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Full-Text Articles in Life Sciences

Development And Validation Of A Light Weight, Energy Dense, Ready To Eat (Rte) Bar, Jacob Wilhelm-Maria Heick Dec 2010

Development And Validation Of A Light Weight, Energy Dense, Ready To Eat (Rte) Bar, Jacob Wilhelm-Maria Heick

Master's Theses and Project Reports

DEVELOPMENT AND VALIDATION OF A LIGHT WEIGHT, ENERGY DENSE, READY TO EAT (RTE) BAR

Jacob Wilhelm-Maria Heick

Providing additional calories in the form of an RTE bar to endurance athletes will increase performance and muscle re-synthesis, reduce muscle breakdown, and shorten recovery time. An RTE bar containing a blend of dairy proteins and carbohydrates will create a product with superior functionality, including bioactive and immunity enhancing properties from dairy derived ingredients. The protein will provide benefits in the form of easily digestible calories, essential amino acids and physical satiate.

A formulation was developed and optimized, resulting in a final product ...


Effect Of Sodium Chloride Addition During Diafiltration On The Solubility Of Milk Protein Concentrate, Scott J. Gualco Dec 2010

Effect Of Sodium Chloride Addition During Diafiltration On The Solubility Of Milk Protein Concentrate, Scott J. Gualco

Master's Theses and Project Reports

There is considerable interest among food manufacturers to incorporate protein into food products in both developed and developing countries. Dairy proteins are excellent choices for many different applications, as they are known to have several nutritional and functional benefits. Membrane filtration techniques are often utilized as the preferred method of fractionation, due to the high throughput and continuous nature of the process. One such product produced from membrane filtration of skim milk is called milk protein concentrate. This product is valued for its high protein content, but it has historically exhibited poor solubility when reconstituted into water, which severely restricts ...


Investigating Wood Welding Parameters Using A Prototype Welding Machine, Timothy R. Melin Dec 2010

Investigating Wood Welding Parameters Using A Prototype Welding Machine, Timothy R. Melin

Master's Theses and Project Reports

Understanding how different processing variables influence wood welded bonds is vital if the technique will ever be used to create engineered lumber without using adhesives. A variation of vibration welding, wood welding uses pressure and friction to bond materials together. During welding, heat causes a softening in the wood, a naturally occurring composite material. This softening leads to fiber entanglement and a bond forms upon cooling.

The goal of this research was to investigate several processing aspects of the wood welding procedure. A prototype wood welding machine, designed and fabricated from the ground up, was used to investigate the effects ...


Comparisons Of Fish Species Inside And Outside Of Marine Protected Areas Off The South Central Coast Of California, David E. Rasmussen Oct 2010

Comparisons Of Fish Species Inside And Outside Of Marine Protected Areas Off The South Central Coast Of California, David E. Rasmussen

Master's Theses and Project Reports

COMPARISONS OF FISH SPECIES INSIDE AND OUTSIDE OF MARINE PROTECTED AREAS OFF THE SOUTH CENTRAL COAST OF CALIFORNIA

David E. Rasmussen

From 2004-2008 and 2008-2009 Cal Poly University researchers conducted two separate tag and recapture studies of nearshore fish populations along California’s central coast. Three locations were sampled that have experienced different degrees of fishing pressure. Big Creek MPA has been closed to all fishing from 1993 onwards and is the farthest from port of all locations. Cambria lies closest to port of the three locations and because of this has the highest fishing pressure. Piedras Blancas lies midway ...


Effects Of Changing Attentional Focus Reminder Rates On Learning To Throw Darts, Arya Alami Sep 2010

Effects Of Changing Attentional Focus Reminder Rates On Learning To Throw Darts, Arya Alami

Master's Theses and Project Reports

The purpose of the study was to examine the effects of an external focus of attention on the learning of dart throwing at three different focus reminder frequencies (every two, every four and every ten trials). Twenty-four male and female subjects were randomly assigned to one of three groups. Subjects threw darts at a circular target 60 times over two days while getting a reminder of their intended external focus at the three different reminder frequencies. Five-day delayed retention and transfer tests were conducted to assess learning, each consisting of five trials. The target was comprised of five concentric circles ...


