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Full-Text Articles in Life Sciences

Why Did The Eisenhower Administration Decide To Deploy Jupiter Missiles In Turkey: A Case Study In Nuclearization Of Nato Strategy, Murat Iplikci Nov 2019

Why Did The Eisenhower Administration Decide To Deploy Jupiter Missiles In Turkey: A Case Study In Nuclearization Of Nato Strategy, Murat Iplikci

Theses and Dissertations

Looking out at the international political landscape of the late 1940s and the early 1950s, the Eisenhower administration was determined to challenge the evident appeal of Communism, particularly in Western Europe. NATO, which was a fragile organization due to the devastation of World War II (WWII), and its members were prone to any communist attack, either by military forces or through political parties. They had to be defended. The Eisenhower administration saw nuclear weapons as the only means to defend the alliance against the massive threat of the Soviet Union. Therefore, President Eisenhower committed nuclear weapons to NATO as a ...


Characterization Of Pth Type-2 Receptor (Pth2rb) And Its Endogenous Ligand Pth2 In Zebrafish Development, Nicholas Seitz May 2019

Characterization Of Pth Type-2 Receptor (Pth2rb) And Its Endogenous Ligand Pth2 In Zebrafish Development, Nicholas Seitz

Theses and Dissertations

Members of the parathyroid hormone family of ligands, PTH (parathyroid hormone), PTH2, and PTHLH (parathyroid hormone-like hormone). These hormones interact with the class B GCPRs parathyroid hormone receptors PTH1R, PTH2R, and PTH3R to regulate a variety of biological processes. In mammals, PTH and PTHLH activate PTH1R and PTH3R to mediate serum calcium homeostasis, chondrogenesis, and bone maintenance. PTH2R activation by PTH2 has been studied primarily in regard to its neuroendocrine roles but is also found in the skin where it contributes to wound healing and keratinocyte differentiation. Still, little is known about the impacts of PTH2R signaling relative to PTH1R ...


Examination Of Student-Athletes' Developmental Transition From Youth Sport To College Sport, Coleman Childers May 2019

Examination Of Student-Athletes' Developmental Transition From Youth Sport To College Sport, Coleman Childers

Theses and Dissertations

The majority of research in developmental sport psychology has targeted the youth and adolescent age groups (aged five to 18) and has tended to avoid athletes in organized and highly competitive environment such as major college athletics. The transition from high school to college brings many challenges. Academically and socially, students encounter increased course rigor, decreased in-class time, and adjustment to new social groups. Additionally, student-athletes encounter scrutiny from the public, extensive time commitments, changing social dynamics, and physical and mental demands as they combine athletic and academic pursuits. This on-going study explores student-athletes’ perspectives of the developmental transition from ...


Hip Abductor To Hip Adductor Strength Ratio Measurements In Patients With Non-Specific Low Back Pain, Matthew Hugg Apr 2019

Hip Abductor To Hip Adductor Strength Ratio Measurements In Patients With Non-Specific Low Back Pain, Matthew Hugg

Theses and Dissertations

Background: The hip musculature is globally known to support the pelvis, which in turn can aid in reducing the occurrence of low back pain (LBP). Previous research has shown a decrease in strength of the hip abductors in patients with LBP. The hip abductors also have an important role in stabilizing the pelvis while walking. The hip adductors attach to the pubic symphysis and assist in stabilizing the pelvis. Due to the ability to activate and assist with hip and leg motions, the adductor muscles may have an effect on controlling hip motion to reduce LBP and sacroiliac dysfunction. The ...


Effects Of Attentional Focus Cues On Soccer Trap Kinematics And Performance, Ladule Lako Losarah Mar 2019

Effects Of Attentional Focus Cues On Soccer Trap Kinematics And Performance, Ladule Lako Losarah

Theses and Dissertations

The primary purpose of this research was to assess how the kinematic performance of an inside of the foot soccer ball control movement changed with an internal, external, or holistic attentional focus coaching cue. The researchers used pendulum catapult to launch a soccer ball from 8.5 meters at the participant. Ten female active NCAA division 1 soccer players received one of three cues, or no cue, and then had five trials to control the ball onto an artificial turf mat to score 1-3 points depending on where the ball landed. Participants completed a manipulation check survey to ascertain the ...


