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Claremont Colleges

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Full-Text Articles in Life Sciences

Observing The Effects Of Antimalarial Drug Availability On Women’S Work Absenteeism, Rei Imada Jan 2020

Observing The Effects Of Antimalarial Drug Availability On Women’S Work Absenteeism, Rei Imada

CMC Senior Theses

This study aims to provide insight on how availability of antimalarial drugs can help alleviate the economic burden of malaria. Much of the existing literature that looks into the effects of antimalarial drug availability focuses on the associated health benefits, but fails to draw a link to the economic benefits that may also be incurred. Using data from the 2015-2016 Tanzania Demographic and Health Survey and Malaria Indicator Survey, this study performs a series of multiple regressions to observe how increased availability of artemisinin-based combination therapies (ACTs), a front-line antimalarial drug in most African countries, affects likelihood of work absenteeism ...


Kibble Me This: The Scientific And Cultural Debate Over Boutique, Exotic, And Grain-Free Canine Nutrition, Anne Shalamoff Jan 2020

Kibble Me This: The Scientific And Cultural Debate Over Boutique, Exotic, And Grain-Free Canine Nutrition, Anne Shalamoff

Scripps Senior Theses

The relationship between humans and our canine companions goes back tens of thousands of years but commercial pet food is a relatively new phenomenon that has existed for less than two hundred. In a world of automation, mass-production, and global trade, factory scraps have replaced table scraps as the staple diet for dogs. Health issues, recall scares, changing human-dog relationships, and other social and political factors prompted dedicated pet owners to question the mysterious ingredients in their dog’s food and seek alternatives to mainstream kibble. This trend was halted by a report published in the summer of 2018 by ...


Fragile Oceans, Synthetic Flotsam And Microbial Collaboration – Explorations In The Visual Communication Of The Plastic Crisis, Ivan Langesfeld Jan 2019

Fragile Oceans, Synthetic Flotsam And Microbial Collaboration – Explorations In The Visual Communication Of The Plastic Crisis, Ivan Langesfeld

Pomona Senior Theses

Scientific evidence that the ocean plastic crisis is larger in scale and more sinister than previously thought continues to mount, but the rate of plastic production is only rising. What will it take to decisively turn the tide against plastic? We need scientists, politicians, and industry changemakers to continue producing knowledge and positive change in the industry, but we need to go further still. This thesis explores art as an alternative visual communication strategy with the capacity to encourage curiosity, empathy, and positive engagement with the issue of ocean plastics. The series of work explores bacterial bioluminescence as an artistic ...


Changing Oceanic Conditions On The Foraging Patterns Of Cassin’S Auklets, Ptychoramphus Aleuticuschanging Oceanic Conditions On The Foraging Patterns Of Cassin’S Auklets, Ptychoramphus Aleuticus, Clare Flynn Jan 2019

Changing Oceanic Conditions On The Foraging Patterns Of Cassin’S Auklets, Ptychoramphus Aleuticuschanging Oceanic Conditions On The Foraging Patterns Of Cassin’S Auklets, Ptychoramphus Aleuticus, Clare Flynn

Pomona Senior Theses

Cassin’s auklet (Ptychoramphus aleuticus) reproductive success has been monitored on Southeast Farallon Island (SEFI) for the past 45 years. Their productivity has varied with oceanic conditions. The purpose of this study is to connect how oceanic conditions affect Cassin’s auklet foraging behaviors. The California Current System (CCS) can normally maintain high plankton productivity, and thus high seabird productivity, because of coastal upwelling. I hypothesized that lower upwelling and/or higher sea surface temperatures (SSTs) lead Cassin’s auklets to spend more time on intensive foraging behaviors such as flying and diving, and have less time to spend resting ...


In The Eye Of The Storm: Houston After Hurricane Harvey, Brandon Tolentino-Serrano Jan 2019

In The Eye Of The Storm: Houston After Hurricane Harvey, Brandon Tolentino-Serrano

Pomona Senior Theses

Situated in one of the wettest climates in America, Houston, TX has had a long history of heavy rains and unprecedented floods. Unfortunately, floods have become more common over the last few decades as climate change increases the frequency and intensity of hurricanes around the globe. To complicate matters further, Houston has quickly sprawled to accommodate over 2.5 billion people. Rapid urbanization has rendered the landscape even more susceptible to floods through excess concretization and watershed disturbance. This thesis traces the history of the Bayou City in relation to the damages caused by Hurricane Harvey. By mapping out the ...