Dietary Protein Intake, Body Composition And Self-Reported Physical Functioning In U.S. Adults, Kerri Beth Parker Sep 2010

Dietary Protein Intake, Body Composition And Self-Reported Physical Functioning In U.S. Adults, Kerri Beth Parker

Master's Theses and Project Reports

Sarcopenia is a growing health problem in this country as more Americans are living well into old age. It has been thought that a higher protein intake may be related to greater lean muscle mass as well as greater muscular strength and physical functioning. The purpose of this research was to examine protein intake and its relationship to lean body mass and physical functioning in a nationally representative sample of U.S. adults.

This research used cross-sectional data from the NHANES 2003-2004 to examine the relationship between protein intake, as an average from two 24h recalls, and dual X-ray absorptiometry ...


Effects Of Wildland Urban Interface Fuel Treatments On Fire Behavior And Ecosystem Services In The Klamath Mountains Of California, Jonathan A. Large Aug 2010

Effects Of Wildland Urban Interface Fuel Treatments On Fire Behavior And Ecosystem Services In The Klamath Mountains Of California, Jonathan A. Large

Master's Theses and Project Reports

Greater numbers of people are moving into wildland-urban interface (WUI) areas, increasing the number of people at risk to large wildfires. To mitigate the hazard, emphasis is often placed on fuel treatments used to reduce fuel loads and subsequent fire behavior. This approach overlooks the additional benefits provided by vegetation, including carbon storage and sequestration along with air pollutant removal. This study aimed to calculate and compare differences in representative values by examining a study site in the Klamath Mountains of Northern California. Fire behavior simulations were done under various weather scenarios to illustrate both the impact of weather on ...


Effect Of Feeding Zilpaterol Hydrochloride For 20 Days To Calf-Fed Holstein Steers With A 3 Or 10 Day Withdrawal Period Antemortem On Carcass Characteristics And Tenderness, Andrew D. Hosford Aug 2010

Effect Of Feeding Zilpaterol Hydrochloride For 20 Days To Calf-Fed Holstein Steers With A 3 Or 10 Day Withdrawal Period Antemortem On Carcass Characteristics And Tenderness, Andrew D. Hosford

Master's Theses and Project Reports

The effect of feeding Zilpaterol hydrochloride (ZH) with a 3 or 10 d withdrawal (WD) period to calf-fed Holstein steers (N=2993) on carcass characteristics and tenderness were evaluated in a feed lot experiment. Cattle were fed 0 or 8.3 mg/kg of ZH for the final 20 d of the feeding period, each treatment level was assigned a WD period of either 3 or 10 d. Treatment groups consisted of Control 3 d WD (C3) and 10 d WD (C10), and ZH fed 3 day WD (Z3) and 10 d WD (Z10). Cattle were slaughtered at a commercial ...


Determining The Fate Of Hybridized Genomes In The Allopolyploid Brassica Napus, Tina Y. Wang Jul 2010

Determining The Fate Of Hybridized Genomes In The Allopolyploid Brassica Napus, Tina Y. Wang

Master's Theses and Project Reports

Polyploidy is widely acknowledged as a widespread mechanism in the evolution and speciation of the majority of flowering plants. Allopolyploid forms through interspecific hybridization and whole genome duplication. While allopolyploids may display increased vigor relative to their progenitors, they can also face challenges to fertility following hybridization. Genetic changes in allopolyploids result from recombination between the hybridized subgenomes, which can influence phenotype and ultimately determine fitness of future generations. To study dynamic changes that follow allopolyploid formation, Brassica napus lineages were derived by hybridizing Brassica oleracea and Brassica rapa. Two lineages of B. napus were analyzed for genetic and phenotypic ...


A Comparative Study Of Three Growing Media And Four Plant Groups Under Extensive Green Roof Conditions In San Luis Obispo, Ca, Todd Alan Nelson Jul 2010

A Comparative Study Of Three Growing Media And Four Plant Groups Under Extensive Green Roof Conditions In San Luis Obispo, Ca, Todd Alan Nelson

Master's Theses and Project Reports

ABSTRACT A Comparative Study of Three Growing Media and Four Plant Groups Under Extensive Green Roof Conditions in San Luis Obispo, California Todd A. Nelson Green roof growing media and plant species are critical factors when deciding on the best materials for a project. Growing media must be chosen in accordance with load bearing capacities of structures and water requirements of the plant material. Plant species must be able to thrive in the climate of the green roof and withstand a green roof’s harsh environment. The objectives of this research were: (1) to determine which of three extensive green ...


