are readily applicable to humans. In this study, different strains were raised for two days on a diet with or without 100µM and 200µM EGCG treatment: N2 (i.e., wild type ...


Biopolymer Electrospun Nanofiber Mats To Inactivate And Remove Bacteria, Katrina Ann Rieger Nov 2016

Biopolymer Electrospun Nanofiber Mats To Inactivate And Remove Bacteria, Katrina Ann Rieger

Doctoral Dissertations

The persistence of antibiotic resistance in bacterial pathogens remains a primary concern for immunocompromised and critically-ill hospital patients. Hospital associated infections can be deadly and reduce the successes of medical advancements, such as, cancer therapies and medical implants. Thus, it is imperative to develop materials that can (i) deliver new antibiotics with accuracy, as well as (ii) uptake pathogenic microbes. In this work, we will demonstrate that electrospun nanofiber mats offer a promising platform for both of these objectives because of their high surface-to-volume ratio, interconnected high porosity, gas permeability, and ability to contour to virtually any surface. To provide ...


Label-Free And Aptamer-Based Surface Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy For Detection Of Food Contaminants, Shintaro Pang Nov 2016

Label-Free And Aptamer-Based Surface Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy For Detection Of Food Contaminants, Shintaro Pang

Doctoral Dissertations

The development of analytical methods to detect food contaminants is a critical step for improving food safety. Surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) is an emerging detection technology that has the potential to rapidly, accurately and sensitively detect a wide variety of food contaminants. However, SERS detection becomes a challenge in real complex matrix, such as food, since non-specific matrix signals have the potential to drown out target associated Raman peaks. In this dissertation, we focused on the development and application of label-free, aptamer-based SERS in order to improve the accuracy and specificity of target contaminant detection in food. To accomplish ...


Bacteriophage-Based Colorimetric Detection Of Escherichia Coli In Drinking Water, Juhong Chen Nov 2016

Bacteriophage-Based Colorimetric Detection Of Escherichia Coli In Drinking Water, Juhong Chen

Doctoral Dissertations

One of the major safety causes in drinking water is from the bacteria contamination, especially in developing countries and resource-limited settings. Although many of these Escherichia coli (E. coli) strains in drinking water are nonpathogenic, they sever as the indicator for bacterial contamination. And, the more widely used method to detect E. coli in drinking water is to determine the activity of β-galactosidase (β-gal), which is released by E. coli. Rapid, sensitive and inexpensive detection of E. coli in drinking water can reduce the risk of food-borne bacteria infection and stop the disease widely spreading.

In this degree research, phage-based ...


Encapsulation Of Probiotic Microorganisms In Food-Grade Hydrogel Microbeads For Improving Long-Term Storage And Oral Delivery, Timothy W. Yeung Nov 2016

Encapsulation Of Probiotic Microorganisms In Food-Grade Hydrogel Microbeads For Improving Long-Term Storage And Oral Delivery, Timothy W. Yeung

Masters Theses

Probiotics die over time during processing, storage and digestion, resulting in reduced health benefits to the consumer. Microencapsulation of microorganisms is an effective way to improve probiotic viability by restricting cell exposure to extreme conditions through the gastrointestinal tract until release in the colon. In this work, appearance and survival of encapsulated probiotic species from two genera was explored. Lactococcus lactis and Bifidobacterium longum were suspended in calcium alginate microbeads by spraying droplets of alginate-probiotic mixture into calcium chloride solution. This produced uniformly shaped transparent microbeads with high encapsulation yield. Encapsulating Lactococcus lactis extended viability during dry room temperature storage ...


Distribution Of Enterotoxigenic Clostridium Perfringens Spores In U.S. Retail Spices, Chi-An Lee Nov 2016

Distribution Of Enterotoxigenic Clostridium Perfringens Spores In U.S. Retail Spices, Chi-An Lee

Masters Theses

246 samples of bulk and packaged spices from retail stores in the western, southeastern, southern, midwestern, and northeastern areas of the U.S. were examined for the presence of Clostridium -perfringens. Isolates were checked for the presence of the lecithinase gene (cpa) and enterotoxin genes (cpe) by PCR. Enterotoxin formation during sporulation was investigated using the Oxoid Toxin Detection Kit. Forty-three confirmed isolates (from 17% of total samples) were cpa-positive. Of those, 27 were cpe-positive. Together, levels of C. perfringens spores ranged from 3.6-2400/gm. The amount of enterotoxin in cell extracts ranged from 2-16 ng/ml ...


