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University of Iowa

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Full-Text Articles in Life Sciences

Properties Of Hiv-1 Env And Human Seminal Fluid That Determine Virus Inhibition By Antibodies And Microbicides, Jacklyn Johnson Aug 2019

Properties Of Hiv-1 Env And Human Seminal Fluid That Determine Virus Inhibition By Antibodies And Microbicides, Jacklyn Johnson

Theses and Dissertations

Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) establishes a persistent infection that leads to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). Approximately 36 million people worldwide are living with HIV-1, which is commonly acquired through sexual contact. Antiviral therapies control disease progression, but do not eliminate this virus from the host. Thus, global efforts are focused on developing vaccines that prevent HIV-1 transmission. Such vaccines are based on eliciting the production of protective antibodies that target the envelope glycoproteins (Envs) of this virus. Unfortunately, HIV-1 immunization trials have shown limited efficacy. A better understanding of the antibody-mediated inactivation process is needed to improve vaccine ...


Play-Based Design: Participatory Design Method For Developing Technologies With 3 And 4 Year-Old Children, Luiza Superti Pantoja Aug 2019

Play-Based Design: Participatory Design Method For Developing Technologies With 3 And 4 Year-Old Children, Luiza Superti Pantoja

Theses and Dissertations

Young children in the United States are widely using technology at ages 3 and 4, but to date there are no well documented participatory design methods for including this age group in the development of technologies. A few attempts at using methods designed for older children were unsuccessful. To address this gap in methods, this research developed Play-based Design, a novel participatory design method inspired by make-believe play in the style of Tools of the Mind, an evidence-based preschool curriculum.

Play-based Design first sets the context for play and design through stories. It then enables children to plan play by ...


Awareness And Opinions About Sugar-Sweetened Beverage Policy In A University Setting, Helaina Thompson Aug 2019

Awareness And Opinions About Sugar-Sweetened Beverage Policy In A University Setting, Helaina Thompson

Theses and Dissertations

The purpose of this study was to explore awareness and opinions about sugar-sweetened beverage policy—specifically pouring rights contracts—on a university campus. Participants were 915 students, staff, and faculty currently studying or under employment at the University of Iowa. Participants completed an online survey. Nearly two-thirds (64.2%) of participants reported not being aware of pouring rights prior to completing the survey. Over one-third (38.0%) of participants reported they agreed with universities engaging in pouring rights contracts, while 30.9% of participants neither agreed or disagreed, and 31.0% disagreed with universities engaging in pouring rights contracts. Respondents ...


Polymicrobial Sepsis Influences Cd8 T Cell Responses And Alters Host Susceptibility To Infection And Cancer, Derek Brett Danahy Aug 2019

Polymicrobial Sepsis Influences Cd8 T Cell Responses And Alters Host Susceptibility To Infection And Cancer, Derek Brett Danahy

Theses and Dissertations

Sepsis occurs when infection enters the circulation resulting in harmful or lethal levels of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines that affects nearly 2 million people in the U.S. annually. Improved identification and treatment options have increased survival of patients shortly after sepsis. However, this management of sepsis subsequently revealed survivors have increased long-term mortality rates due to altered immune responses that increase susceptibility to secondary complications. My thesis further revealed how sepsis impacts CD8 T cell-mediated immunity that protects the host against sepsis unrelated complications that will be useful for improving the outcome of sepsis survivors.

Using vaccinia virus (VacV ...


Two Human Mitochondrial Pyruvate Carrier Mutations Reveal Distinct Mechanisms Of Molecular Pathogenesis, Lalita Oonthonpan Aug 2019

Two Human Mitochondrial Pyruvate Carrier Mutations Reveal Distinct Mechanisms Of Molecular Pathogenesis, Lalita Oonthonpan

Theses and Dissertations

The Mitochondrial Pyruvate Carrier (MPC) occupies a central metabolic node by transporting cytosolic pyruvate into the mitochondrial matrix, thereby linking glycolysis with mitochondrial metabolism. Two reported human MPC1 mutations cause developmental abnormalities, neurological problems, metabolic deficits, and for one patient, early death. We aimed to understand biochemical mechanisms by which the human patient c.C289T and c.T236A MPC1 alleles disrupt MPC function. MPC1 c.C289T encodes two protein variants, a mis-spliced, truncation mutant (A58G) and full-length point mutant (R97W). MPC1 c.T236A encodes a full-length point mutant (L79H). Using human patient fibroblasts and complementation of CRISPR-deleted, MPC1 null mouse ...