Effects Of Recycled Water On Landscape Plants, Casey R. Miranda Jun 2010

Effects Of Recycled Water On Landscape Plants, Casey R. Miranda

Master's Theses and Project Reports

ABSTRACT EFFECTS OF RECYCLED WATER ON LANDSCAPE PLANTS Casey Ray Miranda Recycled water is water that has been previously used, has suffered a loss of quality, and has been properly treated for redistribution (Wu et al. 2001). The use of recycled water as an alternative to fresh water in the landscape can have positive and negative effects. Experimentation on 40 different plant species during a 32 week period (2 phases of 16 weeks), was conducted to analyze the effects of recycled water irrigation on the appearance of landscape plants. Each species of plant was planted into 10 individual number 2 ...


Effects Of Nitrogen And Potassium Fertilizer On Willamette Spider Mite (Eotetranychus Willamettei) (Acari: Tetranychidae), Whitney Ann Geddes Jun 2010

Effects Of Nitrogen And Potassium Fertilizer On Willamette Spider Mite (Eotetranychus Willamettei) (Acari: Tetranychidae), Whitney Ann Geddes

Master's Theses and Project Reports

The spider mite family (Tetranychidae) is a well known pest group in agriculture. Within this family, Willamette spider mite (Eotetranychus willamettei) causes physical harm and potential damage to grapevines (Vitis vinifera) along the central and north coast of California as well as Washington and Oregon. Willamette spider mite prefers cooler climates and feeds by puncturing the plant leaf tissue; therefore removing plant nutrients in the early stages of plant growth. Amending soils with fertilizer is a common cultural practice used in commercial vineyards, but no study has documented the interaction between the effects fertilizer concentrations have on Willamette spider mite ...


Environmental Variables Influencing The Severity Of Pierce’S Disease In California Grapevines, Christopher James Boisseranc Jun 2010

Environmental Variables Influencing The Severity Of Pierce’S Disease In California Grapevines, Christopher James Boisseranc

Master's Theses and Project Reports

This project was designed to correlate environmental variables with the development of Pierce’s Disease (PD), an infection caused by the gram negative bacterium Xylella fastidiosa (Xf), in grapes (Hopkins et al. 2002). PD is one of the most difficult crop pathogens to manage because it is vectored by insects and its continued presence in the vine is usually fatal. PD is influenced by the interaction of host, disease and vector, and probably many other environmental variables. The general objective was to study and identify the most important variables involved in the expression of Pierce’s Disease.

Over a two ...


Taxonomy, Biogeography And Pest Status Of Marmara Sp. In Northern Mexico And California Citrus Production, Paul Semet Jun 2010

Taxonomy, Biogeography And Pest Status Of Marmara Sp. In Northern Mexico And California Citrus Production, Paul Semet

Master's Theses and Project Reports

A novel lepidopteran sex pheromone lure which was thought to be species-specific to the citrus pest Marmara gulosa (Lepidoptera: Gracillariidae) Guillén (McElfresh et al. 2009) has attracted male moths exhibiting two distinct morphologies. The morphological features examined were the sclerotized parts that make up the male genitalia; which include the valvular lobes, costal lobes, cucullar lobes, and the aedeagus. The sclerotized parts were methodically dissected and mounted on microscope slides. Digital images captured of the slide-mounted specimens proved to be inconsistent with the illustrations provided in the original Marmara gulosa species description (Guillén et al. 2001).

The morphologies of all ...