A Composite Review Of The Proposed Molecular Mechanisms And Genetic Components Underlying Parkinson’S Disease, Paige Brodrick Jan 2019

A Composite Review Of The Proposed Molecular Mechanisms And Genetic Components Underlying Parkinson’S Disease, Paige Brodrick

Scripps Senior Theses

Parkinson’s disease (PD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder characterized by the progressive death of dopaminergic neurons present in the substantia nigra. The clinical presentation of PD includes tremors, slowed movement (bradykinesia), muscle and limb rigidity, and difficulty with walking and balancing. While many environmental factors can affect the onset and progression of the disease, genetic mutations have a large influence. Of the identified PD-linked genetic mutations, mutations in the leucine-rich repeat kinase 2 (LRRK2) are one of the most common genetic causes of PD. Located in endosomes, LRRK2 has been shown to play a role in the sorting and ...


Role Of Managed Marine Areas On The Diversity And Individual Responses Of Rocky Intertidal Shore Grazers In Central Chile, Kathy Liu Jan 2019

Role Of Managed Marine Areas On The Diversity And Individual Responses Of Rocky Intertidal Shore Grazers In Central Chile, Kathy Liu

Scripps Senior Theses

Many different types of marine benthic herbivores or “grazers” inhabit coastal intertidal zones and play a crucial role in inter- and shallow subtidal ecosystems. Chile has one of the most diverse intertidal zones, but many intertidal grazers are exploited for human consumption. Marine protected areas (MPAs) and marine management and exploitation areas (MEAs) are promising tools for Chile to combat over exploitation of these grazer and other marine resources. This study surveyed the impact of sites with contrasting management on the diversity and abundance of all intertidal grazers and their impact on the size frequency and shell length-body weight allometry ...


Linking Petal Cell Shape To Pollinator Mode In Mimulus, Emma Bekele Jan 2019

Linking Petal Cell Shape To Pollinator Mode In Mimulus, Emma Bekele

Scripps Senior Theses

Reproduction is essential for all organisms. In plants, reproduction relies on pollination. In addition to large-scale traits such as shape and color, flowers may use traits imperceptible to the naked eye in order to attract pollinators. One such trait may be conical cell shape of petal cells. Previous work has identified conical petal cells as providing a foothold for foraging bees, suggesting that conical cell shape is an adaptation to bee pollination. However, this hypothesis has not been fully tested and requires development of a rigorous methodology for quantifying cell shape. Here, we utilize natural variation in pollinator mode in ...


Written In Bone: Damage Patterns In Agonopsis Vulsa Armor, Morgan Stewart Jan 2019

Written In Bone: Damage Patterns In Agonopsis Vulsa Armor, Morgan Stewart

Scripps Senior Theses

Naturally occurring armor has evolved in many different classes of organisms, often in response to predation, although other factors may play a part. In this study, the scales of the benthic armored fish Agonopsis vulsa were examined for damage patterns in order to illuminate the life history and environmental interactions of the fish. Scales from the fish were systematically destroyed in the lab, and observations made from the damaged scales were used to create a categorical damage rating, which was applied to 34 specimens ranging in trunk length from 2.3 cm to 14.2 cm. The specimens were rendered ...


Healthy Skepticism: The Relationship Between Funding Source And Conclusion In Nutrition-Related Scientific Articles On Saturated Fat, Lili Muskal Jan 2019

Healthy Skepticism: The Relationship Between Funding Source And Conclusion In Nutrition-Related Scientific Articles On Saturated Fat, Lili Muskal

CMC Senior Theses

Recently published scientific articles have led to mixed nutritional advice on dietary saturated fatty acids. Lesser et. al (2007) identified that mixed conclusions in scientific articles on sweetened beverages might be attributed industry funding, as articles funded by the beverage industry are four to eight times more likely to report conclusions in favor of the sponsor’s products. This thesis applies Lesser’s methods to determine whether industry funding influences the inconsistent conclusions on saturated fatty acids. This thesis analyzes 100 articles on foods high in dietary saturated fatty acids. While studies with food industry funding are more likely to ...


