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Circadian And Circatidal Rhythms Of Protein Abundance In The Intertidal Mussel Mytilus Californianus, Cory Elowe Dec 2016

Circadian And Circatidal Rhythms Of Protein Abundance In The Intertidal Mussel Mytilus Californianus, Cory Elowe

Master's Theses and Project Reports

The intertidal zone is a dynamic environment that fluctuates with the 12.4-h tidal and 24-h light/dark cycle to predictably alter food availability, temperature, air exposure, wave action, oxygen partial pressure, and osmotic conditions. Intertidal sessile bivalves exhibit behavioral or physiological changes to minimize the persistent challenges of fluctuating environmental conditions, such as adjusting gaping behavior and heart rate. At the cellular level, transcriptomic studies on mussels’ baseline circadian and circatidal rhythms have determined that the circadian rhythm is the dominant transcriptional rhythm. However, as proteins reflect the basic molecular phenotype of an organism and their abundance may differ ...


The Proteomic Response Of Gill Tissue In Tidally And Subtidally-Acclimated California Mussels, Mytilus Californianus, To Acute Emersion-Induced Anoxia, Aubrie N. Fowler, Lars Tomanek Aug 2016

The Proteomic Response Of Gill Tissue In Tidally And Subtidally-Acclimated California Mussels, Mytilus Californianus, To Acute Emersion-Induced Anoxia, Aubrie N. Fowler, Lars Tomanek

Master's Theses and Project Reports

Intertidal mussels regularly experience emersion-induced anoxia, in contrast to normoxic conditions experienced during submersion. We therefore hypothesized that acclimation to a tidal rhythm, as opposed to a rhythm of constant submersion, preconditions the proteome of the California mussel, Mytilus californianus, to respond differently to emersion-induced anoxia. Following acclimation, mussels either continued to receive the acclimation conditions (control) or were exposed to 100% nitrogengas (anoxia) during aerial emersion. We collected gill tissue for subsequent analysis of protein abundance with 2D gel electrophoresis and protein identification with tandem mass spectrometry. Relative to subtidally-acclimated mussels, tidally-acclimated mussels showed a greater propensity to respond ...


Rearing Temperature Affects The Expression Of Proteins In The Adhesive Of The Striped Acorn Barnacle, Balanus Amphitrite, Melissa J. Daugherty Jun 2016

Rearing Temperature Affects The Expression Of Proteins In The Adhesive Of The Striped Acorn Barnacle, Balanus Amphitrite, Melissa J. Daugherty

Master's Theses and Project Reports

Barnacles are dominant hard–fouling organisms in marine waters. They attach to substrates by secreting a complex proteinaceous adhesive. Understanding the chemical composition of this multi–protein underwater adhesive and how it is affected by environmental variables, such as oceanic temperatures, is critical for developing nontoxic solutions to control biofouling. Previous experiments in our lab revealed an inverse relationship between critical removal stress (CRS) and temperatures at which barnacles were reared. Further investigations showed that this correlation is not attributed to differences in physical properties such as barnacle size or short–term changes in the viscosity of adhesive. Therefore, the ...


The Effects Of Quorum Sensing And Temperature On The Soluble Proteome Of Vibrio Salmonicida, Christopher L. Massey Jun 2016

The Effects Of Quorum Sensing And Temperature On The Soluble Proteome Of Vibrio Salmonicida, Christopher L. Massey

Master's Theses and Project Reports

Vibrio salmonicida causes cold-water vibriosis in salmon populations around the world and causes financial damage to fisheries designed to farm these salmon. Very little is known about the physiology of how V. salmonicida causes disease and measures to contain vibriosis are restricted to either vaccinating individual fish against disease or administering antibiotics when an outbreak is detected. These procedures are costly and increase the risk for selection of antibiotic-resistant V. salmonicida strains. A recent reoccurrence of outbreaks in Norwegian fisheries provided incentive to better understand the virulence mechanisms of V. salmonicida. In this thesis, a proteomic approach was used to ...


