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Full-Text Articles in Life Sciences

The Efficacy Of Extended-Release Eprinomectin For The Reduction Of Horn Flies, Face Flies, And Fecal Egg Counts Of Parasitic Nematodes In Replacement Beef Heifers, Sophia F. Landers May 2020

The Efficacy Of Extended-Release Eprinomectin For The Reduction Of Horn Flies, Face Flies, And Fecal Egg Counts Of Parasitic Nematodes In Replacement Beef Heifers, Sophia F. Landers

Animal Science Undergraduate Honors Theses

The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of extended-release eprinomectin against horn flies, face flies, and fecal egg counts of parasitic nematodes in crossbreed replacement beef heifers. Fifty-four heifers were randomly placed into three treatment groups (N=18 heifers/treatment). Group 1 was administered the labeled dosage of extended-release eprinomectin on day 0. Group 2 acted as the negative control. Group 3 received the anthelmintic injection once a quarter of the heifers in the group reached the threshold treatment level for horn flies (N=200 flies/animal; day 41). Nematode infections were measured via fecal egg counts ...


Experience-Dependent Changes In Nucleus Accumbens Activity Predict Cued Approach Learning: Contribution Of Nmda Receptors, Mercedes Vega Villar Feb 2020

Experience-Dependent Changes In Nucleus Accumbens Activity Predict Cued Approach Learning: Contribution Of Nmda Receptors, Mercedes Vega Villar

All Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

Animals learn associations between environmental cues and the natural rewards they predict (e.g., food, water, sex). As a result, reward-predictive cues come to trigger vigorous reward-seeking responses. Many neurons in the nucleus accumbens (NAc) become excited upon presentation of an already-learned reward-predictive cue. These NAc responses encode the motivational value of the cue and are necessary for the expression of the subsequent approach behavior. However, the precise temporal relationship between the emergence of cue-evoked excitations in the NAc and the acquisition of cued approach behavior remains unknown. In Experiment 1, NAc activity was recorded as rats learned to approach ...


The Nature Of Informal Roles In Interdependent Sport Teams, Jeemin Kim Jan 2020

The Nature Of Informal Roles In Interdependent Sport Teams, Jeemin Kim

Theses and Dissertations (Comprehensive)

The degree to which athletes understand and execute their formal role responsibilities (i.e., prescribed by coaches) is important for individual and group functioning (Eys, Schinke, Surya, & Benson, 2014). Recent literature suggested that informal roles can emerge within sport teams more naturally without coaches’ explicit assignments (e.g., team comedians, distracters), and have significant influences on team functioning (Cope, Eys, Beauchamp, Schinke, & Bosselut, 2011). This doctoral dissertation examined the nature of informal roles within interdependent sport teams, focusing on their antecedents and outcomes. Three separate projects were conducted. Project One examined athletes’ personality in the big five dimensions (McCrae & Costa ...


Beyond A Mapping Exercise: Inclusion Of Aboriginal Traditional Ecological Knowledge In Parks And Protected Areas Management, David Cook Jan 2020

Beyond A Mapping Exercise: Inclusion Of Aboriginal Traditional Ecological Knowledge In Parks And Protected Areas Management, David Cook

Theses and Dissertations (Comprehensive)

This paper examines current approaches for Parks and Protected Areas (PPA) managers in incorporating Aboriginal Traditional and Ecological Knowledge (ATEK) into their management plans. This paper focuses on two case-studies. They are Nahanni National Park and Reserve in the Dehcho region of the Northwest Territories, and the Whitefeather Forest Protected Area in the Pikangikum First Nations Traditional Territory in Ontario. They were chosen because of their unique approaches to include Aboriginal communities in the planning process and their designation as UNESCO World Heritage sites. The broader indigenous involvement policies of both Parks Canada and Ontario Parks are examined using academic ...


