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Theses/Dissertations

California Polytechnic State University, San Luis Obispo

Master's Theses and Project Reports

2018

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Full-Text Articles in Life Sciences

Indirect Food Web Interactions: Sea Otter Predation Linked To Invasion Success In A Marine Fouling Community, Maggie F. Jenkins Dec 2018

Indirect Food Web Interactions: Sea Otter Predation Linked To Invasion Success In A Marine Fouling Community, Maggie F. Jenkins

Master's Theses and Project Reports

Humans have caused grave ecological and economic damage worldwide through the introduction of invasive species. Understanding the factors that influence community susceptibility to invasion are important for controlling further spread of invasive species. Predators have been found to provide biotic resistance to invasion in both terrestrial and marine systems. However, predators can also have the opposite effect, and facilitate invasion. Therefore, recovery or expansion of native predators could facilitate the spread of invasive species. Needles et al. (2015) demonstrated that the threatened southern sea otter (Enhydra lutris nereis) facilitated the invasion of an exotic bryozoan, Watersipora subatra. However, the underlying ...


The Thermal Ecology Of Sceloporus Occidentalis, Luis Patricio Burgos Dec 2018

The Thermal Ecology Of Sceloporus Occidentalis, Luis Patricio Burgos

Master's Theses and Project Reports

With temperatures rising globally, assessing the possible impacts of the changing climate becomes more and more urgent. Ectotherms are excellent indicators of potential climatic ramifications on biodiversity because of their heavy reliance on the environment for their thermoregulation. Studies have historically looked at thermal tolerance values to establish predictive models for population and species extinctions.

In chapter 1, we looked at recent studies that suggest that thermal tolerance may be a plastic trait and test the effects empirically. Most studies are based on captive lizards acclimated to laboratory conditions that do not necessarily reflect natural environments, and if thermal tolerance ...


Cold Acclimation Response Of Non-Native Italian Wall Lizard (Podarcis Siculus) Populations From New York And California, Daniel Haro Dec 2018

Cold Acclimation Response Of Non-Native Italian Wall Lizard (Podarcis Siculus) Populations From New York And California, Daniel Haro

Master's Theses and Project Reports

Understanding how organisms respond to climatic variability and novel conditions is becoming an increasingly important task for ecologists. For ectotherms in the northern hemisphere, the response to cold is of special interest, considering that poleward range expansion events and increasing variability of temperatures during winter are already being observed as consequences of a warming planet. Though direction of change in physiological variables in response to cold is well studied in ectotherms, the extent to which traits can change and the rate at which they can change is not.

We compared the extent and rate of change in cold tolerance (CT ...


Molecular Dynamics Of P21 And Fluorescent Sphingomyelin In Keratinocytes Exposed To Uvb, Tyler Malcolm Fraser Dec 2018

Molecular Dynamics Of P21 And Fluorescent Sphingomyelin In Keratinocytes Exposed To Uvb, Tyler Malcolm Fraser

Master's Theses and Project Reports

Non-melanoma skin cancer (NMSC) is the most common malignant tumor, representing more than a third of all malignant tumors combined and the incidence is increasing every year. Ultraviolet (UV) radiation from the sun is the most dominant factor contributing to tumor initiation and progression. The condition is most prevalent in populations with lighter skin and older age. Current pharmaceutical molecular research targets the inhibition of the Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor (EGFR), a receptor which is commonly over-expressed or dysregulated in skin malignancies. This study evaluates the content and location of the damage marker p21 within keratinocytes that were incubated in ...


Effect Of Evapotranspiration Rate On Almond Yield In California, Dafne Isaac Serrano Oct 2018

Effect Of Evapotranspiration Rate On Almond Yield In California, Dafne Isaac Serrano

Master's Theses and Project Reports

Since 2011, California has been under drought conditions. These conditions have not only affected water availability for farmers, but also production. California’s second most valuable crop, almonds, has been affected by drought conditions. This study used three models (Model 1-3) to describe almond yield variability from year to year and almond yield variability within a year in Kern County, CA. The study evaluated 185 almond farms that were classified in three locations (east side, west side and north west side). The years of the study were 2011 (wet year) and 2013-2015 (drought condition years). Model 1 determined a functional ...


Parental Perspective And Feeding Practices Effects On Food Neophobia In Elementary-Age School Children, Farnoosh Ayoughi Oct 2018

Parental Perspective And Feeding Practices Effects On Food Neophobia In Elementary-Age School Children, Farnoosh Ayoughi

Master's Theses and Project Reports

The Food neophobia (FN) behaviors in children are developed during childhood and can be influenced by parental FN and feeding behaviors. The objective of this study was to evaluate the relationship between FN and fruit and vegetable neophobia (FVN) among parents, the parents-reports on child's behavior and child self-reports. The effect of parental feeding practices and demographic variables on children’s FN and FVN were evaluated. Sixty-eight parents paired with their elementary school children (aged 7-12 years) in San Luis Coastal Unified School District participated in this study. Results indicated that parents reported their children more neophobic than children ...


