Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

Life Sciences Commons

Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

Articles 1 - 13 of 13

Full-Text Articles in Life Sciences

Influences Of Anthropogenic Noise On Flight Initiation Distance, Foraging Behavior, And Feeder Community Structure Of Wild Birds, Alissa R. Petrelli Dec 2017

Influences Of Anthropogenic Noise On Flight Initiation Distance, Foraging Behavior, And Feeder Community Structure Of Wild Birds, Alissa R. Petrelli

Master's Theses and Project Reports

Throughout the world, birds represent the primary type of wildlife that people experience on a daily basis. However, a growing body of evidence suggests that alterations to the acoustic environment can negatively affect birds as well as humans in a variety of ways, and altered acoustics from noise pollution has the potential to influence human interactions with wild birds. In this thesis, I investigated how anthropogenic noise impacts daily behavior as well as community structure of wild birds. In the first component of this thesis, I assessed the distance at which a bird initiates flight or escape behavior (i.e ...


Forest Densification Over 85 Years In A Sierra Nevada Mixed-Conifer Forest Decreases Conifer Regeneration And Limits Survival, Marissa A. Vossmer Sep 2017

Forest Densification Over 85 Years In A Sierra Nevada Mixed-Conifer Forest Decreases Conifer Regeneration And Limits Survival, Marissa A. Vossmer

Master's Theses and Project Reports

Forest densification in response to a century of fire suppression in Sierra Nevada mixed conifer forests has decreased conifer regeneration and survival. Increases in overstory biomass and decreases in canopy heterogeneity, along with decreases in shrub cover in the understory, has created unfavorable establishment site conditions for conifer species. Establishment site conditions are key in promoting germination and establishment of conifers seeds and in determining the survival of these seedlings into the overstory. These changes in establishment site suitability resulting from the removal of disturbance from these forests has decreased conifer regeneration and survival into other age classes. In Sierra ...


Assessing The Effect Of Nutritional Interventions On Body Composition Changes During Pregnancy In Moderately Malnourished Malawian Women, Megan K. Kitagawa Sep 2017

Assessing The Effect Of Nutritional Interventions On Body Composition Changes During Pregnancy In Moderately Malnourished Malawian Women, Megan K. Kitagawa

Master's Theses and Project Reports

Background: Malnutrition can affect the body composition changes that occur in healthy pregnancy, resulting in adverse effects to both the mother and infant. Supplementary foods with high quality protein may result in more favorable changes in lean mass and fat mass in pregnant malnourished women.

Objective: To retrospectively assess changes in body composition in moderately malnourished pregnant Malawian women in response to one of three nutritional interventions.

Methods: Height, weight, MUAC, and TSF were measured in pregnant women with MUAC >20.6 cm and19) were compared using ANOVA. If differences were detected, differences between groups were tested using the Tukey ...


Strategies For Increasing The Release Of Pigments In Red Wine, Briana Heywood Aug 2017

Strategies For Increasing The Release Of Pigments In Red Wine, Briana Heywood

Master's Theses and Project Reports

The perception of wine’s quality is directly influenced by its color. Anthocyanin molecules are responsible for imparting color to red wines. They are extracted from grape skins during alcoholic fermentation. This work compares the effects of three parameters: berry integrity, enzyme addition, and fermentation temperature, on phenolic compound extraction (total phenol, tannin and anthocyanin) during the production of Paso Robles’ Cabernet Sauvignon wine. Analyses on phenolic compounds were completed during alcoholic fermentation and barrel aging over the course of eighteen months. Berry integrity compared the degree of berry crushing (whole destemmed berries versus fully crushed berries). Results showed that ...


A Comparative Analysis Of The Nutrient Composition And Digestibility Of California Perennial And Annual Grasses At Four Stages Of Growth, Elaina Cromer Jul 2017

A Comparative Analysis Of The Nutrient Composition And Digestibility Of California Perennial And Annual Grasses At Four Stages Of Growth, Elaina Cromer

Master's Theses and Project Reports

Beef products represent the fourth largest agricultural commodity in the state of California, valuing more than $3 billion from 2013 to 2015 (CDFA, 2016) and procure 90% of the income for the range livestock industry (FRAP, 2003). Forages found on California’s coastal, desert, foothill, and mountain ranges are the basis of the state’s beef cattle industry. Understanding their nutritional quality of these forages is important for their effective use (George et al., 2001a; Waterman et al., 2014). The objectives of this research were to investigate the nutritional characteristics, and in situ digestbilities in Angus beef cattle, of common ...


Pink And Dude Chefs: Efficacy Of An Online Train-The-Trainer Mechanism And Student Program Outcomes, Jacqueline Chen Jun 2017

Pink And Dude Chefs: Efficacy Of An Online Train-The-Trainer Mechanism And Student Program Outcomes, Jacqueline Chen

Master's Theses and Project Reports

Background: The rate of overweight and obesity among adolescents aged 12-19 years has quadrupled since 1980. Reducing obesity is a key public health priority, as obesity is associated with individual and population-level health and economic consequences. Afterschool-based obesity prevention programs that aim to develop nutrition and culinary self-efficacy have shown promise. However, the level of aptitude among program instructors is directly correlated with student success, suggesting the importance of effective train-the-trainer (TTT) mechanisms for implementing and scaling up these strategies.

Pink and Dude Chefs (PDC) is an afterschool nutrition education and culinary skills program for middle-school adolescents aged between 11-14 ...


