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Full-Text Articles in Life Sciences

Changes In Color Guidance Over The Course Of A Complex Visual Search, Ryan Papargiris Jul 2019

Changes In Color Guidance Over The Course Of A Complex Visual Search, Ryan Papargiris

Masters Theses

When searching for an object, we store a mental representation of the target, which guides our search through the use of attention. The effectiveness of this search guidance varies depending on the task and the relationship between target and distractors. With a better understanding of how search guidance changes over time within a trial, we can better compare the differences between experimental conditions. Eye tracking data from a variety of search tasks were analyzed to determine how color guidance varied over the course of the trial. Color guidance for a given fixation was evaluated based on the distance in color ...


One Year Change In Cognitive Function In Male And Female Common Marmosets (Callithrix Jacchus), Brianna Healey Jul 2019

One Year Change In Cognitive Function In Male And Female Common Marmosets (Callithrix Jacchus), Brianna Healey

Masters Theses

Long term cognitive studies in humans and nonhuman primates such as macaques are difficult because of their long lifespan. The common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus) is a non-human primate who shares with humans many features characteristic of primates, including a complex brain and cognitive function. They also have a short lifespan (~10 years) that makes them a great model in studies of cognitive aging. This study focuses on the rate of decline in cognitive function in male and female marmosets based on performance on reversal learning tasks over 2 years of testing.

We found that marmosets improved their overall performance from ...


Sex, Motivation, And Reversal Learning In The Common Marmoset (Callithrix Jacchus), Alyssa Carlotto Jul 2019

Sex, Motivation, And Reversal Learning In The Common Marmoset (Callithrix Jacchus), Alyssa Carlotto

Masters Theses

This study examined the relationships between motivation and cognitive performance in male and female common marmosets (Callithrix jacchus). This question was driven by prior data from the Lacreuse lab showing a robust female impairment in reversal learning, as assessed by the number of trials needed to acquire a reversal following a simple discrimination between two stimuli. This thesis tested the hypothesis that the female impairment in reversal learning was mediated by deficits in motivation. Two sets of measures were used to test this hypothesis. I evaluated physical effort via testing on the progressive ratio (PR), a test that requires animals ...


Integration Of Robotic Perception, Action, And Memory, Li Yang Ku Oct 2018

Integration Of Robotic Perception, Action, And Memory, Li Yang Ku

Doctoral Dissertations

In the book "On Intelligence", Hawkins states that intelligence should be measured by the capacity to memorize and predict patterns. I further suggest that the ability to predict action consequences based on perception and memory is essential for robots to demonstrate intelligent behaviors in unstructured environments. However, traditional approaches generally represent action and perception separately---as computer vision modules that recognize objects and as planners that execute actions based on labels and poses. I propose here a more integrated approach where action and perception are combined in a memory model, in which a sequence of actions can be planned based on ...


Effort-Related Motivational Dysfunctions: Behavioral And Neurochemical Studies Of The Wistar-Kyoto Rat Model Of Depression, Brendan Abbott Jul 2018

Effort-Related Motivational Dysfunctions: Behavioral And Neurochemical Studies Of The Wistar-Kyoto Rat Model Of Depression, Brendan Abbott

Masters Theses

Depression and related disorders are characterized by motivational dysfunctions, including deficits in behavioral activation and exertion of effort. Animal models of relevance to depression represent a critical starting point in elucidating the neurobiological mechanisms underlying motivational dysfunctions. The present study explored the use of the Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) animal model of depression to examine effort-related functions as measured by voluntary wheel running and performance on a mixed fixed ratio 5/progressive ratio (FR5/PR) operant task. Given the known link between activational aspects of motivation and the mesocorticolimbic dopamine (DA) system, the behavioral effects of d-amphetamine (0.5 and 1.0 ...


Sleep, And Its Relation To Non-Motor Deficits In Patients With Cerebellar Ataxia, Akshata Sonni Mar 2018

Sleep, And Its Relation To Non-Motor Deficits In Patients With Cerebellar Ataxia, Akshata Sonni

Doctoral Dissertations

The cerebellum is a highly connected structure, and its involvement in sleep – which is a dynamic process that is modulated by a complex set of neural systems – can come about through a number of neural pathways. We conducted two studies aimed at furthering our understanding of cerebellar involvement in sleep behavior and physiology, as well as measuring the impact of poor sleep on mood and cognition in patients with cerebellar degeneration. First, by means of an online battery including measures of sleep and neuropsychiatric function, we collected data from 176 patients with cerebellar ataxia. We found strong evidence of poor ...