There Must Be Something In The Water: Understanding Pfas Contamination Of Groundwater As A National Security Issue, Kylie N. Ford Dec 2019

There Must Be Something In The Water: Understanding Pfas Contamination Of Groundwater As A National Security Issue, Kylie N. Ford

Student Theses 2015-Present

This report addresses the widespread pollution of domestic groundwater resources with Perfluoroalkyl and Polyfluoroalkyl Substances (PFAS) caused by firefighting activities performed at military installations across the United States. Two former military bases in Southeastern Pennsylvania are used as a single case study: the Naval Air Development Center (NADC) in Warminster and the Naval Air Station Joint Reserve Base (NASJRB) in Horsham. Chapter 1 gives a history of domestic military bases from the perspective of the infrastructure buildup and downsizing that occurred over the 20th Century, along with the environmental degradation revealed during brownfield redevelopment. The chapter then gives specifics about ...


Narratives Of Canadian Identity At The Ultimate Fighting Championship, Jared V. Walters Dec 2019

Narratives Of Canadian Identity At The Ultimate Fighting Championship, Jared V. Walters

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

The purpose of this dissertation was to examine the use of representations and symbols of Canadian identity within the event coverage produced by the Ultimate Fighting Championship Corporation, in the context of its two key events, Ultimate Fighting Championship, and Fight Night, produced in Canada. To establish the historical context in which the sport developed in Canada, a narrative historiography of the political and legal struggles that led to the legalization and increasing popularity of Mixed Martial Arts, and the UFCC’s version of the sport, in particular. This first major part of the dissertation is contained in Study 1 ...


The Training Of A Para Powerlifter: A Case Study Of Adaptive Monitoring, Training And Overcoming, Derek Wilcox Dec 2019

The Training Of A Para Powerlifter: A Case Study Of Adaptive Monitoring, Training And Overcoming, Derek Wilcox

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Paralympic athletes (PA) appear to be more prone to chronic overuse injuries from daily wheelchair or crutch use. Over half of these injuries are shoulder related which can deleteriously impact quality of life. Adaptive powerlifters (AP) are a subdivision of Paralympic athletes and are at a higher risk for catastrophic injuries as compared to their counterparts, due to the compound of fatigue and lifting of maximal weights. For this reason, it is vital to have well-designed training plans for these athletes in order to preserve quality of life and maximize performance in competition. Unfortunately, there is a lack of literature ...


The Feedback-Related Negativity Is A Time-Dependent Brain Mechanism That Facilitates Aversive Learning: Implications For The Reinforcement Learning Frn Hypothesis, Eric Rawls Dec 2019

The Feedback-Related Negativity Is A Time-Dependent Brain Mechanism That Facilitates Aversive Learning: Implications For The Reinforcement Learning Frn Hypothesis, Eric Rawls

Theses and Dissertations

Organisms encode rewarding and aversive experiences through reinforcement learning, capitalizing on prediction errors (PEs), which adapt action strategies over time. Computational theories are explicit that PE signals should update action weights continuously over the course of a behavioral task, an important time-dependent variation that is eschewed in traditional neuroscience studies that average over large numbers of trials. I examined variation in reaction times and feedback-locked cortical activity over time as a function of PE to critically examine theories indicating that PE signals drive time-dependent learning. We recorded EEG while participants completed a novel reinforcement task that varied prediction error on ...


Mammal Species Inventory Using Various Trapping Methods In Zone 4 Of Billy Barquedier National Park, Belize During Rainy Season, Mersady Redding Dec 2019

Mammal Species Inventory Using Various Trapping Methods In Zone 4 Of Billy Barquedier National Park, Belize During Rainy Season, Mersady Redding

Animal Science Undergraduate Honors Theses

Belize is a small country, but it is extremely ecologically diverse. Based on the few studies conducted in Belize, the abundance of mammals is low but diversity is high. Particular findings note the number and identity of species differed between four sites in the Maya Mountains of Belize, indicating that a data set from a single site is not representative of the Neotropical region. Insufficient data is available to estimate current species richness of many areas in Belize, including Billy Barquedier National Park (BBNP). The objective of this study was to explore trapping and documentation methods of terrestrial mammals in ...