Single Leg Hop Landing Analysis In Patients With Chronic Ankle Instability, Lateral Ankle Sprain Copers, And Healthy Individuals, Jordyn Ashlyn Rine Mar 2019

Single Leg Hop Landing Analysis In Patients With Chronic Ankle Instability, Lateral Ankle Sprain Copers, And Healthy Individuals, Jordyn Ashlyn Rine

Theses and Dissertations

CONTEXT: There are an estimated 28,000 ankle injuries that occur per day in the United States, thus making the pathology one of the most common sports-related injuries. Lateral ankle sprains account for 80% of all athletic injuries and approximately 73% will suffer from a recurrent injury. The residual symptoms that linger following repetitive lateral ankle sprains are often correlated with chronic ankle instability (CAI). Lateral ankle sprain (LAS) copers successfully cope with the damage that results from sustaining a lateral ankle sprain, whereas CAI patients suffer from residual symptoms. Traditional measures of COP from force-plate data are useful in ...


Body Mass As The Optimal Load Predictor For Power Clean Variations: A Practical Approach, Marcel Lopes Dos Santos Mar 2019

Body Mass As The Optimal Load Predictor For Power Clean Variations: A Practical Approach, Marcel Lopes Dos Santos

Theses and Dissertations

The purpose of this study was to examine the possibility of estimating the optimal load of the Hang Power Clean (HPC), Hang High Pull (HHP), and Mid-thigh Clean Pull (MTP) based on a relative percentage of the subjects’ body mass (BM). Fifteen males with experience in weightlifting (age: 21.8 ± 1.9 years; BM: 83.2 ± 9.0 kg; height: 175.4 ± 6.0 cm; 1-repetition maximum [1RM]: 93.0 ± 12.7 kg; 1RM to BM ratio: 1.12 ± 0.13) performed HPC, HHP, and MTP at intensities of 30, 40, 50, 60, 70, 80, and 90% BM. Kinematic data ...


Impact Of Selected Financial Measures On The Term Debt Repayment Ability Of Illinois Grain Farms, Samuel Awortwe Johnson Mar 2019

Impact Of Selected Financial Measures On The Term Debt Repayment Ability Of Illinois Grain Farms, Samuel Awortwe Johnson

Theses and Dissertations

A clear and accurate assessment of the financial performance of a farm business is an important component of financial management at any time but becomes even more crucial in periods of economic downturn in the farm sector. Farmers continue to increase their debt even though the prices of commodities are low, and the prices of inputs are high (Krapf, Raab, & Zwilling, 2017). In addition, high family living expenses can also place financial pressure on farms (Scott, 2016). This study focused on identifying and estimating the impact of key factors which included financial measures and family living expenses on the term ...


Incidental Cardiac Arrhythmia Identification With Consumer Grade Heart Rate Monitors: A Case Study, Neal C. Phifer Mar 2019

Incidental Cardiac Arrhythmia Identification With Consumer Grade Heart Rate Monitors: A Case Study, Neal C. Phifer

Theses and Dissertations

PURPOSE: The purpose of the study was to examine instances of using chest strap type heart rate monitor (HRM) data as a means of identifying otherwise asymptomatic individuals with possible cardiac arrhythmias as examined across four division one collegiate sports teams. METHODS: Heart rate activity was tracked across an entire season of four different division one collegiate teams (men’s basketball, women’s basketball, women’s soccer and women’s volleyball). A total of 65 athletes were equipped with heart rate monitors that were worn as allowed during practices and games. Data were collected using chest strap mounted activity sensors ...


The Effects Of Highlighting Healthy Options On Consumer Food Choices In A Food Bank Setting, Kaitlin Nicole Grabow Mar 2019

The Effects Of Highlighting Healthy Options On Consumer Food Choices In A Food Bank Setting, Kaitlin Nicole Grabow

Theses and Dissertations

Objective: The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of highlighting healthy food options on consumer food choices in a food bank setting.