An Assessment Of The Greatest Impacts On Distribution Uniformity For Drip And Micro Irrigation, Brooke Ashley Worden Sep 2018

An Assessment Of The Greatest Impacts On Distribution Uniformity For Drip And Micro Irrigation, Brooke Ashley Worden

Master's Theses and Project Reports

Using the Cal Poly Irrigation Training and Research Centers (ITRC) drip/micro evaluation program, global, or system, DUlq is computed by combining the component DUlq values of: pressure variation, uneven spacing between emitters, unequal drainage and “other” causes. “Other” causes include plugging, wear and manufacturing coefficient. The program also computes what percentage of the non-uniformity is due to each component. Burt (2004) showed that over 95% of the non-uniformity is due to “Other” causes and pressure differences. This thesis looks at what specifically in those components is driving the non-uniformity by analyzing various equipment and field practices and ...


Comparative Analysis Of Body Composition And Reference Values Of Visceral Adipose Tissues In Various American Collegiate Sports, Eshan M. Dandekar Sep 2018

Comparative Analysis Of Body Composition And Reference Values Of Visceral Adipose Tissues In Various American Collegiate Sports, Eshan M. Dandekar

Master's Theses and Project Reports

Background: Currently, body composition (BC) assessment is usually performed to diagnose disease states and accurately estimate certain types of tissues. In athletes, performing BC assessments helps gauge training and nutrition programs to see if they are adequately meeting the athlete’s needs to improve performance. Annual Dual Energy X-ray Absorptiometry (DXA) scans before the start of an athlete’s season can help identify an athlete’s preparedness or health before training begins.

Objective: To assess the preseason BC of four collegiate sports: Men’s basketball, men’s baseball, women’s volleyball, and women’s soccer, for Fat Mass (FM), bone ...


Microfluidic Electrical Impedance Spectroscopy, John J. Foley Sep 2018

Microfluidic Electrical Impedance Spectroscopy, John J. Foley

Master's Theses and Project Reports

The goal of this study is to design and manufacture a microfluidic device capable of measuring changes in impedance valuesof microfluidic cell cultures. Tocharacterize this, an interdigitated array of electrodes was patterned over glass, where it was then bonded to a series of fluidic networks created in PDMS via soft lithography. The device measured ethanol impedance initially to show that values remain consistent over time. Impedance values of water and 1% wt. saltwater were compared to show that the device is able to detect changes in impedance, with up to a 60% reduction in electrical impedance in saltwater. Cells were ...


The Roles Of Tid1, Ndj1, And Spo16 In Distributive Segregation During Saccharomyces Cerevisiae Meiosis, Ethan Atticus Shaw Aug 2018

The Roles Of Tid1, Ndj1, And Spo16 In Distributive Segregation During Saccharomyces Cerevisiae Meiosis, Ethan Atticus Shaw

Master's Theses and Project Reports

Meiosis is a specialized form of cell division in sexually reproducing eukaryotes. Crossovers are physical connections formed between homologous chromosomes during meiosis; these connections help ensure normal segregation of homologous chromosomes at meiosis I. However, the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae and other eukaryotes can still segregate homologs properly even in the absence of some crossovers. This is due to a backup mechanism known as distributive segregation, which correctly segregates non-crossover chromosomes at a higher rate than if segregation were completely random. To study distributive segregation, we have generated diploid yeast with one homeologous chromosome pair consisting of a Saccharomyces cerevisiae chromosome ...


Modifying The Mineral Profile Of Crickets (Acheta Domesticus) Using A Supplemented Diet, Rhianne Morgan Le Maxwell Aug 2018

Modifying The Mineral Profile Of Crickets (Acheta Domesticus) Using A Supplemented Diet, Rhianne Morgan Le Maxwell

Master's Theses and Project Reports

Captive insectivores may consume invertebrates as all, or part of their overall diet. The challenge with feeding captive insectivores involves the limited number of invertebrate species that are commercially available, and the lack of key nutrients provided by these insects. Among these insects, a naturally occurring low concentration of calcium and an inverse calcium to phosphorus ratio may put insectivores at the risk of developing hypocalcemia. A strategy to correct this nutrient imbalance involves supplementing the insect diet with high concentrations of targeted nutrients – a term referred to as gut-loading. Current industry guidelines recommend feeding a supplemented diet for 48 ...


