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Magnolia: Impact Of Interspecific Hybridization On Genetic Variation And Ongoing Breeding Initiatives, James Kevin Parris Dec 2018

Magnolia: Impact Of Interspecific Hybridization On Genetic Variation And Ongoing Breeding Initiatives, James Kevin Parris

All Dissertations

The genus Magnolia comprises over 250 species naturally occurring in Eastern North America, Central America, South America, islands of the Gulf of Mexico, and Eastern Asia. A long history of cultivation and breeding going back to the early nineteenth century reveals a common trend of reproductive compatibility throughout this group of basal angiosperms. Interspecific hybridization has led to plethora of ornamental cultivars that have proven adaptable to natural and cultivated habitats beyond the range of each species. Understanding of taxonomic relationships between species has evolved as observations of morphological characteristics and genetic analyses have been more thoroughly investigated. The objectives ...


Bacterial Diversity And Ecology Of Two Cryptoendolithic Habitats In The Grand Staircase Escalante National Monument, Utah, Usa, Sukhpreet Kaur Aug 2018

Bacterial Diversity And Ecology Of Two Cryptoendolithic Habitats In The Grand Staircase Escalante National Monument, Utah, Usa, Sukhpreet Kaur

All Dissertations

Sandstone outcrops in the Grand Staircase Escalante National Monument, Utah are host to cryptoendolithic communities dominated by cyanobacteria. These communities produce extracellular polymeric substances that not only aid their survival, but also support other heterotrophic bacteria. Developing a better understanding of the role of these cryptoendolithic communities requires a deeper knowledge of the microbial diversity present. We analyzed the cryptoendolithic bacterial communities in the Jurassic Navajo Sandstone samples collected from several microgeological features associated with a large sandstone dome. These communities clustered into distinctive groups that correlated with topography, suggesting that moisture availability plays an important role in shaping the ...


Accounting For Soil Inorganic Carbon In The Ecosystem Services Framework For United Nations Sustainable Development Goals, Garth Raymond Groshans Dec 2017

Accounting For Soil Inorganic Carbon In The Ecosystem Services Framework For United Nations Sustainable Development Goals, Garth Raymond Groshans

All Theses

Soil inorganic carbon (SIC) is currently not included in the list of key soil properties related to ecosystem services (e.g., provisioning, regulating, cultural, and supporting services). Soil inorganic carbon is a dynamic key soil property used in soil classification, taxonomy and fertility, therefore its inclusion in the framework of ecosystem services is important. With soils rapidly changing due to human use and climate change, the soil ecosystem services framework should not include only soil organic carbon (SOC), but SIC as well since it is of global importance to soil fertility and the long-term carbon cycle, especially in semiarid and ...


Development Of New Bioinformatic Approaches For Human Genetic Studies, Jose Andres Guevara Coto Dec 2017

Development Of New Bioinformatic Approaches For Human Genetic Studies, Jose Andres Guevara Coto

All Dissertations

The development of bioinformatics methods for human genetic studies utilizes the vast amount of data to generate new valuable information. Machine learning and statistical coupling analysis can be used in the study of human diseases. These diseases include intellectual disabilities (ID), prevalent in 1-3% of the population and caused primarily by genetics. Although many cases of ID are caused by mutations in protein-coding genes, the possible involvement of long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) in ID due to their role in gene expression regulation, has been explored. In this study, we used machine learning to develop a new expression-based model trained using ...


The Role The N-Terminal Domain Plays In Spidroin Assembly, Krystal Audrey Cadle Aug 2016

The Role The N-Terminal Domain Plays In Spidroin Assembly, Krystal Audrey Cadle

All Dissertations

One of the most interesting biomaterials known to man is spider silk. These fibers, composed primarily of protein, show beneficial mechanical and biological properties that have many uses in medical and industrial fields. Spider silk proteins (spidroins) are composed of three core components that consists of a C-terminal domain (CTD), repeat domain (R), and N-terminal domain (NTD). The NTD and CTD are highly conserved and are believed to form “multimeric strands” that make up spider silk. Although it is known that the NTD undergoes a conformational change that results in stable homodimer formation at acidic pH , the way in which ...