Multi-Stress Proteomics: The Global Protein Response To Multiple Environmental Stressors In The Porcelain Crab Petrolisthes Cinctipes, Michael A. Garland Sep 2015

Multi-Stress Proteomics: The Global Protein Response To Multiple Environmental Stressors In The Porcelain Crab Petrolisthes Cinctipes, Michael A. Garland

Master's Theses and Project Reports

Global climate change is increasing the number of hot days along the California coast as well as increasing the incidence of off-shore upwelling events that lower the pH of intertidal seawater; thus, intertidal organisms are experiencing an increase in more than one stress simultaneously. This study seeks to characterize the global protein response of the eurythermal porcelain crab Petrolisthes cinctipes to changes in thermal, pH, and tidal regime treatments, either combined or individually. The first experiment examined temperature stress alone and sought to determine the effect of chronic temperature acclimation on the acute heat shock response. We compared the proteomic ...


The Proteomic Response Of The Carcinus Maenas Y-Organ Over The Course Of The Molt Cycle, Mark S. Hamer Feb 2015

The Proteomic Response Of The Carcinus Maenas Y-Organ Over The Course Of The Molt Cycle, Mark S. Hamer

Master's Theses and Project Reports

Molting in arthropods is a complex process governed by regulatory mechanisms that have evolved and adapted over millennia to allow these animals to grow, despite being confined by a hardened exoskeleton. We isolated the molt-regulating Y-organs (YO) from the common shore crab Carcinus maenas at molt stages B, C1-3, C4, and D0 to assess how changes in protein abundances might underline the unique physiology of each of these stages. We found that changes in protein abundance were most notable in the postmolt stages (B and C1-3), where an increase in energy metabolism and the reactive oxygen ...


The Role Of Sirtuin Inhibitors On The Proteomic Responses Of The Mussels Mytilus Galloprovincialis And Mytilus Trossulus To Menadione Induced Oxidative Stress, Hayley C. Chilton Jun 2014

The Role Of Sirtuin Inhibitors On The Proteomic Responses Of The Mussels Mytilus Galloprovincialis And Mytilus Trossulus To Menadione Induced Oxidative Stress, Hayley C. Chilton

Master's Theses and Project Reports

Global climate change imposes physiological constraints on marine ecosystems that can alter the distribution of intertidal organisms. In one such instance, the native cold-adapted mussel Mytilus trossulus is being replaced along its southern range by the invasive warm-adapted Mytilus galloprovincialis. These blue mussels occur throughout rocky intertidal zones where they are subjected to greatly varying environmental conditions known to induce oxidative stress. We hypothesize that while under acute stress, related Mytilus congeners undergo a shift in redox potential from NADH-fueled respiratory pathways to pathways producing NADPH as a way to decrease the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and provide ...


The Proteomic Response Of Sea Squirts (Genus Ciona Congeners) To Hyposalinity Stress, James S. Koman Mar 2012

The Proteomic Response Of Sea Squirts (Genus Ciona Congeners) To Hyposalinity Stress, James S. Koman

Master's Theses and Project Reports

The ascidian species Ciona savignyi and C. intestinalis are invasive species but show interspecific differences in their population response to hypo-saline stress associated with heavy winter-run off events that are predicted to become more frequent due to climate change. Despite an almost world-wide distribution, C. intestinalis seems to be more susceptible to hypo-saline stress than the geographically more limited C. savignyi. Given that the genomes of both species are fully sequenced, we were able to compare their proteomic response to both acute and chronic salinity to characterize the mechanisms that are responsible for setting tolerance limits to hyposaline conditions in ...


Living With Emerging Contaminants: Proteomics Of 4-Nonylphenol Exposed Arrow Goby (Clevelandia Ios), Sarah Emily Johnson Dec 2011

Living With Emerging Contaminants: Proteomics Of 4-Nonylphenol Exposed Arrow Goby (Clevelandia Ios), Sarah Emily Johnson

Master's Theses and Project Reports

Alkylphenol ethoxylates (APEs) are widely used in industrial and household products as surfactants. APEs degrade into more toxic ethoxylates, such as 4-nonylphenol (NP), which has been shown to be an endocrine disruptor and enhance the growth of tumor cells. Nonylphenol is wider spread in Pacific estuaries than originally thought. Organisms in Morro Bay, California contain some of the highest concentrations of NP reported, while containing few other contaminants. As a benthic mud-dwelling fish, the arrow goby (Clevelandia ios) may be exposed to high levels of NP due to high contaminant sequestration rates in anaerobic mud. While ecotoxicology suggests that nonylphenol ...