Effects Of Dietary Copper, Zinc And Manganese Source And Level On The Acute Inflammatory Response Of Broilers, Chelsea Ellington Dec 2019

Effects Of Dietary Copper, Zinc And Manganese Source And Level On The Acute Inflammatory Response Of Broilers, Chelsea Ellington

Theses and Dissertations

Trace minerals, particularly copper, zinc and manganese, play a role in ensuring optimal immune function. To examine the effects of diets containing different levels and sources of trace minerals on the inflammatory response, Cobb 500 broilers were fed four experimental diets containing 5 mg/kg Cu and 45 mg/kg of Zn and Mn or 10 mg/kg Cu and 90 mg/kg Zn and Mn in either the sulfate or hydroxychloride form. When the broilers were 5 weeks of age, 16 μg of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) was injected into the pulp of growing feathers (GF; 16 GF per chicken; 1 ...


Effects Of Mercury On The Dopamine Transporter Cell Surface Expression In Pc12 Cells, Christina Hui Dec 2019

Effects Of Mercury On The Dopamine Transporter Cell Surface Expression In Pc12 Cells, Christina Hui

Student Theses

Environmental factors, such as heavy metal exposures, have been suggested to have an impact not only on neurodegenerative disease, such as Parkinson’s disease, but also on psychostimulants abuse and their toxicity. In this study, two questions were addressed: 1) effects of mercuric chloride on parkinsonian toxicant 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium (MPP+) induced cytotoxicity and 2) effects of mercuric chloride on cell surface dopamine transporter. Pheochromocytorma cells (PC12) were treated with various concentrations of mercuric chloride (0.02~2.0 ppm) for 4 hours with and without 0.1 mM MPP+. Significant potentiation of toxicity was observed when there was co-treatment with 0 ...


The Effects Of Foot And Udder Scoring On Cow And Calf Performance, Clayton Lee Mcguire Dec 2019

The Effects Of Foot And Udder Scoring On Cow And Calf Performance, Clayton Lee Mcguire

Theses and Dissertations

Foot soundness and udder conformation are essential for longevity in beef cattle. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of foot angle (FA), claw set (CS), teat size (TS) and udder suspension (US) scores on cowherd performance. Data were analyzed for 1,685 observations on Angus-based cows over a four-year period. At weaning FA, CS, TS, and US were evaluated. Scores are based on nine-point scales. A score of one indicates straight pasterns, divergent toes, enlarged bottle shaped teats, and absence of a median suspensory ligament; nine indicates weak pasterns, curled toes, small symmetrical teats, and a ...


Investigating Egg Storage Conditions, Hatch Characteristics, And Feeding Methods Of Commercially Produced Poultry, Joshua R. Deines Dec 2019

Investigating Egg Storage Conditions, Hatch Characteristics, And Feeding Methods Of Commercially Produced Poultry, Joshua R. Deines

Theses and Dissertations

Advancements in poultry research continue to add knowledge and understanding to an already technical industry. Such information has led to new developments in early feeding strategies which provide nutrients to broiler chicks while in the egg or during transport. This wealth of knowledge in poultry research extends beyond chickens and is utilized for other species, such as quail and pheasants, including how fertile eggs are stored and incubated. However, methods of early feeding broilers have not been investigated in industry relevant approaches to understand its effects, including how timing of feed access interacts with the hatch window. As well, quail ...


Socioeconomic Impacts Of Illegal Unreported And Unregulated (Iuu) Fishing On Sierra Leone, Michael Tamba Fillie Nov 2019

Socioeconomic Impacts Of Illegal Unreported And Unregulated (Iuu) Fishing On Sierra Leone, Michael Tamba Fillie

World Maritime University Dissertations

No abstract provided.


Impact Of Water Hyacinth Infestation In Nigerian Inland Waters: Utilization And Management, Daniel Ovarr Ezama Nov 2019

Impact Of Water Hyacinth Infestation In Nigerian Inland Waters: Utilization And Management, Daniel Ovarr Ezama

World Maritime University Dissertations

No abstract provided.