Exploring The Interface Of Genetics, Genomics, And Older Adults, Scott Emory Moore Aug 2016

Exploring The Interface Of Genetics, Genomics, And Older Adults, Scott Emory Moore

All Dissertations

This dissertation addresses the interface of genetics, genomics, and older adults through a collection of three manuscripts that examine genetic and genomic testing and decision-making across age groups. The dissertation offers evaluations of a new lens for decision-making in genetics and genomics, a contextualization of the differences and similarities of perceptions and beliefs that exist among age groups engaging in direct-to-consumer personal genetic testing (DTC PGT), an identification of two factors that influence the decision to engage in DTC PGT, and an expansion of the current applications of Protection Motivation Theory to include disclosure, finance, and advance directive-management behaviors related ...


Tackling Adverse Environment—Molecular Mechanism Of Plant Stress Response And Biotechnology Tool Development, Ning Yuan Aug 2016

Tackling Adverse Environment—Molecular Mechanism Of Plant Stress Response And Biotechnology Tool Development, Ning Yuan

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Abiotic and biotic stresses such as drought, salt, nutrition starvation, and pathogen infection are major factors threatening our agricultural production. With the rapidly increasing population and limited arable land area, genetic engineering of crops for new products with more stable and higher yield than conventional cultivars under adverse environment provides a powerful new tool for use in developing novel GMOs (Genetically Modified Organisms) to feed the large population in the immediate future. To develop novel GMOs with enhanced performance under adverse conditions, we need first to understand molecular mechanisms underlying plant stress response. To better understand how signaling transduction pathway ...


Ruminant Supplementation Of Gluconeogenic Substrates Via Drinking Water, Gabriela Volpi-Lagreca Aug 2016

Ruminant Supplementation Of Gluconeogenic Substrates Via Drinking Water, Gabriela Volpi-Lagreca

All Dissertations

Dark cutting or high pH meat is found in all meat species, inducing significant losses to the meat industry. Dark cutting meat is a direct consequence of low muscle glycogen at slaughter, which affects the normal acidification of meat during rigor development, hence, the ultimate pH remains high. The ultimate pH of the meat has a great influence on certain meat quality parameters, such as color, water holding capacity, and tenderness. An animal exposed to stress previous to slaughter may significantly depletes its glycogen reserves. This situation leads to a high ultimate pH if the animal is slaughtered before it ...


Formulation And Characterization Of An Antimicrobial Coating Containing Nisin For Large Scale Food Package Converting Processes, Michele Christine Perna May 2016

Formulation And Characterization Of An Antimicrobial Coating Containing Nisin For Large Scale Food Package Converting Processes, Michele Christine Perna

All Dissertations

This research consisted of formulating an antimicrobial coating containing Nisaplin® intended for large scale production and inhibition of spoilage microorganisms. Secondly, the coating formulated was applied to a flexible film surface using two trials (gravure and flexography) commonly used in large scale food package coating or printing processes. In addition, diffusion and mass transfer theory was applied to discuss the many complications of predicting nisin diffusion or release from a coated material for antimicrobial food packaging applications.

Previous work conducted by predecessors, produced an antimicrobial coating formulation using a 70/30 Methylcellulose/Hydroxypropyl methylcellulose base (MC/HPMC). Some disadvantages of ...


Influence Of Exurban Neighborhoods On Riparian Vegetation And Stream Salamanders In The Southern Appalachian Mountains, Nathaniel Weaver Dec 2015

Influence Of Exurban Neighborhoods On Riparian Vegetation And Stream Salamanders In The Southern Appalachian Mountains, Nathaniel Weaver

All Theses

The southern Appalachian Mountains have experienced large population growth and a change in land use in the past 30 years. The majority of development has been low density, suburban land, known as exurban development. Lotic Systems and riparian areas are severely degraded by conversion from urban to rural land uses. The long-term effects of exurbanization on riparian vegetative communities and stream salamanders in the southern Appalachian Mountains are not well known. We sought to determine if vegetative community composition and structure change with time since neighborhood development or with the amount of impervious surface within the watershed. In order to ...