Novel Advancements For Improving Sprout Safety, Kyle S. Landry Jul 2016

Novel Advancements For Improving Sprout Safety, Kyle S. Landry

Doctoral Dissertations

All varieties of bean sprouts (mung bean, alfalfa, broccoli, and radish) are classified as a “super-food” and are common staples for health conscious consumers. Along with the proposed health benefits, there is also an inherent risk of foodborne illness. When sprouts are cooked, there is little risk of illness. The purpose of this dissertation was to explore novel techniques to minimize or prevent the incidence of foodborne illness associated with the consumption of sprouts. Three areas were investigated: 1) the use of a biocontrol organism, 2) the use of a novel spontaneous carvacrol nanoemulsion, and 3) the influence of the ...


Enzymatic Digestion Improved Bacteria Separation From Leafy Green Vegetables, Danhui Wang Jul 2016

Enzymatic Digestion Improved Bacteria Separation From Leafy Green Vegetables, Danhui Wang

Masters Theses

An effective and rapid method for the separation of bacteria from food matrix remains a bottleneck for rapid bacteria detection for food safety. Bacteria can strongly attach to the food surface or internalize within the matrix which makes their isolation extremely difficult. Traditional methods of separating bacteria from foods routinely involve stomaching, blending and shaking, however these methods may not be efficient at removing all the bacteria from complex matrices. Here, we investigate the benefits of using enzyme digestion followed by immunomagnetic separation to isolate Salmonella from spinach and lettuce. Enzymatic digestion using pectinase and cellulase was able to break ...


Echerichia Coli Biofilm Formation In Musca Domestica Crops, Lufan Wang Mar 2016

Echerichia Coli Biofilm Formation In Musca Domestica Crops, Lufan Wang

Masters Theses

The house fly, Musca domestica can transmit human pathogens including Escherichia coli O157:H7 through regurgitation of ingested bacteria from the crop which is a foregut organ of house fly and stores the excess ingested nutrients. Interactions between the ingested bacteria and the crop have a direct influence on bacteria persistence, survival and ultimately fly vector competence. In this research, in situ crop vessel assay was developed to investigate bacterial growth within fly crops up to 48 hours post-ingestion. Flies were fasted for 12 h prior to feeding E. coli O157:H7 pEGFP and then fed bacteria with ...


Influence Of Inoculum Preparation Upon Sensitivity Of Common Food Borne Pathogens To Emulsion Based Antimicrobials, Dillon Sd Murray Mar 2016

Influence Of Inoculum Preparation Upon Sensitivity Of Common Food Borne Pathogens To Emulsion Based Antimicrobials, Dillon Sd Murray

Masters Theses

Antimicrobial optimization procedures use the most resistant bacterial culture that could be present in the food to determine the levels of treatment needed to ensure safety. These procedures usually only focus on one method of preparing these inoculums for testing despite prior research showing that the preparation of the culture can influence how the culture reacts to a treatment. In this work, planktonic cells grown in a liquid media and sessile cells grown on a similar solid media were subjected to identical emulsion based antimicrobial systems. The cultures were monitored over time and their numbers periodically enumerated. Weibullian destruction models ...


Application Of Bacteriophage Cocktail In Leafy Green Wash Water To Control Salmonella Enterica, Andrea W. Lo Nov 2015

Application Of Bacteriophage Cocktail In Leafy Green Wash Water To Control Salmonella Enterica, Andrea W. Lo

Masters Theses

Produce is responsible for 46% of all foodborne illnesses in the USA. Salmonella enterica causes 19,000 hospitalizations each year, and has been associated with produce. Presently, chlorine based sanitizers are most often used, however organic matter reduces its antimicrobial activity. Bacteriophage treatments are an all-natural, alternative method for pathogen inactivation. The objective of this study was to determine the efficacy of a five-strain bacteriophage treatment against a S. enterica cocktail in simulated wash waters at different temperatures. Bacteriophage and S. enterica were enumerated in simulated wash water solutions. One set of experiments studied bacteriophage and S. enterica growth in ...