Methods: Two community food banks participated in this study. One food bank served as the control, while a second food bank was rearranged so that fresh produce and other healthy products were the first options that shoppers encountered upon entering. After shopping, carts were inventoried for healthy vs non-healthy products. Composition of the carts from the control food bank were then compared to the contents of the carts from the intervention food bank.

Results: A ...


Ice Cream Substitute For Patients With End Stage Renal Disease, Abby Iocca Mar 2019

Ice Cream Substitute For Patients With End Stage Renal Disease, Abby Iocca

Theses and Dissertations

Background: Quality of life for patients with end stage renal disease is less than similar-aged, general population counterparts. A large part of the decrease in quality of life is change of diet and nutritional restrictions, oral nutrition supplements are a way to combat this decrease in quality of life.

Methods: An ice cream substitute product was developed for patients with end stage renal disease and that are on dialysis. The product consisted of rice milk, egg whites, evaporated coconut milk, sugar, and vanilla bean paste. There were two flavors: cinnamon and lemon. These flavors were both tested subjectively and objectively ...


Fiber Intake In Hemodialysis Patients And Its Effects On Symptoms, Jennifer Langner Mar 2019

Fiber Intake In Hemodialysis Patients And Its Effects On Symptoms, Jennifer Langner

Theses and Dissertations

On average 30 million adults are diagnosed with chronic kidney disease (CKD) in the United States (National Kidney Foundation, 2017). Patients in late stage kidney disease and on dialysis are placed on a restrictive diet to aid in the treatment of their disease. There are adverse symptoms associated with dialysis including nausea, constipation, diarrhea and fatigue. Fiber has been shown to decrease gastrointestinal symptoms such as reducing constipation and inflammation in the body in healthy populations. This study examined 19 hemodialysis dialysis patients and their fiber intake in relation to a variety of symptoms such as constipation, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea ...


Hydration Knowledge And Intake In High School Student Athletes, Erin Ortiz Mar 2019

Hydration Knowledge And Intake In High School Student Athletes, Erin Ortiz

Theses and Dissertations

Objective: Heat related illness is one of the leading causes of death in high school athletes.

Proper hydration strategies have been shown to decrease heat related illness in college and

professional athletes. However, limited research has been conducted on the hydration habits of

high school athletes. The increase in high school sports participation has put more athletes at

risk for dehydration. The purpose of the study is to investigate the hydration status and impact of

an educational intervention on hydration habits of high school student athletes, by assessing their

current understanding of hydration and monitoring their fluid intake, during practice ...


Deciphering The Consequences Of Yolk Testosterone Metabolism In Birds, Nicole A. Campbell Mar 2019

Deciphering The Consequences Of Yolk Testosterone Metabolism In Birds, Nicole A. Campbell

Theses and Dissertations

Maternal steroids transferred to eggs can elicit permanent effects on various aspects of offspring phenotype. Although, testosterone was thought to be a key mediator of maternal effects in birds, we now know that vertebrate embryos actively regulate their exposure to maternal testosterone through steroid metabolism, suggesting testosterone metabolites may elicit the observed phenotypic effects. To address the role steroid metabolism plays in mediating yolk testosterone effects, we used European starling (Sturnus vulgaris) eggs to characterize the timing of testosterone metabolism and determine whether etiocholanolone, a prominent testosterone metabolite in avian embryos, is capable of influencing early embryonic development. Tritiated testosterone ...


Impact Of A Single Injury Prevention Instructional Session On The Incidence Of Injury Among U.S. Army Rotc Cadets, Joshua Wooldridge Feb 2019

Impact Of A Single Injury Prevention Instructional Session On The Incidence Of Injury Among U.S. Army Rotc Cadets, Joshua Wooldridge

Theses and Dissertations

Background: Musculoskeletal injuries are the leading health concern for the United States Army. These injuries are the third leading cause of hospitalizations for Army service members and the primary cause for the majority of service-connect disability discharges. Over 80% of musculoskeletal injuries are overuse injuries caused by physical training. The Joint Services Physical Training Injury Prevention Work Group considers education to be a mandatory component of all injury prevention efforts; however, little military research has investigated the impact of education as a primary intervention. Objective: To examine the effect of an injury prevention education class on the incidence of injuries ...