Investigating The Organization And Regulation Of Aggregated Proteins Within Sub-Nuclear Organelles, Michael Henry Hayes May 2019

Investigating The Organization And Regulation Of Aggregated Proteins Within Sub-Nuclear Organelles, Michael Henry Hayes

Theses and Dissertations

Protein aggregation has long been associated with disease states, such as Alzheimer’s, Huntington’s, and Parkinson’s diseases. This model is challenged by increasing recognition of functional protein aggregates. Our focus has been exploration of intra-aggregate organization, and investigation of the ability of ATP to mediate energy independent aggregate solubilization by acting as a hydrotrope. Furthering our understanding of the composition and regulation of these structures will provide insight into how their dysregulation gives rise to disease, and provide a template for the development of novel therapeutics.

Sub-nuclear organelles are a class of non-membrane bound organelle. These compartments form ...


An Exploration Of Rna And Mirna Expression And Their Role In Cell Cycle Regulation Of Human Primary Trabecular Meshwork Cells, Kyle Joseph Gonsalves May 2019

An Exploration Of Rna And Mirna Expression And Their Role In Cell Cycle Regulation Of Human Primary Trabecular Meshwork Cells, Kyle Joseph Gonsalves

Theses and Dissertations

In the Kuehn lab, it has been shown that inducible pluripotent stems cells that have been induced to be trabecular meshwork cell-like (iPSC-TM) have a unique ability to regenerate dysfunctional trabecular meshwork (TM) cells by sharing specific unknown factors. In this thesis will discuss the novel means by which I isolate primary human Trabecular Meshwork (pTMs) and efficiently prepare cell cultures for experimentation, such as a sequencing experiment in which I studied expression changes that arose when the TM cell culture’s cell cycle control is manipulated. Previous research has shown that pTM grow atypical when 100% confluent compared to ...


Computational Strategies To Investigate The Genetic Cause Of Human Eye Disease, Wesley Andrew Goar May 2019

Computational Strategies To Investigate The Genetic Cause Of Human Eye Disease, Wesley Andrew Goar

Theses and Dissertations

It is estimated that 4000 genetic diseases/syndromes affect humans with one third of these diseases involving the eye. Many eye disorders, such as age-related macular degeneration that affects an estimated 170 million elderly adults worldwide, are associated with genetic variants. Since the conception of the human genome project we have learned a great deal about the genetic make-up of the human race and have identified over ~20,000 genes. Over 270 of these genes have been implicated in retinal diseases alone with many more genes involved in other forms of ocular disease. Though we have made a great deal ...


Mitochondrial Ca2+/Calmodulin-Dependent Kinase Ii (Camkii) Regulates Smooth Muscle Cell Migration And Neointimal Formation Via Mitochondrial Ca2+ Uptake And Mobility, Emily Kim Nguyen May 2019

Mitochondrial Ca2+/Calmodulin-Dependent Kinase Ii (Camkii) Regulates Smooth Muscle Cell Migration And Neointimal Formation Via Mitochondrial Ca2+ Uptake And Mobility, Emily Kim Nguyen

Theses and Dissertations

No abstract provided.


Characterizing The Effect Of Serotonergic Input On Medullary Phox2b Neurons, Katherine Louise Proch May 2019

Characterizing The Effect Of Serotonergic Input On Medullary Phox2b Neurons, Katherine Louise Proch

Theses and Dissertations

Biological functions take place within tightly controlled parameters, including pH, which is managed in part through the ventilatory chemoreflex. This reflex is mediated by central respiratory chemoreceptors (CRCs) specialized to detect blood pH/CO2. Two neuronal populations are thought to mediate this response: the serotonergic (5-HT) neurons of the medullary raphé, and the Phox2b expressing neurons of the retrotrapezoid nucleus (RTN). These groups are both responsive to CO2 stimuli in vivo and in vitro. There are also apparent one-way connections from the raphé to the RTN, which is sensitive to 5-HT. Due to its complex innervation, study of RTN neurons ...


Vasopressin In Preeclampsia, Jeremy Anton Sandgren May 2019

Vasopressin In Preeclampsia, Jeremy Anton Sandgren

Theses and Dissertations

Preeclampsia is a devastating disorder of pregnancy characterized by high blood pressure, proteinuria, headache, renal glomerular endotheliosis, multi-organ system failure, and fetal and maternal demise. As reviewed in Chapter I, not much is known about the pathogenesis of preeclampsia, contributing to a lack of biomarkers and treatments for the disease. In Chapter II, we review arginine vasopressin, a circulating neuropeptide hormone with important fluid balance and cardiovascular actions. Vasopressin binds to numerous receptors throughout the body to elicit its effects and is associated with various disease states. In Chapter III, we discuss evidence for vasopressin as an etiology of preeclampsia ...