Development And Testing Of Supplemental Materials For An Undergraduate Healthy Food Product Development Curriculum, Breanne Halteman Dec 2015

Development And Testing Of Supplemental Materials For An Undergraduate Healthy Food Product Development Curriculum, Breanne Halteman

All Theses

ABSTRACT The goal of this research project was three-fold: (1) to follow up with students who had taken the Applied Interdisciplinary Product Development (AIPD) course two years prior to assess the long-term effect of the course on perceived self-confidence in product development skills, connectedness with the department, and preparedness to enter the industry; (2) to design, implement, and evaluate course materials educating undergraduate students about the subjects of herbs, spices, and sensory science; and (3) to evaluate the success of dissemination of a sophomore-level hybrid course on healthy food product development. A Subject Knowledge Assessment (SKA) was designed to measure ...


Weeds, Nitrogen, And Yield: Measuring The Effectiveness Of An Organic No-Till System, David Robb Dec 2015

Weeds, Nitrogen, And Yield: Measuring The Effectiveness Of An Organic No-Till System, David Robb

All Theses

Previous research in the mid-Atlantic and midwestern USA has identified advantages and drawbacks of "organic no-till" vegetable production, but few studies have been conducted in the warmer southeastern region. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of tillage [no-till (NT) vs. conventional tillage (CT) of a cereal rye/crimson clover cover crop] and three nitrogen fertilization rates on organic tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) and summer squash (Cucurbita pepo L.) yield, weed suppression, and soil N dynamics in two years in a soil series in Clemson, SC. Squash yields were similar between tillage treatments in both years. NT ...


Development And Implementation Of Hay Yield Monitoring Technology, Henry Ramsey Dec 2015

Development And Implementation Of Hay Yield Monitoring Technology, Henry Ramsey

All Theses

Three independent technologies related to hay yield monitoring were developed and studied. One technology involved comparison of infrared and ultrasonic sensors on a self-propelled forage harvester. Sensor response related to grass height and was used to estimate yield. Plots that were harvested ranged from 20-40 ft. in length while a bin mounted on the back of the mower collected the crop for weighing and sampling. The infrared sensors data demonstrated accuracies across plots between 5.9% and 9.5% error. The infrared sensors quickly deteriorated and eventually proved to be useless for data acquisition. As for the ultrasonic sensors, they ...


Comparative Aquatic Toxicity Of A Commercial Naphthenic Acid And Processes For Mitigating Risks, Ciera Kinley Dec 2015

Comparative Aquatic Toxicity Of A Commercial Naphthenic Acid And Processes For Mitigating Risks, Ciera Kinley

All Theses

Comparative toxicity data can inform predictions of relative risk, and can be used to implement strategies for altering exposures to mitigate risk. Naphthenic acids (NAs) are a complex group of carboxylic acids that naturally occur in petroleum sources and energy-derived process waters (e.g. refinery effluents and oil sands process affected waters). These compounds are relatively persistent in water and can be a source of toxicity to aquatic organisms. In the first experiment of this thesis, responses of sentinel aquatic organisms to 7-d exposures of commercial (Fluka) NAs were measured (in terms of acute toxicity) to discern relative sensitivities. In ...


Chinese Tallow Invasion In Maritime Forests: Understand Invasion Mechanism And Develop Ecologically-Based Management, Lauren Susan Pile Dec 2015

Chinese Tallow Invasion In Maritime Forests: Understand Invasion Mechanism And Develop Ecologically-Based Management, Lauren Susan Pile

All Dissertations

Invasion by highly aggressive, non-native, invasive plants is a significant threat to management and conservation priorities as these plants can transform ecosystem functions and processes. In this study, I investigated the non-native, invasive tree, Chinese tallow (Triadica sebifera (L.) Small) in the maritime forests of Parris Island, South Carolina. I studied the role of land-use history and modern forest disturbance in facilitating the invasion of Chinese tallow. I found that stands previously cleared for agriculture and reforested with slash pine (Pinus elliottii Englem.) since the 1970s had significantly more Chinese tallow stems than stands that remained forested since 1939 and ...