The Impact Of Biofouling On Marine Environment : A Qualitative Review Of The Current Antifouling Technologies, Sultan Ahmed Alghamdi, Rafael Alejandro Quijada Cordova Nov 2019

The Impact Of Biofouling On Marine Environment : A Qualitative Review Of The Current Antifouling Technologies, Sultan Ahmed Alghamdi, Rafael Alejandro Quijada Cordova

World Maritime University Dissertations

No abstract provided.


The Protection Of The Marine Environment Within The Territorial Seas And Contiguous Zone Of India As Part Of Salvage Interventions, Pooran Chand Meena Nov 2019

The Protection Of The Marine Environment Within The Territorial Seas And Contiguous Zone Of India As Part Of Salvage Interventions, Pooran Chand Meena

World Maritime University Dissertations

No abstract provided.


In Search Of Psychiatric Kinds: Natural Kinds And Natural Classification In Psychiatry, Nicholas Slothouber Oct 2019

In Search Of Psychiatric Kinds: Natural Kinds And Natural Classification In Psychiatry, Nicholas Slothouber

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

In recent years both philosophers and scientists have asked whether or not our current kinds of mental disorder—e.g., schizophrenia, depression, bipolar disorder—are natural kinds; and, moreover, whether or not the search for natural kinds of mental disorder is a realistic desideratum for psychiatry. In this dissertation I clarify the sense in which a kind can be said to be “natural” or “real” and argue that, despite a few notable exceptions, kinds of mental disorder cannot be considered natural kinds. Furthermore, I contend that psychopathological phenomena do not cluster together into kinds in the way that paradigmatic natural ...


Understanding The Biopsychological Effects Of Trauma On Learning: An Investigation Of Interventions To Support Faculty, Joan Buzick Oct 2019

Understanding The Biopsychological Effects Of Trauma On Learning: An Investigation Of Interventions To Support Faculty, Joan Buzick

Seton Hall University Dissertations and Theses (ETDs)

The current era in higher education has brought changes to the academic profession. Faculty have an increasing number of responsibilities in addition to their traditional role as an instructor. At the same time, faculty are engaging with a changing and diverse student population. The population has more challenges, with increased stressors, than have been historically observed in higher education students. For many, the stressors are trauma-related and are a growing concern. Trauma has been shown to impact cognitive, social, emotional, and physical well-being. What has been learned about trauma is, to a great extent, a result of the relatively recently ...


How Do Humans Process Magnitudes? An Examination Of The Neural And Cognitive Underpinnings Of Symbols, Quantities, And Size In Adults And Children, Helen Moriah Sokolowski Oct 2019

How Do Humans Process Magnitudes? An Examination Of The Neural And Cognitive Underpinnings Of Symbols, Quantities, And Size In Adults And Children, Helen Moriah Sokolowski

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

A striking way that humans differ from other species is our unique ability to represent and manipulate symbols. This ability to process numerical magnitudes symbolically (e.g., ‘three’, ‘3’) is widely thought to be supported by an ancient system that evolved to process nonsymbolic numerical magnitudes (i.e., quantities). In this thesis, I present four empirical studies to uncover whether symbolic representations are indeed supported by the system that evolved to process quantities, or if symbolic representations are sub-served by a similar but ultimately distinct system.

In experiments 1 and 2, I investigate how the adult brain processes symbols and ...


How Does The Brain Represent Digits? Investigating The Neural Correlates Of Symbolic Number Representation Using Fmri-Adaptation, Celia Goffin Oct 2019

How Does The Brain Represent Digits? Investigating The Neural Correlates Of Symbolic Number Representation Using Fmri-Adaptation, Celia Goffin

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

How does the brain represent numerical symbols (e.g., Arabic digits)? Activity in left parietal regions correlates with symbolic number processing. Research with functional resonance imaging adaptation (fMRI-A) indicates that the intraparietal sulcus (IPS) exhibits a rebound (increase in activation) effect when a repeatedly presented number is followed by a new number. Importantly, this rebound effect is modulated by numerical ratio as well as the difference between presented numbers (distance). This ratio-dependent rebound effect could reflect a link between symbolic numerical representation and an approximate number system (ANS). In this doctoral dissertation, fMRI-A is used to investigate mechanisms underlying symbolic ...