Field Application Of Environmental Dna Techniques To Detect Early Stages Of Invasion By The Destructive New Zealand Mud Snail, James D. Woodell May 2019

Field Application Of Environmental Dna Techniques To Detect Early Stages Of Invasion By The Destructive New Zealand Mud Snail, James D. Woodell

Theses and Dissertations

Nonnative species that cause damage to ecosystems to which they are introduced are considered in-vasive. Restoration of the original ecosystem after an invasive population has established is expensive and difficult but more likely to succeed when invasions are discovered early. Containment efforts to prevent the spread of known invasions also benefit from earlier knowledge of invaded sites. Environ-mental DNA (eDNA) techniques are emerging as a tool that can identify invasive species at a distinctly earlier time point than traditional methods of detection. I collected water samples from eight sites not known to be invaded by the freshwater New Zealand mud ...


The Influence Of Long-Access Cocaine Self-Administration On Behavioral Measures Of Anxiety And Craving In Rats, Jesse A. Gray, Victória A. Müller Ewald, Ryan T. Lalumiere Jan 2019

The Influence Of Long-Access Cocaine Self-Administration On Behavioral Measures Of Anxiety And Craving In Rats, Jesse A. Gray, Victória A. Müller Ewald, Ryan T. Lalumiere

Honors Theses at the University of Iowa

Cocaine addiction is a prevalent and substantial problem. It is very difficult for cocaine-addicted individuals to receive treatment, avoid relapse, and go into full remission. Animal models of cocaine taking can be used to study different facets of this disease. One such model is cocaine self-administration. Although self-administration is a widely used model in the field of drug-addiction biology (Müller Ewald V., Lalumiere R., 2017), its influence on rat-specific characteristics such as anxiety and craving is not clear. In this experiment, we sought to correlate drug-taking levels during self-administration with measures of anxiety-like behaviors and cocaine craving. Male Sprague-Dawley rats ...


Effects Of Pol Zeta, Pol Eta, And Polymerase Delta Mutants On The Genetic Instability Of Inverted Repeat Insh During Break-Induced Replication, Tyler Jackson Jan 2019

Effects Of Pol Zeta, Pol Eta, And Polymerase Delta Mutants On The Genetic Instability Of Inverted Repeat Insh During Break-Induced Replication, Tyler Jackson

Honors Theses at the University of Iowa

Break-induced replication (BIR) is a type of DNA repair pathway that specializes in the repair of one ended double-stranded breaks (DSBs). The pathway is necessary to preserve genetic information in the presence of DNA damage. However it is not currently known how BIR proceeds through inverted repeats (IRs) that are capable of forming secondary structures. Not only that, the specific subset of proteins required to assist BIR through IRs is also unknown.Saccharomyces cerevisiae is a suitable organism for the investigation of BIR because it allows for easy investigation into the role of highly conserved proteins. S. cerevisiae mutant experimental ...


Investigating The Roles Of Cyclin C In The Mammalian Heart, Jessica Marie Ponce Jan 2019

Investigating The Roles Of Cyclin C In The Mammalian Heart, Jessica Marie Ponce

Theses and Dissertations

Although pathological alterations in gene expression and mitochondria function in response to cardiac ischemia are well recognized, the mechanisms driving these changes are incompletely understood. Nuclear to mitochondrial communication regulating gene expression and mitochondrial function is a critical process following cardiac ischemic injury. Here we determine that cyclin C, a component of the transcriptional regulator, Mediator complex, directly regulates cardiac and mitochondrial function by modifying mitochondrial fission. We tested the hypothesis that cyclin C has a binary function as a transcriptional cofactor in the nucleus and acute regulation of cardiac energetics in ischemia by enhancing mitochondrial fission in the cytoplasm ...


Optimizing Computer Simulation Models For Carbohydrates And Proteins At The Atomistic And Coarse-Grained Level, Wesley K. Lay Dec 2018

Optimizing Computer Simulation Models For Carbohydrates And Proteins At The Atomistic And Coarse-Grained Level, Wesley K. Lay

Theses and Dissertations

Computer simulations allow researchers to study the dynamics and interactions of biological molecules in ways that cannot be currently achieved in experiments. In this work, I have used computer simulations to study the following systems: (1) carbohydrate-carbohydrate and carbohydrate-amino acid interactions using all-atom molecular dynamics simulations, and (2) protein-protein interactions using coarse-grained implicit solvent models.