The Recovery Of Protein From Egg Yolk Protein Extraction Granule Byproduct, Irene Jennifer Kaufman Jun 2017

The Recovery Of Protein From Egg Yolk Protein Extraction Granule Byproduct, Irene Jennifer Kaufman

Master's Theses and Project Reports

In addition to proving an excellent source of nutrients, eggs are used in the food, cosmetic, and biotechnology industries for their rheological and bioactive properties. Much of the potential for the added value is in individual components of the egg, rather than the whole egg. At low speed centrifugation, yolk separates into two distinct fractions—granules and plasma. It is becoming increasingly popular in the industry to remove the plasma fraction of the egg yolk to use for its livetins, particularly immunoglobulin Y, leaving behind a granule by-product (“yellow cake”). Previous research has shown potential added-value from the granule fraction ...


Effects Of Food Consumption On Cell Proliferation In The Brain Of Python Regius, Stacy Star Habroun Jun 2017

Effects Of Food Consumption On Cell Proliferation In The Brain Of Python Regius, Stacy Star Habroun

Master's Theses and Project Reports

Neurogenesis is an important and vastly under-explored area in reptiles. While the ability to generate new brain cells in the adult mammalian brain is limited, reptiles are able to regenerate large populations of neuronal cells. Pythons exhibit a characteristic specific dynamic action (SDA) response after food intake with an increase in metabolic rate that facilitates processing the meal. Associated with this change in SDA, pythons (Python spp.) also exhibit impressive plasticity in their digestive and cardiovascular physiology due to the sheer magnitude of the increase in organ growth that occurs after a meal to speed digestion, absorption, and assimilation of ...


The Population Genetics Of Morro Bay Eelgrass (Zostera Marina), Julia Gardner Harencar Jun 2017

The Population Genetics Of Morro Bay Eelgrass (Zostera Marina), Julia Gardner Harencar

Master's Theses and Project Reports

Seagrass populations are in decline worldwide. Zostera marina (eelgrass), one of California’s native seagrasses, is no exception to this trend. In the last 8 years, Morro Bay, California has lost 95% of its eelgrass. Eelgrass is an ecosystem engineer, providing important ecosystem services such as sediment stabilization, nutrient cycling, and nursery habitats for fish. The failure of recent restoration efforts necessitates a better understanding of the causes of eelgrass decline in this estuary. Previous research on eelgrass in California has demonstrated a link between population genetic diversity and eelgrass bed health, ecosystem functioning, and resilience to disturbance and extreme ...


The Insulin-Like Growth Factor-1 (Igf1) System As A Potential Biomarker For Nutritional Status And Growth Rate In Pacific Rockfish (Sebastes Spp.), Nicole L. Hack Mar 2017

The Insulin-Like Growth Factor-1 (Igf1) System As A Potential Biomarker For Nutritional Status And Growth Rate In Pacific Rockfish (Sebastes Spp.), Nicole L. Hack

Master's Theses and Project Reports

Growth performance in vertebrates is regulated by environmental factors including the quality and quantity of food, which influences growth via endocrine pathways such as the growth hormone (GH) / insulin-like growth factor somatotropic axis. In several teleost fishes, circulating concentrations of insulin-like growth factor-1 (Igf1) correlate positively with growth rate, and it has been proposed that plasma Igf1 levels may serve as an indicator of growth variation for fisheries and aquaculture applications. Here, I tested whether plasma Igf1 concentrations might serve as an indicator of somatic growth in olive rockfish (Sebastes serranoides), one species among dozens of rockfishes important to commercial ...


Plant Compound Pest Control In California Strawberry (Fragaria X Ananassa) Production, Eli Mahanes Weissman Feb 2017

Plant Compound Pest Control In California Strawberry (Fragaria X Ananassa) Production, Eli Mahanes Weissman

Master's Theses and Project Reports

Allelopathy occurs when one organism releases a compound into the environment that affects the functioning of another organism. Scientists have long suspected that alleopathic plant compounds could offer novel, softer chemistries to the ongoing battle of controlling pests in agricultural fields. Strawberry growers rely on toxic fumigants to kill soilborne fungal pests, weeds, nematodes, and insects. Increased regulations have reduced the use of fumigants (including methyl bromide), and strawberry growers need new sustainable pest control solutions. We selected four putative allelochemicals with known fungicidal and herbicidal activity (ferulic acid, gallic acid, juglone, and p-Coumaric acid). We assessed the pesticidal activity ...


An Assessment Of Potential False Positive E.Coli Pyroprints In The Cplop Database, Skyler A. Gordon Feb 2017

An Assessment Of Potential False Positive E.Coli Pyroprints In The Cplop Database, Skyler A. Gordon

Master's Theses and Project Reports

The genetic information found in each species of organism is unique, and can be used as a tool to differentiate at the molecular level. This has caused rapid genotyping methods to become the cornerstone of a new area of research dependent on reading the genome as a form of identification. One of these specific identification methods, known as pyroprinting, relies on the small variation of DNA sequences within the same species to develop a unique, reproducible fingerprint. By simultaneously pyrosequencing multiple polymorphic loci within the ribosomal operons known as the intergenic transcribed spacers, a reproducible output is obtained, known as ...


Araucaria In The Urban Landscape: A Novel Leaning Pattern And Evidence Of Cultivated Hybridization, Jason W. Johns Jan 2017

Araucaria In The Urban Landscape: A Novel Leaning Pattern And Evidence Of Cultivated Hybridization, Jason W. Johns

Master's Theses and Project Reports

Our understanding of the natural world is constantly evolving and strengthening as more observations are made and experiments are performed. For example, we understand that tree stems grow toward the light (positive phototropism; Darwin 1880, Loehle 1986, Christie et al. 2013) and against gravity (negative gravitropism; Knight 1806, Hashiguchi et al. 2013). We also know that plants respond to mechanical stimulus and perturbation (thigmotropism; Braam 2005). Genes and their resulting proteins have been described to uncover some of the mechanisms for these environmental responses, but relatively speaking, we have just scratched the surface (Wyatt et al. 2013). While the discovery ...