Detecting A Probiotic Product Within The Gut Of Broiler Chickens, Anneka Pisula Aug 2018

Detecting A Probiotic Product Within The Gut Of Broiler Chickens, Anneka Pisula

Master's Theses and Project Reports

As of January 2017, the U.S. poultry industry banned the use of antibiotics and now relies on alternatives such as probiotics to help protect animal health. Although probiotic use is not a new concept in the poultry industry, identifying the best combination of bacterial strains to generate an effective probiotic formula requires further investigation. This study aimed to detect a probiotic product of four bacterial strains (Pedioccoccus acidilactici, Pediococcus pentosaceus, Lactobacillus plantarum, and Bacillus subtilis) in a feeding trial with broiler chickens. Birds given the probiotic were predicted to show an improved growth performance with the probiotics colonizing the ...


Assessment Of Granulovirus, Spinosad, And Mating Disruption For Controlling Cydia Pomonella L. [Lepidoptera: Tortricidae] In Organic Coastal California Apple Orchards, Raven Lukehart Aug 2018

Assessment Of Granulovirus, Spinosad, And Mating Disruption For Controlling Cydia Pomonella L. [Lepidoptera: Tortricidae] In Organic Coastal California Apple Orchards, Raven Lukehart

Master's Theses and Project Reports

Codling moth, Cydia pomonella[Lepidoptera: Tortricidae], is a major entomological pest of apples, pears, and walnuts cross the world (Pajac et al. 2016). Female codling moths lay eggs on the apple exocarp and larvae burrow within the fruit causing economic losses to fruit growers.Organic apple orchards in San Luis Obispo, CA currently have three codling moth, Cydia pomonella,control options commercially available including granulovirus (CpVG), spinosad, and mating disruption. In field tests on apple (Malus), we compare percent fruit injury between treatments of granulovirus (2.43 oz/ha Cyd-X® organically approved, Certis USA, Columbia MD), spinosad (4.05 oz ...


Quantifying The Environmental Performance Of A Stream Habitat Improvement Project, Cody Morse Aug 2018

Quantifying The Environmental Performance Of A Stream Habitat Improvement Project, Cody Morse

Master's Theses and Project Reports

River restoration projects are being installed worldwide to rehabilitate degraded river habitat. Many of these projects focus on stream habitat improvement (SHI), and an estimated 60%of the 37,000 projects listed in the National River Restoration Science Synthesis Program focus on SHI for salmon and trout species. These projects frequently lack a sufficient monitoring program or account for the environmental costs associated with SHI. The present study used life cycle assessment (LCA) techniques and topographic effectiveness monitoring to quantify environmental costs on the basis of geomorphic change. This methodology was a novel approach to assessing the cost-benefit relationship of ...


Evaluation Of Endothelial Cell Responses To Elevated Glucose, Gabriella Sugerman Aug 2018

Evaluation Of Endothelial Cell Responses To Elevated Glucose, Gabriella Sugerman

Master's Theses and Project Reports

Developing a tissue-engineered Blood Vessel Mimic (BVM) to represent diabetic macrovascular disease could expedite design of new vascular devices specifically tailored to diabetic patients. In contribution toward this model, this thesis assessed Human Umbilical Vein Endothelial Cell (HUVEC) responses to high glucose conditions. Interleukin 6 (IL-6) and Cluster of Differentiation 36 (CD36) were selected to signify oxidative stress activity, a hallmark of diabetic macrovascular disease. Next, activity of potential reference genes B2M, HPRT1, and ACTB was assessed. All genes were found to exceed acceptable variability, so the E-ΔC T method of data analysis was selected. Next, cellular responses to high ...


Crossing Corridors: Wildlife Use Of Jumpouts And Undercrossings Along A Highway With Wildlife Exclusion Fencing, Alex J. Jensen Aug 2018

Crossing Corridors: Wildlife Use Of Jumpouts And Undercrossings Along A Highway With Wildlife Exclusion Fencing, Alex J. Jensen

Master's Theses and Project Reports

Roads pose two central problems for wildlife: wildlife-vehicle collisions (WVCs) and habitat fragmentation. Wildlife exclusion fencing can reduce WVCs but can exacerbate fragmentation. In Chapter 1, I summarize the relevant studies addressing these two problems, with a focus on large mammals in North America. Chapters 2 and 3 summarize field assessments of technologies to reduce WVCs and maintain connectivity, specifically jumpout ramps and underpasses, along Highway 101 near San Luis Obispo, CA. In a fenced highway, some animals inevitably breach the fence and become trapped, which increases the risk of a wildlife-vehicle collision. Earthen escape ramps, or “jumpouts”, can allow ...