Constructing A Data-Based Mortality Profile For Avian Tower Kills At Telecommunication Towers In Illinois, Rachel Dipietro Nov 2018

Constructing A Data-Based Mortality Profile For Avian Tower Kills At Telecommunication Towers In Illinois, Rachel Dipietro

Theses and Dissertations

During spring and fall seasons, Neotropical migratory passerines travel nocturnally across the Western Hemisphere between their wintering and breeding grounds, often encountering man-made threats. One hazard that has gained considerable publicity in recent decades is the communication tower. While there have been many tower kill studies recorded, there has been no attempt at predicting the risk of towers based on their different attributes (e.g., height, type of light, landscape placement) spatially on a regional scale. The objective of this study was to create seasonal mortality profile maps in GIS for Illinois, based on tower attributes combined with key factors ...


The Old Versus The New Equestrian Circus: Demonstrating And Promoting Equine Welfare, Veronica Painter Jul 2018

The Old Versus The New Equestrian Circus: Demonstrating And Promoting Equine Welfare, Veronica Painter

Theses and Dissertations

Circus is an art form that was originally considered as a humanitarian art, promoting equine welfare by shedding a new light on the horse and human relationship. During a time where horses were used for war, work, and transportation; fancy riding and liberty stood as the framework for a new togetherness between man and beast. The animal activist revolution centered on exotic animals in circus, yet the effects of these demanding pressures caused a major blow to the equestrian circus. This comparative study examines possible improvements to the industry in order to keep this art alive. Keeping up with eclectic ...


Chamaecrista Fasciculata In Tallgrass And Sand Prairies: The Potential For Differential Responses, Robert W. Philips Jun 2018

Chamaecrista Fasciculata In Tallgrass And Sand Prairies: The Potential For Differential Responses, Robert W. Philips

Theses and Dissertations

Successful establishment of a diversity of native species has become an important goal for restoration site managers to achieve, however as seed sources for a species may occur in habitats with different abiotic and biotic characteristics. Consequently, seeds from different sources may vary in their success in a restoration. Chamaecrista fasciculata, a native prairie species, occurs in two divergent prairie types - tallgrass and sand prairies. Tallgrass prairies have a moist soil with dense vegetation; in contrast, sand prairies have a well-drained sandy soil with sparse vegetation. I propose differential selection acting on populations in these prairie types would affect their ...


When Does Less Equal More? Assessing The Mechanisms Driving Compensatory Mortality And The Hydra Effect, Joseph T. Neale Jun 2018

When Does Less Equal More? Assessing The Mechanisms Driving Compensatory Mortality And The Hydra Effect, Joseph T. Neale

Theses and Dissertations

Many populations across taxa are regulated by negative density-dependence, wherein increased population sizes lead to decreased birth rates and/or increased mortality. By releasing such populations from some level of these density-dependent effects, extrinsic mortality can lead to counter-intuitive results, such as no change in population size (compensation), or an increase in population size (overcompensation). These results have been documented experimentally, but there currently exists a dearth of empirical studies exploring the mechanisms behind the phenomenon. We tested the relationship between extrinsic mortality level and (over)compensation in four mosquito species – Aedes aegypti, A. albopictus, A. triseriatus, and Culex pipiens ...


Out Of The Shell: Exploring The Phagocytic Capabilities Of The B Cell And Isolated Lymphoid Follicle-Lie Structures In The Red-Eared Slider, Trachemys Scripta, Marc A. Ashford Jr. Apr 2018

Out Of The Shell: Exploring The Phagocytic Capabilities Of The B Cell And Isolated Lymphoid Follicle-Lie Structures In The Red-Eared Slider, Trachemys Scripta, Marc A. Ashford Jr.

Theses and Dissertations

Management of immunity is crucial for survival in all living organisms. While there is a large amount of research for established model organisms, such as the mouse model, much less is known about reptiles. When compared to immunity in mammals, we discover many differences such as susceptibility to certain pathogens, alteration of immune processes due to environmental temperature, the total absence of certain lymphoid organs contained in mammals, among many others. Despite this, the reptile has shown in many studies that they are worthy systems to study immunity in an evolutionary perspective and recent studies may show that they may ...