Physicochemical And Toxicological Assessment Of Antimicrobial Ε-Polylysine-Pectin Complexes, Cynthia L. Lopez Pena Aug 2015

Physicochemical And Toxicological Assessment Of Antimicrobial Ε-Polylysine-Pectin Complexes, Cynthia L. Lopez Pena

Doctoral Dissertations

ε-Polylysine is an appealing FDA-approved, all natural antimicrobial biopolymer effective against a wide range of microorganisms. Its implementation is greatly limited by its strong cationic charge, which has been linked to instability in food systems, perceived astringency and bitterness, and the ability to inhibit lipid digestion. Previous studies have shown that controlled complexation of ε-polylysine with anionic pectin is able to prevent instability and astringency in simplified model food systems, while maintaining the antimicrobial character of polylysine. Isothermal titration calorimetry, micro-electrophoresis, microscopy, and turbidity analyses of the stability of electrostatic pectin-polylysine complexes in the presence of strongly anionic κ-carrageenan, and ...


Spray Fabrication Of Layer-By-Layer Antimicrobial N-Halamine Coatings, Anna Denis-Rohr Jul 2015

Spray Fabrication Of Layer-By-Layer Antimicrobial N-Halamine Coatings, Anna Denis-Rohr

Masters Theses

Antimicrobial coatings in which the active agent (e.g. N-halamine) can regenerate activity represent a promising way to prevent microbial cross-contamination. A reported method for applying coatings containing antimicrobial N-halamines is layer-by-layer (LbL) application of polyelectrolytes, which form N-halamines upon cross-linking. Prior reports on dip layer-by-layer (LbL) fabrication have demonstrated the potential of this coating technology; however, spray LbL fabrication would enable more rapid coating and represents a more commercially translatable application technique. In this work, dip and spray LbL methods were used to coat polypropylene (PP) with N-halamine containing bilayers consisting of cross-linked polyethylenimine (PEI) and poly(acrylic acid ...


Influence Of Lipoteichoic Acid On Listeria Monocytogenes Biofilm Formation And Cellular Stress, Imelda T. Brooks Nov 2014

Influence Of Lipoteichoic Acid On Listeria Monocytogenes Biofilm Formation And Cellular Stress, Imelda T. Brooks

Doctoral Dissertations

Lipoteichoic acid (LTA) is an important polymer on the surface of Gram-positive organisms, including the foodborne, biofilm-forming pathogen Listeria monocytogenes, and is connected to the cell membrane through a glycolipid backbone. Previous results have shown the importance of LTA in cell viability and biofilm formation. The purpose of this research is to further investigate the influence of LTA in L. monocytogenes biofilm formation and how the bacterium responds to environmental stress caused by antimicrobial exposures, and a combination of low temperature and high osmolarity. We created in frame deletion mutants along the operon lmo-2555-lmo2554-lmo2553, which have been shown to reduce ...


Susceptibility Of Escherichia Coli O157:H7, Salmonella Enterica Sp., And Listeria Monocytogenes To Antimicrobial Mixed Micelle Delivery Systems, Chanelle N. Adams Nov 2014

Susceptibility Of Escherichia Coli O157:H7, Salmonella Enterica Sp., And Listeria Monocytogenes To Antimicrobial Mixed Micelle Delivery Systems, Chanelle N. Adams

Doctoral Dissertations

Within the food industry, there is an ever increasing demand to improve the quality of food and ensure safety from pathogenic/spoilage microorganisms. Globalization of the food industry in the 1990’s, in conjunction with the worldwide shipment of food created a need for the extension of shelf-life and enhanced maintenance of food quality (12). In the United States alone, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention report that each year, roughly 1 in 6 Americans (or 48 million people) gets sick, 128,000 are hospitalized, and 3,000 die of foodborne diseases; this correlates to approximately $77.7 billion ...