The Effect Of Destoning And Enzymatic Pretreatments On The Biofuel Production From Olive Cake, Patrick Tai Jul 2018

The Effect Of Destoning And Enzymatic Pretreatments On The Biofuel Production From Olive Cake, Patrick Tai

Master's Theses and Project Reports

More than 16,000 tons of olive cake was produced in the United States in 2017. Olive cake is a by-product of olive oil extraction, which has limited animal feed potential, and poses an environmental threat when landfilled due to its high organic load and polyphenol content. This residue has potential for biofuel (bioethanol and biomethane) production because it is rich in polysaccharides such as pectin, hemicellulose, and cellulose. Yet, olive cake contains olive stones that can impede its conversion to biofuel. Therefore, two methods of destoning, centrifugation and screening by horizontal screw press, were first compared. Both methods removed ...


Effect Of Bioaugmentation Product Biowish® Aqua™ On Nitrogen Removal In Wastewater, Patrick Cassidy Kalvass Jun 2018

Effect Of Bioaugmentation Product Biowish® Aqua™ On Nitrogen Removal In Wastewater, Patrick Cassidy Kalvass

Master's Theses and Project Reports

Biological nutrient removal (BNR) from wastewater, and specifically nitrogen removal, is a growing concern to wastewater dischargers such as municipalities. Excess nutrients in effluent can create problems such as eutrophication, toxicity to aquatic life, and dissolved oxygen depletion in receiving waters. BNR systems have been installed in many locations with success, but their operation presents operational and financial demands greater than conventional biological treatment. Nitrogen removal is typically performed in sequential autotrophic nitrification and denitrification, which increases needed energy input, operational complexity, and therefore cost. Simultaneous nitrification-denitrification (SNdN) achieved in a single system has also been successfully implemented, however operational ...


Effect Of Aquaponic Vs. Hydroponic Nutrient Solution, Led Light Intensity And Photoperiod On Indoor Plant Growth Of Butterhead, Romaine And Kale (L. Sativa, B. Oleracea), Sean M. Foster Jun 2018

Effect Of Aquaponic Vs. Hydroponic Nutrient Solution, Led Light Intensity And Photoperiod On Indoor Plant Growth Of Butterhead, Romaine And Kale (L. Sativa, B. Oleracea), Sean M. Foster

Master's Theses and Project Reports

Vertical farming has been proposed as a solution for providing food security for an increasing, urbanized human population. Light-emitting diode (LED) technology has become increasingly affordable and efficient, making it an ideal choice as artificial lighting for indoor farms. Still largely undiscovered parameters are the optimal plant varieties and types of production systems for plant growth, profit, and human nutrition. Aquaponics may be able to provide sustainable animal protein for vertical farms, increasing their ability to provide more substantial nutrition to consumers. This research aimed to better understand vertical farming as a food production system, and to determine if aquaponics ...


Bird Abundance At Bird Feeders In Response To Temperature, Wind Speed And Precipitation During The Winter Season, Siddhant Kahal Jun 2018

Bird Abundance At Bird Feeders In Response To Temperature, Wind Speed And Precipitation During The Winter Season, Siddhant Kahal

Master's Theses and Project Reports

The goal of this project is to explore how 23 different bird species respond to 3 climatic attributes. These attributes are lower than average temperatures, wind speed and precipitation level. Information about the bird species and all of the data associated with them is provided by Project FeederWatch (PFW). This is a citizen based survey study that provides key information about bird species abundance through the use of backyard and community feeders. The study volunteers from across the United States and Canada monitor these bird feeders and note important information about the species such as the number of individuals seen ...


Comparative Analysis Of Physiological Measurements And Environmental Metrics On Predicting Heat Stress Related Events, Mckenzie Lee Barlow Jun 2018

Comparative Analysis Of Physiological Measurements And Environmental Metrics On Predicting Heat Stress Related Events, Mckenzie Lee Barlow

Master's Theses and Project Reports

Exposure to high heat and humidity can lead to serious health risks, including heat exhaustion and heat stroke. Wet Bulb Globe Temperature (WBGT) and heat index have historically been used to predict heat stress events, but individualized factors are not included in the measurement. It has been shown that there is a relationship between cardiovascular measurements and heat stress, which could be used to measure heat stress risk on an individual level. Research has been done to find relationships between cardiovascular metrics in a workplace environment, however the study did not include the use of a controlled environment as a ...