Markers Of Cardiometabolic Risk And Thyroid Dysfunction In U.S. Adolescents: Nhanes Iii, Jonathan Austin Apr 2018

Markers Of Cardiometabolic Risk And Thyroid Dysfunction In U.S. Adolescents: Nhanes Iii, Jonathan Austin

Theses and Dissertations

The global prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MetS) and its associated components (high fasting glucose, waist circumference, blood pressure, triglycerides, and low HDL) have increased over the past few decades. In addition, abnormal thyroid hormone levels have been found to manifest in a cascade of metabolic dysfunction, which may be linked to MetS in youth. PURPOSE: The purpose of the study is to investigate the association between MetS, its components, and markers of thyroid function in a nationally-representative sample of adolescents. METHODS: The National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey III (1988-1994) collected data on the components of metabolic syndrome and thyroid ...


Comparing Bmi Perceptions Of Self- And Others Between Kinesiology And Non-Kinesiology University Students, Dzenita Bahtic Apr 2018

Comparing Bmi Perceptions Of Self- And Others Between Kinesiology And Non-Kinesiology University Students, Dzenita Bahtic

Theses and Dissertations

Misperception of own BMI has been postulated as a factor contributing to the increasing prevalence rates of overweight and obesity. Objectives: To examine 1) perceptions university students had toward their own and others’ BMI, and 2) if Kinesiology majors could better assess others’ BMI classifications than non-Kinesiology majors. Methods: Data were collected from 567 (male, n = 144; female, n = 423) university students using a structured questionnaire. Measures consisted of height, weight, perception of own BMI, and visual perception of own and others’ BMI. Self-reported BMI was calculated from height and mass then classified per World Health Organization classifications. Percent agreement ...


Graston Technique Pressure Changes On Hamstring Range Of Motion, Emily Martz Apr 2018

Graston Technique Pressure Changes On Hamstring Range Of Motion, Emily Martz

Theses and Dissertations

Context: Instrument assisted soft tissue mobilization (IASTM) can be applied as a myofascial treatment using a set of instruments and is growing in popularity with clinicians. There is a gap in the literature identifying the best pressure application recommendation without eliciting unnecessary discomfort.

Objective: To investigate if using light or firm pressure applied with the Graston Technique (GT) would have an impact on changing range of motion (ROM).

Design: Single blinded randomized control trial

Setting: Laboratory

Patients or Other Participants: Twenty-seven physically active participants (14 females and 13 males; age: 23±3.4 years; height: 68.59±3.32; weight ...


Exercise Is Medicine On Campus Program Comparisons: A Descriptive Study, Jacquelyn Sherman Apr 2018

Exercise Is Medicine On Campus Program Comparisons: A Descriptive Study, Jacquelyn Sherman

Theses and Dissertations

PURPOSE: The purpose of this research is to gain a better understanding of how universities are implementing EIM-OC at their campus with specific focus on the involved departments/entities, the client experience, and programming options.

METHODS: The participants for the study were the university representatives for all currently recognized Exercise is Medicine® on Campus programs. The date was collected via Qualtrics survey, containing 49 questions, which was distributed via email to 172 schools (both domestic and international), to which 24 responses were submitted. Participants were identified via ACSM Exercise is Medicine® on Campus advisor email list for all universities with ...


Supporting The Medial Longitudinal Arch: A Comparison Between Intrinsic And Extrinsic Musculature, James D. Schaefer Apr 2018

Supporting The Medial Longitudinal Arch: A Comparison Between Intrinsic And Extrinsic Musculature, James D. Schaefer

Theses and Dissertations

Context: Much Research has been done to study what muscles best support the medial longitudinal arch (MLA). However these studies look at intrinsic or extrinsic muscles individually rather than comparing their effects at support of the MLA in a static stance. Researchers have yet to examine the changes to the MLA in the gait cycle rather than just looking at it from a static point of view. Objective: To study the effectiveness of two strengthening protocols for supporting the medial longitudinal arch during stance and gait. Design: Single-blinded, randomized control trial. Setting: Testing was completed in two athletic training facilities ...