Effects Of Semi-Rigid Plastic Tray Geometry On Thermal Processing And Quality Factors In Retorted Foods, Curtis Stowe Dec 2015

Effects Of Semi-Rigid Plastic Tray Geometry On Thermal Processing And Quality Factors In Retorted Foods, Curtis Stowe

All Dissertations

This research studied the effect of packaging geometry changes on heat penetration and quality attributes of a food system processed in a rotary retort vessel. Studies were conducted to determine the effect of package geometry in a rotary retort on heat penetration, analytical, and physical properties of a model food system processed at optimum conditions. Additionally, heat mapping for each shape was used to determine the heating profiles during retorting. Retort-able trays were filled with a tomato based food simulate and thermally processed in a water immersion, automated batch retort system (ABRS) using rotational speeds of 6 RPM and 11 ...


Nutrition Education For Children Attending Preschool (Necap), Ibtehal Alsallaiy Dec 2015

Nutrition Education For Children Attending Preschool (Necap), Ibtehal Alsallaiy

All Dissertations

There is a need to educate children as young as 3-5 years old about nutrition. It is at this age when children start to develop their preferences for certain foods. The purpose of this research study was to; explore the perceptions, preferences, and dietary intake of the main food groups in preschool children, explore the availability, choices, and preparation of the main food groups by the care providers, design and present a nutrition education program to the children and their care providers. The average consumption of fruits during breakfast and lunch prior to the program was 51.6 %, 59.3 ...


Evaluation Of Blue Tilapia (Oreochromis Aureus) For Duckweed (Lemna Minor) Control In South Carolina's Private Waters, William Heaton Dec 2015

Evaluation Of Blue Tilapia (Oreochromis Aureus) For Duckweed (Lemna Minor) Control In South Carolina's Private Waters, William Heaton

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ABSTRACT We investigated the potential of Blue Tilapia (Oreochromis aureus) as a means for biological control of duckweed in agricultural impoundments, and assessed the potential for naturalization of this non-native fish in coastal regions of South Carolina. Additionally, we studied growth characteristics and nutrient accumulation abilities of duckweed (Lemna minor) growing in agricultural impoundments in the piedmont and coastal plain. Observations of tank feeding trials indicated juvenile Blue Tilapia consumed 36 – 86% of their body weight in fresh duckweed every 24 hours. Tilapia were stocked in agricultural impoundments in the piedmont and coastal plain during the 2012 and 2013 ...


Management And Impacts Of Wild Hogs (Sus Scrofa) In South Carolina, Susan Sullivan Dec 2015

Management And Impacts Of Wild Hogs (Sus Scrofa) In South Carolina, Susan Sullivan

All Theses

Wild hogs (Sus scrofa) are an invasive species that can damage native ecosystems, negatively impact native wildlife, and potentially act as disease reservoirs in the U.S. To better understand how natural resource professionals in South Carolina approach wild hog management, I conducted a web-based survey of natural resource professionals focused on aspects of wild hog impacts and management. Generally, there was agreement among natural resource professionals regarding the approaches used to control wild hog populations and their subsequent effectiveness. The majority of respondents indicated high priority impacts needing to be addressed in wild hog management were agricultural damage and ...


Development And Validation Of A Novel In Vitro Model For The Assessment Of Heterocellular Interactions Mediated By Connexin43, Emily Ongstad Dec 2015

Development And Validation Of A Novel In Vitro Model For The Assessment Of Heterocellular Interactions Mediated By Connexin43, Emily Ongstad

All Dissertations

The injury border zone (IBZ), a region of transitional tissue between intact myocardium and the ischemic area, is often the site of lethal reentrant arrhythmia generation in post-myocardial infarction (MI) patients. Disruption to normal connexin43 (Cx43) localization at the intercalated disc (ID), separation of myocytes by activated fibroblasts and deposited scar tissue are thought to be factors that render the IBZ a pro-arrhythmic substrate, though there is a current need to better understand these changes so directed therapies can be developed. There are no clinically available therapies focused on the mechanistic changes in the IBZ. Additionally, generation of new compounds ...