Cognitive, Neural, And Educational Contributions To Mathematics Performance: A Closer Look At The Roles Of Numerical And Spatial Skills, Zachary C.K. Hawes Sep 2019

Cognitive, Neural, And Educational Contributions To Mathematics Performance: A Closer Look At The Roles Of Numerical And Spatial Skills, Zachary C.K. Hawes

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

The principal aims of this thesis were to (1) provide new insights into the cognitive and neural associations between spatial and mathematical abilities, and (2) translate and apply findings from the field of numerical cognition to the teaching and learning of early mathematics.

Study 1 investigated the structure and interrelations amongst cognitive constructs related to numerical, spatial, and executive function (EF) skills and mathematics achievement in 4- to 11-year old children (N=316). Results revealed evidence of highly related, yet separable, cognitive constructs. Together, numerical, spatial, and EF skills explained 84% of the variance in mathematics achievement (controlling for chronological ...


Neural Correlates Of Automatic Emotional Processing And Emotion Regulation In Empathy And Psychopathy-Related Coldheartedness, Danielle Difilipo Sep 2019

Neural Correlates Of Automatic Emotional Processing And Emotion Regulation In Empathy And Psychopathy-Related Coldheartedness, Danielle Difilipo

All Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

Psychopathy is a personality disorder that is defined, in part, by a lack of empathy. Psychopathy-related empathic deficits have been associated with atypical behavioral and neural responses to emotional facial expressions. Although the mirror neuron system (MNS) has been implicated in empathy, very few studies have examined the role of MNS functioning as it pertains to empathy impairments in psychopathy. Moreover, there is very little empirical research regarding emotion regulation in psychopathy, and specifically whether emotional responses can be intentionally upregulated. The present study sought to clarify whether the MNS is functionally intact in adults with subclinical psychopathic traits, particularly ...


Murine Genetic Variance In Sugar And Fat-Conditioned Flavor Preferences: Roles Of Dopamine, Opioid And Nmda Receptors And Nutritive Sensing, Tamar T. Kraft Sep 2019

Murine Genetic Variance In Sugar And Fat-Conditioned Flavor Preferences: Roles Of Dopamine, Opioid And Nmda Receptors And Nutritive Sensing, Tamar T. Kraft

All Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

As obesity and diabetes have emerged as a severe public health crisis, understanding the mechanisms underlying the consumption of sugars and fats has become a topic of vigorous study. From a biological standpoint, genetic dispositions, neurochemical and hormonal influences, and predetermined orosensory and postingestive signals that modulate the hunger and satiety process may govern physiological aspects of the obesity puzzle. In addition to an innate appetite and attraction for simple carbohydrates and fats, learning plays an important role in modulating preferences for sugar- and fat-rich foods in rodents, including inbred mouse strains. Marked genetic variance has been observed among murine ...


The Interaction Of Attention And Memory On The Reorienting Negativity, John C. Moses Sep 2019

The Interaction Of Attention And Memory On The Reorienting Negativity, John C. Moses

All Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

The three-stage model of distraction asserts that when we are presented with salient but task-irrelevant information, our sensory systems first detect the distracting stimulus by way of sensory memory buffers, which is indicated electrophysiologically by the mismatch negativity (MMN). Following detection, attentional resources are involuntarily allocated towards the processing of the distraction, as represented by the P3a. Finally, attentional resources are shifted away from the distracting stimulus and returned to the task-relevant information, as indicated by the reorienting negativity (RON). A great deal of research has focused on this last step in the model, largely centering around defining the mechanisms ...


The Role Of The Direct And Indirect Basal Ganglia Pathways In The Learning, Performance, And Goal-Directed Control Of Action Sequences, Eric Garr Sep 2019

The Role Of The Direct And Indirect Basal Ganglia Pathways In The Learning, Performance, And Goal-Directed Control Of Action Sequences, Eric Garr

All Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

Animals engage in intricately woven action sequences that are constructed from trial-and-error learning, but the mechanisms by which the brain links together individual actions which are later recalled as fluid chains of behavior are not fully understood. The aim of this dissertation is to investigate the learning and goal-directed control of action sequences in rats. Experiment 1 addresses a question that comes out of a reinforcement learning model of action sequencing: how does the extent of training change how the performance of an action sequence is impacted by reward devaluation. The data show that action sequences remain goal-directed overall regardless ...