The Proteomic Response Of Ciona Intestinalis To Ocean Acidification And Acute Heat Stress: Impacts Of Global Climate Change In Coastal Marine Systems, Michael Dennis Dwyer Jr. Aug 2011

The Proteomic Response Of Ciona Intestinalis To Ocean Acidification And Acute Heat Stress: Impacts Of Global Climate Change In Coastal Marine Systems, Michael Dennis Dwyer Jr.

Biological Sciences

No abstract provided.


Effects Of Milk Processing On The Milk Fat Globule Membrane Constituents, Xiomara E. Elías-Argote Jul 2011

Effects Of Milk Processing On The Milk Fat Globule Membrane Constituents, Xiomara E. Elías-Argote

Master's Theses and Project Reports

ABSTRACT

Effects of Milk Processing on the Milk Fat Globule Membrane Constituents

Xiomara E. Elías-Argote

The milk fat globule membrane (MFGM) is avidly studied by many groups of scientists around the world due to its unprecedented nutritional and functional properties; however, limited research has been performed on the effects of milk processing on the chemical changes of the MFGM. Thus, this study highlights the changes that lipids and proteins undergo from the time milk leaves cow’s udders. Cooling (4 °C) was included along with subsequent pasteurization by different traditional thermal processes and cold pasteurization by pulse light ultra violet ...


The Proteomic Response Of Sea Squirts (Genus Ciona Congeners) To Heat Stress: Evidence For Differential Thermal Sensitivities, Loredana Serafini Jan 2011

The Proteomic Response Of Sea Squirts (Genus Ciona Congeners) To Heat Stress: Evidence For Differential Thermal Sensitivities, Loredana Serafini

Master's Theses and Project Reports

The sea squirts Ciona intestinalis and C. savignyi have disparate distribution patterns, which may result from differences in their thermal tolerance limits. Because C. intestinalis, an almost cosmopolitan species, has a more widespread distribution, it is thought that it is better adapted to endure a wide range of temperatures. In order to compare the heat stress response between these two congeners, we studied global changes in protein expression, using a proteomics approach. To characterize the response to extreme heat stress, animals of both species were exposed to temperatures of 22°C, 25°C, and 28°C for 6 h, and ...


Growth Hormone Alters Components Related To Differentiation, Metabolism And Milk Synthesis And Secretion In Mac-T Cells, Tasha Lynn Johnson Jun 2010

Growth Hormone Alters Components Related To Differentiation, Metabolism And Milk Synthesis And Secretion In Mac-T Cells, Tasha Lynn Johnson

Master's Theses and Project Reports

The mammary alveolar cell-T (MAC-T) cell line is able to uniformly differentiate and secrete casein proteins in response to dexamethasone, insulin and prolactin and is extensively used to study bovine mammary epithelial cell function. Growth hormone (GH) has been shown to increase milk protein synthesis both in vivo and in mammary cell models, and induce cytoskeletal rearrangement in 3T3 fibroblast cell line and a Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cell line. Few studies have focused on identifying the mechanisms involved in differentiated MAC-T cells’ response to GH. We tested the hypothesis that MAC-T cells would respond directly to GH and that ...


Temperature Affects Adhesion Of The Acorn Barnacle (Balanus Amphitrite), Laurel A. Johnston Mar 2010

Temperature Affects Adhesion Of The Acorn Barnacle (Balanus Amphitrite), Laurel A. Johnston

Master's Theses and Project Reports

Biofouling is the accumulation of sessile marine organisms, such as algae, tube worms and barnacles on man-made substrata and has negative economic and ecological implications. Ship hulls are readily fouled, which significantly increases drag while decreasing ship fuel efficiency when moving through water. Fouled hulls have also become important vectors of invasive species. These problems are minimized when hulls are painted with a toxic anti-fouling or non-toxic foul-release coating. Due to recent restrictions of anti-fouling paint use, research and development of non-toxic alternatives has increased.

Novel hull coating efficiency is often quantified by the critical removal stress value of barnacles ...