My first studies involved simulating carbohydrate and amino acid systems using atomistic force fields. During my initial simulations, I observed that carbohydrates were interacting too favorably leading them to aggregate in conditions under which they experimentally remain soluble. To alleviate this issue, I surgically modified ...


Molecular Mechanisms And Functions Of Mitochondrial Calcium Transport In Neurons, Jacob Eugene Rysted Dec 2018

Molecular Mechanisms And Functions Of Mitochondrial Calcium Transport In Neurons, Jacob Eugene Rysted

Theses and Dissertations

During neuronal activity mitochondria alter cytosolic Ca2+ signaling by buffering then releasing Ca2+ in the cytosol. This calcium transport by mitochondria affects the amplitude, duration, and spacial profile of the Ca2+ signal in the cytosol of neurons. This buffering by mitochondria has been shown to affect a variety of neuronal functions including: neurotransmission, gene expression, cell excitability, and cell death. Recently, researchers discovered that the protein CCDC109A (mitochondrial Ca2+ uniporter) was the protein responsible for mitochondrial Ca2+ uptake. Using a genetic knockout (KO) mouse model for the mitochondrial Ca2+ uniporter (MCU) my research investigated the role of MCU in neuronal ...


Regulator Of G Protein Signaling 2 (Rgs2) In Preeclampsia: Association, Consequence, And Cause, Katherine Perschbacher Dec 2018

Regulator Of G Protein Signaling 2 (Rgs2) In Preeclampsia: Association, Consequence, And Cause, Katherine Perschbacher

Theses and Dissertations

Increased signaling of various hormones through their cognate G Protein-Coupled Receptors (GPCRs), including the angiotensin, endothelin, and vasopressin systems, are implicated in human preeclampsia (PreE) and animal models of the disorder. Cascade-specific termination of GPCR signaling following receptor activation is catalyzed by the Regulator of G protein Signaling (RGS) family members. Within the RGS B/R4 family, RGS5 and RGS2 are implicated in human PreE and gestational hypertensive disorders. Mutations within the RGS2 gene, a B/R4 RGS member, are associated with human hypertensive populations and increased risk of developing PreE and its sequelae. Given the role for the placenta ...


Structure And Function Of The Disordered Regions Within Translesion Synthesis Dna Polymerases, Kyle Thomas Powers Dec 2018

Structure And Function Of The Disordered Regions Within Translesion Synthesis Dna Polymerases, Kyle Thomas Powers

Theses and Dissertations

Normal DNA replication is blocked by DNA damage in the template strand. Translesion synthesis is a major pathway for overcoming these replication blocks. In this process, multiple non-classical DNA polymerases form a complex at the stalled replication fork called the mutasome. This complex is structurally organized by the replication accessory factor PCNA and the non-classical DNA polymerase Rev1. One of the non-classical DNA polymerases within the mutasome then catalyzes replication through the damage. Each non-classical DNA polymerase has one or more cognate lesions, which the enzyme bypasses with high accuracy and efficiency. Thus, the accuracy and efficiency of translesion synthesis ...


The Multifaceted Roles Of Cd177 In Mammary Tissue Development And Breast Cancer, Paige Nicole Kluz Dec 2018

The Multifaceted Roles Of Cd177 In Mammary Tissue Development And Breast Cancer, Paige Nicole Kluz

Theses and Dissertations

Aiming to identify immune molecules with a novel function in cancer pathogenesis, we found the cluster of differentiation 177 (CD177), a known neutrophil antigen, expression to be positively correlated with relapse-free (RFS), metastasis-free (MFS) or overall survival (OS) in several solid cancers including those from breast, prostate, cervix, and lung. To study the role of CD177 in breast cancer, we generated a total body Cd177 knockout mouse. These mice had no profound phenotype at 3 - months of age or younger. The only phenotype found at this age was reduced peripheral neutrophil counts, but no difference in their ability to clear ...