Arsenic Inhibits P19 Stem Cell Differentiation By Altering Microrna Expression And Repressing The Sonic Hedgehog Signaling Pathway, Jui Tung Liu Dec 2015

Arsenic Inhibits P19 Stem Cell Differentiation By Altering Microrna Expression And Repressing The Sonic Hedgehog Signaling Pathway, Jui Tung Liu

All Dissertations

Arsenic is a naturally-occurring toxicant that exists in bedrock and can be leached into ground water. Humans can be exposed to arsenic via contaminated drinking water, fruit, rice or crops. Epidemiological studies have shown that arsenic is a developmental toxicant, and in utero exposure reduces IQ scores, verbal learning ability, decreases long term memory, and increases the likelihood of dying from a neurological disorder. Arsenic can also reduce birth weight, weight gain, and muscle function after an in utero exposure. Although the mechanism behind these physiological changes is not known, in vitro studies have shown that arsenic can reduce muscle ...


Web-Based Nutrition Education Intervention For African American Women Using The Theory Of Planned Behavior, Joyce Senior Angulo Dec 2015

Web-Based Nutrition Education Intervention For African American Women Using The Theory Of Planned Behavior, Joyce Senior Angulo

All Dissertations

African American women have been disproportionately impacted for decades by the obesity epidemic, which frequently leads to severe chronic diseases such as cardiovascular disease, diabetes and hypertension. This increase in chronic diseases amongst African American women is the motivation for the design of a culturally tailored nutrition education (NE) program that combines a strong theoretical base with the use of technology such as the Internet, since its usage within the college aged African American community has rapidly increased. Little is known about the variables that motivate behavior change in regards to eating and physical activity habits among college aged African ...


Microrna-Mediated Plant Development And Response To Environmental Stress In Perennial Grasses, Shuangrong Yuan Dec 2015

Microrna-Mediated Plant Development And Response To Environmental Stress In Perennial Grasses, Shuangrong Yuan

All Dissertations

World population will pass nine billion by 2050, while the agricultural land area will not increase dramatically in the coming decades. To meet the ever-increasing food demand, genetically engineered crops have been rapidly adopted for crop productivity. MicroRNAs have become increasingly attractive as targets in crop genetic modification due to their regulatory role in fine-tuning many essential biological processes. My research explores the potentials of microRNA528 (miR528) and miR396 for use in genetic modifications of the important agronomic traits of plant development, abiotic stress response, and/or flowering time control in an economically and environmentally important perennial monocot species, creeping ...


The Detection And Characterization Of Some Viruses Infecting Blackberry And Cherry In South Carolina, Bindu Poudel Dec 2015

The Detection And Characterization Of Some Viruses Infecting Blackberry And Cherry In South Carolina, Bindu Poudel

All Dissertations

Three separate virus research projects were conducted. Blackberry yellow vein disease (BYVD), a disorder caused by virus complexes, has become a major threat to blackberry production in the United States, especially in the southeastern part of the country where blackberries are grown for the fresh market. More than 30 viruses have been found to be associated with the disease. Most of these induce no symptoms when infecting the plant alone. However, when more than a single virus is present in the host visible symptoms are displayed. The incidence of 6 different viruses (Blackberry yellow vein-associated virus, Blackberry virus Y, Blackberry ...


Nematicidal Activity Of Extracts From Phytolacca Americana On Five Plant-Pathogenic Nematode Species Of Economic Importance, Saleh Ahmed Dec 2015

Nematicidal Activity Of Extracts From Phytolacca Americana On Five Plant-Pathogenic Nematode Species Of Economic Importance, Saleh Ahmed

All Dissertations

Plant-parasitic nematodes cause significant losses to plant agriculture annually. The limited availability and high cost of synthetic nematicides, along with the environmental risks associated with their use, have created a renewed interest in the search for alternative management tactics. One such alternative tactic is the use of plant extracts. The focus of this research is the evaluation of the nematicidal activity of water extracts from Pokeweed (Phytolacca americana). In vitro and greenhouse tests were performed to evaluate the effects of the extracts on five species of plant-pathogenic nematodes of economic importance: Aphelenchoides fragariae, Ditylenchus dispsaci, Meloidogyne incognita, Pratylenchus penetrans, and ...