Voluntary Oral Methamphetamine Reveals Susceptibilities To Spatial Memory Deficits, Decreased Dopamine Marker Expression And Increased Neuroinflammation In The Hippocampus Of Male And Female Mice, Jorge A. Avila Sep 2019

Voluntary Oral Methamphetamine Reveals Susceptibilities To Spatial Memory Deficits, Decreased Dopamine Marker Expression And Increased Neuroinflammation In The Hippocampus Of Male And Female Mice, Jorge A. Avila

All Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

Methamphetamine is an addictive illicit psychostimulant that produces lasting neurochemical and behavioral changes. The mechanisms underlying these deficits have been characterized in animal models using extremely high doses. Currently, better translational models are needed to understand the onset and progression of these deficits that more accurately reflect the gradual and voluntary dosing parameters as chosen by an abuser. To that end, a new model of methamphetamine administration, labeled Voluntary Oral Methamphetamine Administration (VOMA), offers a means to examine the progression of neurotoxicity, behavioral deficits, and the addiction process through a voluntary consumption framework.

Female populations show consistent vulnerabilities to methamphetamine ...


The Relations Between Newcomer Integration Processes And Youth Athletes’ Perceptions Of The Group Environment In Competitive Ice Hockey, Jeffrey J. Chamberlain Aug 2019

The Relations Between Newcomer Integration Processes And Youth Athletes’ Perceptions Of The Group Environment In Competitive Ice Hockey, Jeffrey J. Chamberlain

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Abstract

The ways in which new members are integrated into a particular group environment—also known as organizational socialization processes—have been shown to be a powerful predictor of newcomer adjustment in the workplace. Yet, there is a scarcity of research on how sport teams manage the integration of new team members, and the consequences of different tactics. The current research uses the recently developed Sport Team Socialization Tactics Questionnaire (STSTQ) to evaluate how socialization processes are systematically related to youth athletes’ perceptions of their group environment. Across two time points, 202 competitive adolescent ice hockey players (Mage = 14 ...


Mountain Livelihoods In A Time Of Change: A Case Study Of Upper Mustang In Nepal, Sandesh Shrestha Aug 2019

Mountain Livelihoods In A Time Of Change: A Case Study Of Upper Mustang In Nepal, Sandesh Shrestha

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

A case study was conducted in a remote Himalayan village—Yara—in the Upper Mustang region of Nepal. The goal of this study was to understand and assess the livelihood strategies of local people in the village. The study focused on understanding the socio-economic and environmental driving factors of livelihood vulnerability, prevalent livelihood activities, emergent livelihood strategies, and resulting livelihood outcomes in the village. We used multiple data generation methods, which included both qualitative social science and quantitative biophysical components. For the qualitative component, we utilized multiple data generation methods including key informant interviews, semi-structured household interviews, group discussions, and ...


Social-Ecological Heterogeneity Shapes Resilience Of Small-Scale Fisheries: An Interdisciplinary Analysis Of The Mexican Chocolate Clam Fishery In Loreto, Mexico, Kara E. Pellowe Aug 2019

Social-Ecological Heterogeneity Shapes Resilience Of Small-Scale Fisheries: An Interdisciplinary Analysis Of The Mexican Chocolate Clam Fishery In Loreto, Mexico, Kara E. Pellowe

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

All benefits provided by natural systems are embedded within coupled social-ecological systems (SESs). Fisheries are clear examples of SESs: through fishing, humans affect ecosystem structure and functioning, and in turn, receive benefits, including sustenance, employment, and cultural value. Resilience, the ability to maintain structure and function in the face of change, is key to sustaining the social and ecological components of fisheries-related SESs and their interactions. Many factors contribute to resilience, including heterogeneity. By identifying heterogeneity in these complex systems, we are better able to understand the capacity of fishery-related SESs to adapt to change, and contribute to management that ...