Bidirectional Communication Between The Brain And Gut Microbiota In Shudderer, A Drosophila Nav Channel Mutant, Patrick Arthur Lansdon Dec 2018

Bidirectional Communication Between The Brain And Gut Microbiota In Shudderer, A Drosophila Nav Channel Mutant, Patrick Arthur Lansdon

Theses and Dissertations

Neurological disorders, such as epilepsy, often result from inherited or newly acquired genetic mutations. However, individuals possessing the exact same disease-causing mutations can exhibit dramatic differences in the severity of their symptoms. These differences can be explained in part by environmental factors, such as the microbes in our gut, that play an important role in the manifestation of disease symptoms. Within the last decade, microbes living in the gut have established themselves as an environmental factor with profound effects on our health and well-being. Of special interest is the relationship between the gut microbiota and neurological disease. The goal of ...


Detection And Treatment Of Critical Illnesses Using Oligonucleotides, Kevin Thomas Urak Dec 2018

Detection And Treatment Of Critical Illnesses Using Oligonucleotides, Kevin Thomas Urak

Theses and Dissertations

Sepsis is among the most prevalent diagnosed critical illnesses in the United States today. Although advances have reduced the overall morbidity and mortality associated with this illness, the enormous number of deaths associated with it shows a need for improved diagnostic and therapeutic optionsgent. Our laboratory has utilized RNA based technologies to aid in the treatment of histone induced multiple organ dysfunction syndrome seen in sepsis.

Histones are proteins found in the nucleus of every cell in our body and have been shown to be released during sepsis. Such release induces damage to other cells, causing a feed forward cycle ...


Semen Exosomes: Intrinsic Inhibitors Of Hiv-1 Infection, Jennifer Lynn Welch Dec 2018

Semen Exosomes: Intrinsic Inhibitors Of Hiv-1 Infection, Jennifer Lynn Welch

Theses and Dissertations

Exosomes are cell-derived vesicles that circulate in bio-fluids and enclose cell-associated cargo, producing various consequences in intercellular communication and may contribute to microbial pathogenesis. Exosomes are similar in composition to enveloped viruses, making differentiation between exosomes and enveloped viruses difficult. Yet, exosomes and enveloped viruses may vary considerably in function. Exosomes produced from infected cells may incorporate viral material as they are simultaneously produced with viruses and depending upon the cargo, contribute to disease pathogenesis. Conversely, exosomes from uninfected cells may contribute to protection from infection. Exosomes from breast milk, vaginal fluid, and semen of healthy donors protect against HIV-1 ...


Investigations Of Hp1 And Insulator Partner Protein 1 (Hipp1), Steve Ehren Glenn Dec 2018

Investigations Of Hp1 And Insulator Partner Protein 1 (Hipp1), Steve Ehren Glenn

Theses and Dissertations

Drosophila HP1 and Insulator Partner Protein 1 (HIPP1) is the homologue of the human co-repressor Chromodomain Y family of proteins that repress neuronal gene expression in mammals. HIPP1 was identified by its extensive co-localization with Heterochromatin Protein 1a (HP1a) in heterochromatic regions of the genome and insulator binding proteins in euchromatic regions. The majority of HIPP1 binding to euchromatin is at binding sites for Drosophila Suppressor of Hairy-wing [Su(Hw)]. Su(Hw) is a zinc finger DNA binding protein that functions as an insulator, activator, and repressor. Transcriptional regulation by Su(Hw) is essential in the ovary and testis, where ...


Genome-Wide Dna Methylation Investigation Of Stress: From A Mouse Model Of Chronic Stress To Humans Exposed To Glucocorticoids, Patricia Rose Braun Aug 2018

Genome-Wide Dna Methylation Investigation Of Stress: From A Mouse Model Of Chronic Stress To Humans Exposed To Glucocorticoids, Patricia Rose Braun

Theses and Dissertations

Stress contributes to the development of major depressive disorder (MDD) and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and an intermediary factor between stress and psychiatric disorders may be epigenetics. Studies have shown altered DNA methylation (DNAm) in animal models of and humans with stress exposure and in individuals with PTSD and MDD. The availability of genome-wide experimental platforms has given us new tools to investigate DNAm, and in this dissertation these techniques have been used to further our current understanding of the epigenetics of stress.

We performed a genome-wide investigation in mice exposed to chronic stress that exhibit depressive- and anxious-like behaviors ...