The Rhesus Macaque Corticospinal Connectome, Sydney Talmi Jan 2019

The Rhesus Macaque Corticospinal Connectome, Sydney Talmi

CMC Senior Theses

The corticospinal tract (CST), which carries commands from the cerebral cortex to the spinal cord, is vital to fine motor control. Spinal cord injury (SCI) often damages CST axons, causing loss of motor function, most notably in the hands and legs. Our preliminary work in rats suggests that CST circuitry is complex: neurons whose axons project to the lower cervical spinal cord, which directly controls hand function, also send axon collaterals to other locations in the nervous system and may engage parallel motor systems. To inform research into repair of SCI, we therefore aimed to map the entire projection pattern ...


Farm To Label: A Critique Of Consumer Activism In The Sustainable Food Movement, Olivia Whitener Jan 2019

Farm To Label: A Critique Of Consumer Activism In The Sustainable Food Movement, Olivia Whitener

Pomona Senior Theses

“Local,” “organic,” “natural,” and “Fairtrade” are just several of the many claims adorning the food products that line grocery store shelves. These promises of environmental sustainability and social responsibility are pillars of the “good food revolution” sweeping the nation as consumers demand alternatives to the products of the industrial food system. Green consumerism, the premise that consumer demand for environmentally sustainable goods will bring about ecologically beneficial outcomes, is at the heart of the sustainable food movement. This thesis takes a critical look at the operation of green consumerism in the food system. It explores the ideology and shortcomings of ...


The Characterization Of Alzheimer’S Disease And The Development Of Early Detection Paradigms: Insights From Nosology, Biomarkers And Machine Learning, Isabel Milano Jan 2019

The Characterization Of Alzheimer’S Disease And The Development Of Early Detection Paradigms: Insights From Nosology, Biomarkers And Machine Learning, Isabel Milano

CMC Senior Theses

Alzheimer’s Disease (AD) is the only condition in the top ten leading causes of death for which we do not have an effective treatment that prevents, slows, or stops its progression. Our ability to design useful interventions relies on (a) increasing our understanding of the pathological process of AD and (b) improving our ability for its early detection. These goals are impeded by our current reliance on the clinical symptoms of AD for its diagnosis. This characterizations of AD often falsely assumes a unified, underlying AD-specific pathology for similar presentations of dementia that leads to inconsistent diagnoses. It also ...


Global Consciousness: A Functionalist Neurophilosophical Perspective, Connor C. Bowen Jan 2019

Global Consciousness: A Functionalist Neurophilosophical Perspective, Connor C. Bowen

CMC Senior Theses

The purpose of this thesis is to explore a thought-provoking consequence of the functionalist theory of mind. Given the current organizational structure of Earth and field theories of consciousness in neuroscience, Earth is probably conscious. The argument is explored through an examination of the current organizational structure of Earth and field theories of consciousness in neuroscience, which leads to the conclusion that Earth is conscious. Various theories of mind have been proposed by neuroscientists and philosophers alike in an attempt to qualify what consciousness is and what provides the basis for consciousness to occur. Support, in the form of data ...


Asserting Indigenous Identity To Substantiate Customary Forest Claims: A Case Study Of The Dayaks Of West Kalimantan, Indonesia, Charlotte Reinnoldt Jan 2019

Asserting Indigenous Identity To Substantiate Customary Forest Claims: A Case Study Of The Dayaks Of West Kalimantan, Indonesia, Charlotte Reinnoldt

CMC Senior Theses

This thesis examines Dayak identity constructions and how they have been and are currently being used to assert customary land rights in forested areas of West Kalimantan, Indonesia. The Indonesian state has required that customary land claims include proof that communities have maintained their indigenous institutions. Drawing from government and NGO reports, academic research, and Indonesian law, a few questions thus are explored: What aspects of identity must be maintained in order to be sufficient to claim customary land rights under Indonesian law? How has recent Dayak mobilization fed into a resurgence in Dayak identity and pride, and vice versa ...