Assessing The Long-Term Sequelae Of Mild Traumatic Brain Injury, Janna Mantua Mar 2018

Assessing The Long-Term Sequelae Of Mild Traumatic Brain Injury, Janna Mantua

Doctoral Dissertations

A mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI), also known as a concussion, is defined as an injury that results in an alteration of consciousness or mental status. Previous studies have shown mTBI populations experience a number of chronic (> 1 year) symptoms, such as sleep disturbances (e.g., sleep stage alterations), mood alterations (e.g., depressive symptoms), and cognitive alterations (e.g., poor concentration). The three chapters of this dissertation sought to explore these long-term sequelae and the possible interrelations between them. In the first experiment, sleep-dependent memory consolidation of neutral stimuli was probed in a chronic mTBI sample and a control ...


The Role Of Sleep On Inhibitory Control In Young Children With Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (Adhd), Amanda Cremone Nov 2017

The Role Of Sleep On Inhibitory Control In Young Children With Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (Adhd), Amanda Cremone

Doctoral Dissertations

Alongside the hallmark symptoms of hyperactivity and inattention, children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) often report having sleep problems. Although sleep deficits are consistently found when evaluated subjectively, impairments in sleep physiology are inconsistent. Compared to typically developing (TD) children, children with ADHD have greater spectral power in the delta (0.5 to 4 Hz) and theta frequency bands (4 to 7 Hz). Moreover, activity in these bands is differentially related to cognitive outcomes in ADHD and TD populations. As such, this dissertation sought to examine relations between sleep physiology and inhibitory control, a primary deficit of ADHD, in young ...


Explicit Learning Of Phonotactic Patterns Disrupts Language Learning, Evan Hare Oct 2017

Explicit Learning Of Phonotactic Patterns Disrupts Language Learning, Evan Hare

Masters Theses

Learning environment has been proposed to be a cause of age of acquisition effects in second language acquisition. Explicit learning in adults is linked to fast initial gains but poorer ultimate attainment whereas implicit learning in children requires more input but leads to greater proficiency in the long run. The current study used ERP measures to determine if explicit learning of a phonotactic pattern interferes with implicit learning of that same pattern in adults. Listeners were told to figure out the pattern of consonants that can go together in a word by listening to 16 CVCV nonsense words in which ...


A Representational-Hierarchical Account: A New Theory Of False Memories, D. Merika Wilson Jul 2017

A Representational-Hierarchical Account: A New Theory Of False Memories, D. Merika Wilson

Masters Theses

Past research has supported a representational-hierarchical theory of memory and perception that extends the ventral visual stream into the medial temporal lobe. In this account, representations are organized in a hierarchical manner, such that structures located further anterior in the brain contain complex representations of whole objects and areas further posterior in the visual cortex contain representations of simple features. When conjunctive representations are compromised, an individual must rely on simple-feature representations to complete mnemonic and perceptual tasks. However, these simple-feature representations are susceptible to feature-level interference, which can cause false recognition of novel objects. The goal of the present ...


The Neural Correlates Of Emotion Reactivity And Regulation In Young Children With Adhd, Claudia I. Lugo-Candelas Nov 2016

The Neural Correlates Of Emotion Reactivity And Regulation In Young Children With Adhd, Claudia I. Lugo-Candelas

Doctoral Dissertations

Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is the most frequently occurring pediatric neurobehavioral disorder. Although emotion reactivity and regulation are frequently impaired in ADHD, few studies have examined these factors in preschool aged children with ADHD, and none have explored the neural correlates of emotion reactivity and regulation in this group though event-related potentials (ERPs). Children aged 4 to 7 with (n = 24) and without (n = 30) ADHD symptoms completed an attention task composed of four blocks: baseline, frustration, suppression, and recovery. In the frustration and suppression blocks, negative affect was induced by false negative feedback. During the suppression block, children were ...