Testing The Effects Of Message Framing On Physical Activity Motivation In Active And Non-Active Adults, Derek James Hevel Mar 2018

Testing The Effects Of Message Framing On Physical Activity Motivation In Active And Non-Active Adults, Derek James Hevel

Theses and Dissertations

PURPOSE: Understanding how to best “sell” physical activity (PA) is a critical goal. This study investigated the effects of message framing on motivation to participate in a PA program, and tested whether the effectiveness of messages framed to promote either affective benefits, physical health benefits, or a combination of benefits varied based on one’s current PA status.

METHODS: Adult participants (N=188) from a Midwestern university, who were recruited via email, completed an online survey assessing demographic information and current stage of change. They then viewed one of four randomly assigned promotional flyers for a PA program offered on ...


Factors Affecting Illinois Legislators' Perceptions Of School-Based Agricultural Education, Perry William Harlow Mar 2018

Factors Affecting Illinois Legislators' Perceptions Of School-Based Agricultural Education, Perry William Harlow

Theses and Dissertations

This study examined factors contributing to Illinois General Assembly members’ perceptions of school-based agricultural education. Personal characteristics and multiple media sources were examined to determine if any of these factors affected their perception of school-based agricultural education. These factors included the population area of where the legislator grew up, the population area of the district the legislator represents, the geographical location of the legislator’s district, whether the legislator lived on a farm, and whether the legislator worked on a farm. The factors also included frequency of seeing information about school-based agricultural education on multiple media source including television, radio ...


The Association Between Parental Beliefs About Sport Specialization And Athlete Sport Specialization Classification, Henry Mercier Mar 2018

The Association Between Parental Beliefs About Sport Specialization And Athlete Sport Specialization Classification, Henry Mercier

Theses and Dissertations

Context: Previous research has demonstrated a high prevalence of extrinsic pressures among single sport athletes. The influence of parental beliefs on a high school student athlete’s decision to participate in a single sport rather than multiple sports has yet to be determined. Objective: To estimate a student athlete’s level of sport specialization from parental sport specialization beliefs and to investigate independent relationships of potential factors influencing the decision to pursue a single sport. Design: Cross-sectional survey. Setting: High school athletics. Participants: Fifty-seven high school student athletes (25 females, 32 males; mean age 15.6±1.6 years) selected ...


A Combinatorial Premotor Neural Code: Transformation Of Sensory Information Into Meaningful Rhythmic Motor Output By A Network Of Heterogeneous Modulatory Neurons, Christopher John Goldsmith Mar 2018

A Combinatorial Premotor Neural Code: Transformation Of Sensory Information Into Meaningful Rhythmic Motor Output By A Network Of Heterogeneous Modulatory Neurons, Christopher John Goldsmith

Theses and Dissertations

The goal of the following research was to investigate the contributions of neural networks in selecting distinct variants of rhythmic motor activity. We used the premotor commissural ganglion (CoG) in the stomatogastric nervous system of the Jonah crab to understand how this network effectively controls the rhythms produced in downstream motor circuits. Prior research determined that individual CoG neurons are necessary to mediate sensory-induced variation in the effected motor patterns. However, single premotor neuron inputs to the STG are not sufficient to recreate the patterns induced by the selective activation of sensory pathways. Thus, it was hypothesized that the CoG-mediated ...


Framed Text Messages As A Nutrition Education Intervention, Michael James O'Halloran Mar 2018

Framed Text Messages As A Nutrition Education Intervention, Michael James O'Halloran

Theses and Dissertations

A youth’s college years is a critical period in health behavior formation, during which body mass index (BMI) and other health behaviors such as diet and physical activity are strong predictors of adult health status. Text messaging is prominent in the lives of most college-age adults. Despite this, relatively few studies have investigated the potential of utilizing a text message-based intervention to target fruit and vegetable consumption, a measure for weight management behaviors. Additionally, few studies utilizing a text message-based intervention have utilized a theory specific to the creation of behavior-motivating text messages. The gain-framed health behavior messages of ...