The Role Of Serum Histones In Canine Heat Stroke, Jenna Acutt Jan 2019

The Role Of Serum Histones In Canine Heat Stroke, Jenna Acutt

Scripps Senior Theses

Rising temperatures all over the world has correlated with more frequent heat stroke related injuries and death. This statistic not only applies to humans, but to canines as well, who have similar body temperature thresholds. Recent studies have demonstrated that serum histones, released after cell death from heat stroke, play a role in heat stroke related injuries and death. This proposal aims to determine the severity of the effects caused by serum histone release after heat stroke by exposing selected canine cell lines to cell lysate and purified histones H2A, H2B, H3, and H4, which have been found to be ...


Identification Of Antibiotic Ge37468a From Pseudonocardia Symbionts Of Trachymyrmex Septentrionalis Ants, Krithika Rao Jan 2019

Identification Of Antibiotic Ge37468a From Pseudonocardia Symbionts Of Trachymyrmex Septentrionalis Ants, Krithika Rao

Scripps Senior Theses

In response to the growing rates of antibiotic resistance in human bacterial pathogens, this study explores the natural products involved in the defensive symbiosis between actinobacteria and fungus-growing ants to uncover new potential antibiotics. This study also seeks to understand the function of natural antibiotics in their ecological contexts, especially those involved in defensive symbioses. Defensive symbiosis can be a beneficial platform for discovering useful antibiotics, because antibiotics in these relationships must be able to selectively inhibit enemies without harming hosts, and are therefore likely more specific and less toxic. Pseudonocardia sp. associated with Trachymyrmex septentrionalis ants demonstrated antibiotic activity ...


Why Csas Matter: (Re)Localizing For People-Based Food Networks, Gretchen Alexander Jan 2019

Why Csas Matter: (Re)Localizing For People-Based Food Networks, Gretchen Alexander

Scripps Senior Theses

This thesis details the history of Claremont Market Shares, a Community Sourced Agriculture (CSA) project based out of Claremont, California. By using this project as a jumping off point for discussing local food networks, buzzwords such as "organic" and "local" are analyzed and re-defined. I argue for a people-based food network model over the currently popular 'place-based' that prioritizes producer-consumer relationships. The CSA functions as a sustainable model of this ideology.


Shizen Nōhō: Restoring The Relationship Between Food, Nature, And People In Japan, Katharine Graham Jan 2019

Shizen Nōhō: Restoring The Relationship Between Food, Nature, And People In Japan, Katharine Graham

Scripps Senior Theses

In Japan’s postwar era, agriculture has become highly industrialized, involving heavy machinery, chemical fertilizers, and pesticides, all in the name of “progress.” Through employing such practices, humans have attempted to improve upon nature’s way of doing things, and in turn have degraded the soil’s fertility, natural ecosystems, and human health. In response to this, Shizen Nōhō has emerged in Japan as an alternative way of cultivating food. Shizen Nōhō practitioners challenge the notion that we need chemical fertilizers, pesticides, and machinery to farm successfully. Rather, they advocate for a way of growing food that functions seamlessly with ...


Evidence-Based Probiotic Intervention For Behavioral And Social Deficits In Autism Spectrum Disorder, Allisen To Jan 2019

Evidence-Based Probiotic Intervention For Behavioral And Social Deficits In Autism Spectrum Disorder, Allisen To

Scripps Senior Theses

Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) refers to a heterogeneous neurological condition characterized by repetitive and restrictive behaviors and social communication deficits. ASD diagnoses are at a record high, at approximately 1 in 59 children according to the US Center for Disease Control. Currently, there are no available interventions that effectively treat the core symptoms of ASD. All pharmaceutical options address comorbid side effects of ASD but not core deficits and are particularly associated with negative side effects. Additionally, there are economic and geographic barriers that can prevent families of individuals with ASD from seeking or receiving effective interventions. Many of the ...