Management Strategies For Pitch Canker Infected Año Nuevo Stands Of Monterey Pine, Valerie A. Loe Jun 2010

Management Strategies For Pitch Canker Infected Año Nuevo Stands Of Monterey Pine, Valerie A. Loe

Master's Theses and Project Reports

The future resilience of Pinus radiata D. Don (Monterey pine) is dependent upon the development of a silviculture program inclusive of either preventative or management techniques for the potentially fatal pitch canker disease (Fusarium circinatum Nirenberg and O’Donnell [=F.subglutinans (Wollenw. & Reinking) Nelson et al. f. sp. Pini). As an ecologically and commercially valued species, a myriad of factors threaten the genetic resources of the geographically limited natural range. This study evaluated the effectiveness of uneven-aged forest management for regeneration success in the native, pitch canker infected Año Nuevo stand at Swanton Pacific Ranch in Davenport, California. Seedling survival ...


Growth Hormone Alters Components Related To Differentiation, Metabolism And Milk Synthesis And Secretion In Mac-T Cells, Tasha Lynn Johnson Jun 2010

Growth Hormone Alters Components Related To Differentiation, Metabolism And Milk Synthesis And Secretion In Mac-T Cells, Tasha Lynn Johnson

Master's Theses and Project Reports

The mammary alveolar cell-T (MAC-T) cell line is able to uniformly differentiate and secrete casein proteins in response to dexamethasone, insulin and prolactin and is extensively used to study bovine mammary epithelial cell function. Growth hormone (GH) has been shown to increase milk protein synthesis both in vivo and in mammary cell models, and induce cytoskeletal rearrangement in 3T3 fibroblast cell line and a Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cell line. Few studies have focused on identifying the mechanisms involved in differentiated MAC-T cells’ response to GH. We tested the hypothesis that MAC-T cells would respond directly to GH and that ...


Influence Of Irrigation Strategies On The Photosynthetic Rate Of Syrah, Daniel Michael Rodrigues Jun 2010

Influence Of Irrigation Strategies On The Photosynthetic Rate Of Syrah, Daniel Michael Rodrigues

Master's Theses and Project Reports

Regulated deficit irrigation (RDI) is a common and useful practice for water conservation and improving grape quality. To attain better grape characteristics and wine quality, a substantial degree of irrigation stress is intentionally allowed to occur during the first part of berry formation and can continue until later into veraison. Understanding the effects of deficit irrigation on photosynthetic rates could be helpful in determining at what degree and duration a grower should perform this irrigation practice. The focus of this study was to determine the effects of using differing degrees of RDI in a vineyard located in Paso Robles, California ...


A Comparison Of Lidar Generated Channel Features With Ground-Surveyed Channel Features In The Little Creek Watershed, Ryan M. Hilburn Jun 2010

A Comparison Of Lidar Generated Channel Features With Ground-Surveyed Channel Features In The Little Creek Watershed, Ryan M. Hilburn

Master's Theses and Project Reports

Detecting change in stream channel features over time is important in understanding channel morphology and the effects of both natural and anthropogenic influences. Channel features historically, and now currently, are being measured using a variety of ground survey techniques. These surveys require substantial time commitments and funding to complete. Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) is an airborne laser mapping technology that holds promise to provide an alternative to ground-based survey methods. For this study, ground surveys were used to verify the accuracy of data collected using airborne LiDAR. Fifty nine cross-sectional profiles were surveyed in the Little Creek watershed at ...


Establishing Buffalograss In Fine Fescue Turfgrass On The Central Coast Of California, Brittani Jean Axtell May 2010

Establishing Buffalograss In Fine Fescue Turfgrass On The Central Coast Of California, Brittani Jean Axtell

Master's Theses and Project Reports

Buffalograss [Buchloe dactyloides (Nutt.) Engelm.] is a warm season, perennial grass native to the Great Plains from southern Canada to Mexico (Beetle, 1950). This newly developed, low input, turf-type grass is recommended for use on low maintenance sites (Falkenberg-Borland and Butler, 1982; Pozarnsky, 1983; Wu and Harivandi, 1989; Shearman et al., 2005). Recently, the use of buffalograss as a turfgrass has increased due to its drought tolerance, low nutrient requirements, and low growing height (Harivandi and Wu, 1995; Frank et al., 2004). It is an excellent choice in California where water use is limited. Unsightly winter dormancy of buffalograss can ...