Pink And Dude Chefs: Effectiveness Of An After-School Nutrition Knowledge And Culinary Skills Program For Middle School Students To Increase Fruit And Vegetable Consumption, Alyssa S. Vaziri Jun 2018

Pink And Dude Chefs: Effectiveness Of An After-School Nutrition Knowledge And Culinary Skills Program For Middle School Students To Increase Fruit And Vegetable Consumption, Alyssa S. Vaziri

Master's Theses and Project Reports

The rate of overweight and obesity among adolescents aged 12-19 years has more than tripled since 1980, and disproportionately impacts low-income and marginalized populations. Reduction in adolescent obesity rates may result in decreased health risks, decrease healthcare costs, and increased quality of life. Effective intervention methods for adolescent participants have incorporated nutrition knowledge and culinary skill building into afterschool programs. This study examines whether building knowledge, skills, and confidence through a culinary intervention can improve adolescent participants’ choices of healthful foods through increased fruit and vegetable intake.

Pink and Dude Chefs (PDC) is an afterschool nutrition education and culinary skills ...


Evaluating Recruitment Seasonality Of Red Abalone (Haliotis Rufescens) To Inform Fisheries Management And Conservation Policy, Leslie Christine Hart Mar 2018

Evaluating Recruitment Seasonality Of Red Abalone (Haliotis Rufescens) To Inform Fisheries Management And Conservation Policy, Leslie Christine Hart

Master's Theses and Project Reports

Recruitment, the addition of new individuals to a population, must be understood to make predictions about population growth of marine invertebrates. Red abalone (Haliotis rufescens) represent a former important commercial fishery in California, and until recently, supported a major recreational fishery. However, there have been statewide declines since the 1960s due to overfishing, disease, and climatic factors. Thus, understanding population dynamics to inform management and population restoration is critical. Recruitment dynamics of red abalone are poorly understood, with no prior knowledge of seasonal trends. To address this knowledge gap, I assessed monthly (July 2016-June 2017) and annual (2012-2016) settlement rates ...


Improvement Of Chilling Efficiency And Product Quality Of Broiler Carcasses Using Sub-Zero Saline Solutions For Chilling, Morgan Metheny Mar 2018

Improvement Of Chilling Efficiency And Product Quality Of Broiler Carcasses Using Sub-Zero Saline Solutions For Chilling, Morgan Metheny

Master's Theses and Project Reports

Sub-zero saline solutions were evaluated for the improvement of chilling efficiency and product quality of broiler carcasses. In this study, four experiments were conducted to chill broiler carcasses using different saline solutions and chilling temperatures in the Meat Processing Center at California Polytechnic State University (Cal Poly, San Luis Obispo, CA) or in the processing plant at Foster Farms (Livingston, CA). In Experiment I, three salt concentrations and solution temperatures (0% NaCl/0.5°C, 4% NaCl/-2.41°C, and 8% NaCl/-5.08°C) were used to chill carcasses. The fillets in brine chilling at sub-zero temperatures showed ...


Characterization Of Botrytis Cinerea Resistance To Fungicides In California Strawberry Production, Scott D. Cosseboom Mar 2018

Characterization Of Botrytis Cinerea Resistance To Fungicides In California Strawberry Production, Scott D. Cosseboom

Master's Theses and Project Reports

Gray mold of strawberry, caused by Botrytis cinerea, is a very destructive pre- and post-harvest fruit rot. Outside of California, fungicide resistance in B. cinerea has been reported to every site-specific chemical class labeled for use against gray mold. One objective of this study was to characterize the resistance of 888 isolates of B. cinerea from California strawberry fields to ten active ingredients. Isolates were collected from the same planting block in 47 fields during the early-season (0 to 8 fungicide applications) and late-season (16 to 26 fungicide applications) of 2016. Sensitivity of each isolate was determined using the following ...


Assessment Of Maternal And Infant Outcomes Of Moderately Malnourished Pregnant Adolescents In Malawi, Alyssa Marie Friebert Feb 2018

Assessment Of Maternal And Infant Outcomes Of Moderately Malnourished Pregnant Adolescents In Malawi, Alyssa Marie Friebert

Master's Theses and Project Reports

Background: Adolescent childbearing and maternal malnutrition are common in low- and middle-income countries and are associated with increased risk for poor maternal and infant outcomes. Adolescent pregnancy compounded with moderate malnutrition exacerbates outcomes common to both individually. Supplementary foods may be a way to improve outcomes in malnourished adolescent pregnant women.

Objective: To retrospectively assess maternal and infant outcomes in moderately malnourished pregnant young adolescents (16-17 YO), older adolescents (18-19 YO), and adults (≥20 YO) in response to one of three nutritional interventions and in a pooled treatment group analysis, and to assess differences in infant outcomes by infant gender ...