Investigating Neurogenesis As A Veritable Epigenetic Endophenotype For Alzheimer's Disease, Layne Wells Jan 2019

Investigating Neurogenesis As A Veritable Epigenetic Endophenotype For Alzheimer's Disease, Layne Wells

Scripps Senior Theses

Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common neurodegenerative disease, characterized by progressive amyloid plaque aggregation, neurofibrillary tangles, and cortical tissue death. As the prevalence of AD is projected to climb in coming years, there is a vested interest in identifying endophenotypes by which to improve diagnostics and direct clinical interventions. The risk for complex disorders, such as AD, is influenced by multiple genetic, environmental, and lifestyle factors. Significant strides have been made in identifying genetic variants linked to AD through the genome-wide association study (GWAS). It has been estimated in more recent years, however, that GWAS-identified variants account for ...


Cortical Stimulation Mapping Of Heschl’S Gyrus In The Auditory Cortex For Tinnitus Treatment, Austin Huang Dec 2018

Cortical Stimulation Mapping Of Heschl’S Gyrus In The Auditory Cortex For Tinnitus Treatment, Austin Huang

CMC Senior Theses

Tinnitus is the perception of sound in the absence of an actual sound stimulus. Recent developments have shifted the focus to the central nervous system and the neural correlate of tinnitus. Broadly, tinnitus involves cortical map rearrangement, pathological neural synchrony, and increased spontaneous firing rates. Various cortical regions, such as Heschl’s gyrus in the auditory cortex, have been found to be associated with different aspects of tinnitus, such as perception and loudness. I propose a cortical stimulation mapping study of Heschl’s gyrus using a depth and subdural electrode montage to conduct electrocorticography. This study would provide high-resolution data ...


Computational Analysis Of Genomic Variants Affecting Predicted Microrna:Target Interactions In Prostate Cancer., Angélica Paola Hernández Pérez Jul 2018

Computational Analysis Of Genomic Variants Affecting Predicted Microrna:Target Interactions In Prostate Cancer., Angélica Paola Hernández Pérez

KGI Theses and Dissertations

Prostate cancer (PCa) is the most common cancer of men in the United States and is third only to lung and colon as a cause of cancer death. Clinical behavior of the disease is variable and the combination of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) screening and Gleason score staging are currently the best available molecular and pathology tools to predict outcomes. Cancer biology research establishes microRNAs (miRNAs) as key molecular components in both normal and pathological states. Thus, elucidating miRNAs perturbed by genomic alterations will expand our understanding of the molecular taxonomy of PCa with the aim to complement current practices in ...


Optimization Of Recombinant Adeno-Associated Virus (Aav) Vector Production In Saccharomyces Cerevisiae, Juan Aponte Apr 2018

Optimization Of Recombinant Adeno-Associated Virus (Aav) Vector Production In Saccharomyces Cerevisiae, Juan Aponte

KGI Theses and Dissertations

Recombinant adeno-associated viral vectors (rAAV) are emerging drugs for gene therapy applications. Their non-pathogenic status, low inflammatory potential, availability of viral serotypes with different tissue tropisms, and prospective long-lasting gene expression are important attributes that make rAAVs safe and efficient therapeutic options. One of the main limitations for bringing rAAV gene therapy to the market is the difficulty in supplying enough rAAV vector product. The high vector doses suggested by early clinical data infer the need to scale up production at high volumes in order to satisfy patient demand. Current production platforms such as HEK293 or Sf9 cells are very ...


Potential For Climate Induced Methane Hydrate Dissociation, Graham Macwilliams Jan 2018

Potential For Climate Induced Methane Hydrate Dissociation, Graham Macwilliams

Pomona Senior Theses

Methane hydrates are frozen deposits of methane and water found in high pressure or low temperature sediments. When these deposits destabilize, large quantities of methane can be emitted into the atmosphere. This is significant to climate change because methane has 25 times more greenhouse gas potential than Carbon Dioxide. Worldwide, it is estimated there are between 2500 and 10000 gigatons of methane stored in hydrate deposits. This represents more carbon than all fossil fuels on Earth. It is estimated that between 200 and 2000 gigatons of methane are stored in hydrates in Arctic waters acutely vulnerable to greenhouse warming. Over ...