Genome Evolution In Parasitic Wasps: Comparisons Of Sexual And Asexual Species, Eric S. Tvedte Aug 2018

Genome Evolution In Parasitic Wasps: Comparisons Of Sexual And Asexual Species, Eric S. Tvedte

Theses and Dissertations

The fate of any lineage is contingent on the rate at which its genome changes over time. Genome dynamics are influenced by patterns of mutation and recombination. Mutations as the raw force of variation can be acted on independently during exchanges of homologous genetic regions via meiotic recombination. While molecular evolution in sexual lineages is impacted by both mutation and recombination, asexual lineage fate is primarily influenced by the mutation rate; recombination is often altered or absent in asexuals. Although multiple studies show accelerated mutation accumulation in asexual lineages that have lost recombination, virtually nothing is known about rate patterns ...


Use Of Osmotic Coefficient Measurements To Validate And To Correct The Interaction Thermodynamics Of Amino Acids In Molecular Dynamics Simulations, Mark Stephen Miller Aug 2018

Use Of Osmotic Coefficient Measurements To Validate And To Correct The Interaction Thermodynamics Of Amino Acids In Molecular Dynamics Simulations, Mark Stephen Miller

Theses and Dissertations

Molecular dynamics simulations are an increasingly valuable tool to biochemical researchers: advances in computational power have expanded the range of biomolecules that can be simulated, and parameters describing these interactions are increasingly accurate. Despite substantial progress in force field parameterization, recent simulations of protein molecules using state-of-the-art, fixed-charge force fields revealed that the interactions among and within protein molecules can be too favorable, resulting in unrealistic aggregation or structural collapse of the proteins being simulated. To understand why these protein-protein interactions are so over-stabilized, I first assessed the ability of simulation force fields to represent accurately the interactions of individual ...


Regulation Of Plasma Triglycerides By Angptl4 And Gpihbp1, Emily Malcolm Cushing Aug 2018

Regulation Of Plasma Triglycerides By Angptl4 And Gpihbp1, Emily Malcolm Cushing

Theses and Dissertations

The absorption, packaging, and delivery of fat to appropriate peripheral tissues is essential for maintaining metabolic homeostasis, and defects or dysregulation of these processes can contribute to metabolic disorders such as diabetes, obesity, and hyperlipidemia. In the intestine, dietary fat is packaged into triglyceride-rich lipoprotein particles and delivered to peripheral tissues through the circulatory system.

Lipolysis of lipoprotein triglycerides requires the enzyme lipoprotein lipase (LPL) and takes place on the luminal surface of capillary endothelial cells. Lipolysis by LPL is regulated in part by two proteins, GPIHBP1 and ANGPTL4. GPIHBP1, a GPI-anchored protein of capillary endothelial cells, is responsible for ...


Utilizing Urinary Biomarkers In Egyptian Adolescent Applicators And Non-Applicators To Characterize Pesticide Exposure To Λ-Cyhalothrin, Α-Cypermethrin, Chlorpyrifos And Profenofos Applied On Cotton Crops Over Time, Barbara C. Okeke May 2018

Utilizing Urinary Biomarkers In Egyptian Adolescent Applicators And Non-Applicators To Characterize Pesticide Exposure To Λ-Cyhalothrin, Α-Cypermethrin, Chlorpyrifos And Profenofos Applied On Cotton Crops Over Time, Barbara C. Okeke

Theses and Dissertations

Organophosphates (OPs) and Pyrethroids (PYRs) are widely used pesticides in both agricultural and non-agricultural environments. In agricultural work settings, typically more than one pesticide is used in combination, or sequentially, to kill pests. There is currently a gap in research that looks at how exposures to multiple pesticides can impact human health – particularly among adolescents who work in these environments. The goal of this dissertation research was to examine the use of OP (chlorpyrifos, and profenofos) and PYR (λ-Cyhalothrin, α-Cypermethrin) pesticides across an application season and how exposure is associated with symptoms and cholinesterase enzyme activity, and to examine the ...


Hypothalamic Mechanisms Underlying The Cardiovascular And Metabolic Actions Of Leptin, Balyssa Bridget Bell May 2018

Hypothalamic Mechanisms Underlying The Cardiovascular And Metabolic Actions Of Leptin, Balyssa Bridget Bell

Theses and Dissertations

Secreted by adipose tissue, leptin acts as a signal of energy reserve status, and acts in the brain as a negative feedback mechanism to suppress food intake and increase energy expenditure, the net effect of which is maintenance of energy homeostasis. In addition to its role as a satiety factor, leptin has widespread autonomic effects, increasing sympathetic tone to a variety of tissues, including those involved in arterial pressure regulation. Thus, leptin has been implicated as a critical link between obesity and hypertension. However, the specific mechanisms whereby leptin elicits its diverse effects are not fully understood. This is further ...