Differences In Aerobic Response To Wheelchair Locomotion, David Pomfret May 2010

Differences In Aerobic Response To Wheelchair Locomotion, David Pomfret

Master's Theses and Project Reports

The purpose of this study was to explore the differences in the aerobic response to wheeling between wheelchair dependent individuals and able-bodied individuals of similar genders and ages. Five wheelchair dependent men (WC) and five able-bodied men (AB) performed a 13 minute wheeling test (5 min. at rest, 8 min. wheeling) at 4.0 km∙hr-1. Heart rate (HR) and VO2 were recorded using a Vmax ST system during the constant speed test. There was no significant difference in HR or VO2 between the two groups during rest. Both HR and VO2 were higher for WC during exercise. The mean ...


Temperature Affects Adhesion Of The Acorn Barnacle (Balanus Amphitrite), Laurel A. Johnston Mar 2010

Temperature Affects Adhesion Of The Acorn Barnacle (Balanus Amphitrite), Laurel A. Johnston

Master's Theses and Project Reports

Biofouling is the accumulation of sessile marine organisms, such as algae, tube worms and barnacles on man-made substrata and has negative economic and ecological implications. Ship hulls are readily fouled, which significantly increases drag while decreasing ship fuel efficiency when moving through water. Fouled hulls have also become important vectors of invasive species. These problems are minimized when hulls are painted with a toxic anti-fouling or non-toxic foul-release coating. Due to recent restrictions of anti-fouling paint use, research and development of non-toxic alternatives has increased.

Novel hull coating efficiency is often quantified by the critical removal stress value of barnacles ...


Accuracy Of Forest Road And Stream Channel Characteristics Derived From Lidar In Forested Mountain Conditions, Russell Alan White Mar 2010

Accuracy Of Forest Road And Stream Channel Characteristics Derived From Lidar In Forested Mountain Conditions, Russell Alan White

Master's Theses and Project Reports

Forest roads and stream channels are mapped using a variety of remote sensing and ground-based techniques. In densely forested areas, conventional remote sensing methods provide limited terrain information, while ground-based surveys can be time-consuming, difficult, and expensive. Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) is an airborne remote sensing technology used to create high-resolution digital elevation models (DEMs) of the earth’s surface. This study tests the accuracy of forest road and stream channel features mapped using LiDAR in the steep, forested terrain of California’s Santa Cruz Mountains. A conventional total station survey was used to determine centerline position and elevations ...


Consumers And Benefits Of Genetically Modified Vegetables, Megan Carter Judge Mar 2010

Consumers And Benefits Of Genetically Modified Vegetables, Megan Carter Judge

Master's Theses and Project Reports

With the adoption of biotechnology in many agricultural products with first-generation biotechnology traits such as increased pest resistance, greater herbicide resistance, and increased yields the growers have accepted them. The next wave of biotech crops have second-generation traits, such as improved nutrient content, extended shelf life, reduced pesticide and herbicide application (a consumer demanded trait), and better taste. Will these consumer benefits offset any concern that the consumer has regarding biotechnology? What are those benefits and how should the information be communicated to the consumer?

Three focus groups give insight to the proposed questions. The focus groups were done in ...


The Presence Of Micropterus Salmoides (Largemouth Bass) Influences The Populations Of Rana Draytonii (California Red-Legged Frog) And Pseudacris Regilla (Pacific Treefrog) In Two Ponds In Santa Barbara County, California, Kenneth Lee Gilliland Feb 2010

The Presence Of Micropterus Salmoides (Largemouth Bass) Influences The Populations Of Rana Draytonii (California Red-Legged Frog) And Pseudacris Regilla (Pacific Treefrog) In Two Ponds In Santa Barbara County, California, Kenneth Lee Gilliland

Master's Theses and Project Reports

Alien fish have been implicated in the decline of Rana draytonii (California red-legged frog) and Pseudacris regilla (Pacific treefrog) populations. Micropterus salmoides (largemouth bass) is a common sport fish that has been introduced into the sympatric range of these two anuran species; however, no studies have investigated the individual influence that this alien fish has on these two species. I conducted M. salmoides control or eradication experiments during a four year study in two ponds within the Transverse Mountain Range of Santa Barbara County, California. Changes in the densities of all life stages of R. draytonii and P. regilla were ...