Adapting To The Changing Tide: An Evaluation Of California’S Drought Policies And Future Mitigation Strategies, Lauren Dorsey Jan 2018

Adapting To The Changing Tide: An Evaluation Of California’S Drought Policies And Future Mitigation Strategies, Lauren Dorsey

CMC Senior Theses

California endured an extreme and prolonged drought from 2012 until the winter of 2017, offering a fascinating yet tragic example of how drought impacts lives. Despite this recent and stark phenomenon, there is surprisingly little information about its effects and implications. This thesis aims to lessen this knowledge gap by asking how severe the drought was, how well the state responded, and what policies would increase California’s water security. It answers these questions by exploring the Golden State’s long and complicated water management history, which is necessary to understand the current drought policy framework; then, it collects the ...


Restoration Of Mauri (Life-Force) To Okahu Bay: Investigation Of The Cultural, Social, And Environmental Restoration, Emily Freilich Jan 2018

Restoration Of Mauri (Life-Force) To Okahu Bay: Investigation Of The Cultural, Social, And Environmental Restoration, Emily Freilich

Pomona Senior Theses

This thesis investigated the restoration of mauri (life-force) to Ōkahu Bay, Auckland New Zealand. Ōkahu Bay is part of the land and waters of Ngāti Whātua Ōrākei, a Māori hapū (sub-tribe). Ngāti Whātua Ōrākei has been driving the restoration, restoring Ōkahu Bay based on their worldview, visions, and concerns. This vision and control of the restoration process allows them to bring in the hapū in sustainable engagement and have the long-term vision and commitment necessary for self-determination. However, while there has been progress with projects and improved decision-making authority, hapū members are still not seeing their whānau (family) swimming in ...


A Link Between Gut Microbes & Depression: Microbial Activation Of The Human Kynurenine Pathway, Christina Cobb Jan 2018

A Link Between Gut Microbes & Depression: Microbial Activation Of The Human Kynurenine Pathway, Christina Cobb

CMC Senior Theses

Our gut microbiota is involved in human development, nutrition, and the pathogenesis of gut disorders, but has more recently been implicated as a possible mechanism in the pathophysiology of several brain disorders, including disorders of mood and affect, such as depression. Researchers have referred to this dynamic, bidirectional signaling pathway between the gut and the brain as the “gut-brain axis.” However, most research on this axis has been limited to rodent studies, and there has been little insight into the mechanism behind it. I propose that the kynurenine pathway, where tryptophan is converted to kynurenine, is a compelling mechanism mediating ...


Ccl11 As A Biomarker For The In Vivo Diagnosis Of Chronic Traumatic Encephalopathy, Robert Weissenfels Jan 2018

Ccl11 As A Biomarker For The In Vivo Diagnosis Of Chronic Traumatic Encephalopathy, Robert Weissenfels

CMC Senior Theses

Chronic traumatic encephalopathy is the neurodegenerative disease that is ascribed to the long term development of cognitive, behavioral, emotional, and motor deficits as a result of the exposure to high amounts of sub concussive traumatic brain injuries. The disease has gained recent popularity in the media for its prevalence in American football as a response to recent research that has suggested the prominence of the disease in nearly every NFL player that is examined post mortem. This has produced a growing concern for the consequences of head impact and participation in contact sports. Despite media attention, little is currently known ...


An Exploration Of The Adaptive Functions Of Dreams And Empirically-Based Methods Of Dream Interpretation, Isaac Roberts Jan 2018

An Exploration Of The Adaptive Functions Of Dreams And Empirically-Based Methods Of Dream Interpretation, Isaac Roberts

CMC Senior Theses

This paper presents a meta-analysis of dream theory within psychology and neuroscience. The questions it attempts to answer are: what is the neuroscientific basis of dreaming? Why do dreams exist (do they have an adaptive function)? Could dreams possibly have no function? And, what is the best way to interpret a dream? The current analysis presents various theories relevant to each of these questions and compares their viability. It also briefly examines the origins of psychological thought on dreams and, towards the end, outlines the steps and empirical support for a well-regarded method of dream interpretation known as the cognitive ...