Behavioral And Neural Mechanisms Of Impulsive Choice, Jesse Mcclure Nov 2015

Behavioral And Neural Mechanisms Of Impulsive Choice, Jesse Mcclure

Doctoral Dissertations

Impulsive choice is defined as the preference for a small immediate reward over a larger delayed reward. Individual variablity in impulsive choice correlates with many socially relevant behaviors. Although forms of impulsive choice have been studied in both behavioral ecology and psychology, the exchange of knowledge between these fields is just beginning. Drawing from both of these fields will improve our research methods allowing for a more detailed understanding of this complex behavior. Existing tasks to measure impulsive choice conflate the delay and quantity of the reward. To address this, I have drawn from foraging research to establish a method ...


Estrogen-Sensitive Learning Is Not Affected By Combination Ethinyl Estradiol And Levonorgestrel Oral Contraceptive Use, Darlene F. Ficco Aug 2015

Estrogen-Sensitive Learning Is Not Affected By Combination Ethinyl Estradiol And Levonorgestrel Oral Contraceptive Use, Darlene F. Ficco

Doctoral Dissertations

Two studies were conducted to explore the cognitive effects of combination ethinyl estradiol and levonorgestrel contraceptive use during late adolescence and young adulthood. Three groups of females, naturally cycling, active pill phase, and hormone-free interval phase, were tested on a battery of estrogen-sensitive, i.e., place learning and word generation, and estrogen-insensitive, i.e., map drawing, mental rotation, digit span, story recall, and object recall, tasks. Study 2 was conducted as a means to replicate the findings observed in Study 1 and to manipulate task difficulty and sensitivity. Two measures of mood were administered, and salivary estradiol levels at time ...


Associations Between Anxiety And Attention In Laboratory-Housed Rhesus Macaques (Macaca Mulatta), Lauren E. Hobbs Jul 2015

Associations Between Anxiety And Attention In Laboratory-Housed Rhesus Macaques (Macaca Mulatta), Lauren E. Hobbs

Masters Theses

Previous studies completed with humans have revealed insight into the effects of anxiety on attention tasks such the dot-probe task, but there is little information about such effects on non-human primates. This study aimed to assess whether anxiety or anxious behaviors would impact rhesus macaque performance on a three stimuli paradigm similar to the dot-probe task. Utilizing images of conspecifics (strong threat, mild threat, and neutral), eight monkeys were video recorded completing a task that required them to slide two doors, which held these images, to the side to obtain a treat. We hypothesized that behavioral phenotype (high or low ...


Attention Modulates Erp Indices Of The Precedence Effect, Benjamin H. Zobel Nov 2014

Attention Modulates Erp Indices Of The Precedence Effect, Benjamin H. Zobel

Masters Theses

When presented with two identical sounds from different locations separated by a short onset asynchrony, listeners report hearing a single source at the location of the lead sound, a phenomenon called the precedence effect (Wallach et al., 1949; Haas, 1951). When the onset asynchrony is above echo threshold, listeners report hearing the lead and lag sounds as separate sources with distinct locations. Event-related potential (ERP) studies have shown that perception of separate sound sources is accompanied by an object-related negativity (ORN) 100-250 ms after onset and a late posterior positivity (LP) 300-500 ms after onset (Sanders et al., 2008; Sanders ...


Age-Related Changes In Sleep-Dependent Consolidation Of Visuo-Spatial Memory, Akshata Sonni Nov 2014

Age-Related Changes In Sleep-Dependent Consolidation Of Visuo-Spatial Memory, Akshata Sonni

Masters Theses

Healthy aging is associated with a reduction in slow-wave sleep (SWS), crucial for declarative memory consolidation in young adults; consequently, previously observed benefits of sleep on declarative learning in older adults could reflect a passive role of sleep in protecting memories from waking interference, rather than an active, stabilizing effect. To dissociate the passive and active roles of sleep, a visuo-spatial task was administered; memory was probed after a 12 hr interval consisting of either daytime wake or overnight sleep and post-wake/post-sleep stability of the memories was tested following task-related interference. Ninety five older adults (mean=65.43 yrs ...