Development And Implementation Of The Generations Eating Together Through Cooking (G.E.T.T. Cooking) Curriculum And Its Effects On An Inter-Generational Population: A Pilot Study, Elizabeth Ramirez Dec 2015

Development And Implementation Of The Generations Eating Together Through Cooking (G.E.T.T. Cooking) Curriculum And Its Effects On An Inter-Generational Population: A Pilot Study, Elizabeth Ramirez

All Dissertations

The obesity epidemic continues to be a problem both in the US and worldwide. A number of factors have been attributed including: frequency of fast-food consumption, increased portion sizes, increased consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages, increased sedentary lifestyles, lack of nutrition knowledge, and lack of cooking skills. Nutrition intervention programs continue to be created providing innovative and creative ways of educating the public with pertinent knowledge and skills necessary for improving healthful behaviors; however, few programs focus on cooking skill development within a familial environment. The Generations Eating Together Through Cooking (G.E.T.T. Cooking) program was created by the ...


Environmental Effects On Fish Escape Responses: Impact Of Flow On The Escape Performance Of The Hawaiian Stream Goby, Sicyopterus Stimpsoni, Kelly Diamond Aug 2015

Environmental Effects On Fish Escape Responses: Impact Of Flow On The Escape Performance Of The Hawaiian Stream Goby, Sicyopterus Stimpsoni, Kelly Diamond

All Theses

The ability of fish to escape from predators is a critical behavior for their survival. Experimental measurements of escape performance in fishes have typically been based on trials conducted in still water; however, such environmental conditions are rare in nature due to waves and currents that expose fishes to unsteady and/or directional flow. I examined the effects of water flow and predator attack direction on the escape behavior of fish, using juveniles of the amphidromous Hawaiian goby Sicyopterus stimpsoni as a model system. In nature, these fish must escape ambush predation by the Hawaiian sleeper, Eleotris sandwicensis, while exposed ...


Interkingdom Communication: Study Of Caenorhabditis Elegans And Vibrio Cholerae Interactions, Joseph Angeloni Aug 2015

Interkingdom Communication: Study Of Caenorhabditis Elegans And Vibrio Cholerae Interactions, Joseph Angeloni

All Theses

Vibrio cholerae is a Gram-negative, rod-shaped bacterium that is mainly found in water environments, and is the causative agent of the disease cholera in humans. It is critical for this bacterium to communicate via quorum sensing to persist and survive in the environment, as well as cause infection. Recently, it has been shown that eukaryotes are able to sense and respond to certain quorum sensing molecules, known as autoinducers, which are produced by different bacteria. Caenorhabditis elegans is a particularly useful model for studying this interaction. During preliminary experiments, it was noticed that C. elegans were strongly attracted to V ...


Assessing The Impacts Of Macroalgal Competition And Parrotfish Grazing On Coral Cover In The Middle Florida Keys, Kylie Smith Aug 2015

Assessing The Impacts Of Macroalgal Competition And Parrotfish Grazing On Coral Cover In The Middle Florida Keys, Kylie Smith

All Theses

The coral reefs of the Florida Keys National Marine Sanctuary (FKNMS) are diverse ecosystems that support thousands of marine organisms. Unfortunately, the live coral cover on these reefs has dramatically decreased over the last 30 years even in the most protected areas of the sanctuary. Environmental changes have contributed to this decline in coral cover by creating optimal conditions for macroalgal growth. These macroalgae species are fast growing and out-compete slow growing corals for space and nutrients. Herbivores known to forage on macroalgae, including long-spined sea urchins and parrotfishes, have decreased in abundance. A synthesis of data from across the ...


Relationships Between Growth Rate And Gene Expression In Ruegeria Pomeroyi Dss-3, A Model Marine Alphaproteobacterium, Nattasha Vinas Aug 2015

Relationships Between Growth Rate And Gene Expression In Ruegeria Pomeroyi Dss-3, A Model Marine Alphaproteobacterium, Nattasha Vinas

All Theses

Microbes are important contributors to ecosystem processes such as biogeochemical cycling. Their activities vary, depending on environmental parameters such as carbon type and concentration, temperature, and salinity. Current estimates of in situ microbial growth is limited to gross estimates or rely on incubation based methods that disturb the natural state of the community. The goal of this master’s thesis is to develop molecular methods to directly assess microbial growth rates in the environment at the level of a taxonomic group. Here we grew Ruegeria pomeroyi DSS-3 under different temperatures (15 °C or 30 °C) and different carbon ...