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Pharmacology, Toxicology and Environmental Health

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Full-Text Articles in Life Sciences

Activation Of The Sonic Hedgehog Effector Smoothened Counteracts L-Dopa Induced Dyskinesia By Restoring Cholinergic Interneuron Function, Lauren Malave Feb 2020

Activation Of The Sonic Hedgehog Effector Smoothened Counteracts L-Dopa Induced Dyskinesia By Restoring Cholinergic Interneuron Function, Lauren Malave

All Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

Many types of neurons act as multimodal signaling centers. Yet, we have only limited insight into the regulation and functional consequences of neuronal co-transmission. For example, dopamine (DA) neurons, whose degeneration causes motor deficits characteristic of Parkinson’s Diseases (PD), communicate with all their targets by DA but only a selective subset of their targets using GABA, Glutamate, and the secreted cell signaling protein Sonic Hedgehog (Shh). It is unknown whether Levo-dopamine (L-Dopa) induced dyskinesia (LIDs), a severely debilitating side effect of DA supplementation in PD, might appear because DA neuron targets are exposed to high DA- but low Shh- ...


Pharmacological Inhibition Of Hif-1 Alpha And Its Effects On Dendritic Cell Metabolic Reprogramming, Warrick Sahene Jan 2020

Pharmacological Inhibition Of Hif-1 Alpha And Its Effects On Dendritic Cell Metabolic Reprogramming, Warrick Sahene

Graduate College Dissertations and Theses

Dendritic cells (DCs) are antigen presenting cells (APCs), a subtype of immune cells that present cellular information to T cells in the immune system. Hypoxia inducible factor 1 alpha (HIF-1 alpha) is an important transcription factor that facilitates dendritic cell metabolism by upregulating glycolysis in activated DCs. In this project, we examined the effects of HIF-1 alpha inhibition on metabolic processes of dendritic cells. Using techniques such as flow cytometry, western blotting, and extracellular flux analyzers, we used a selective inhibitor of HIF-1 alpha to test the hypothesis that HIF-1 alpha promotes glycolytic dependent processes such as glucose production, survival ...


Theranostics For Antiretroviral Biodistribution And Pharmacokinetics, Brendan M. Ottemann Dec 2019

Theranostics For Antiretroviral Biodistribution And Pharmacokinetics, Brendan M. Ottemann

Theses & Dissertations

RATIONALE: Our laboratories birthed the field of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) theranostics. The new field allows simultaneous detection (diagnostics) and treatment (therapeutic) for the identification, treatment and inevitable elimination of virus in cell and tissue compartments. By employing theranostics, antiretroviral drugs (ARVs) can be tracked in lymph nodes, gut, spleen and liver. Cellular viral reservoirs including CD4+ T cell populations and mononuclear phagocytes (MP; monocytes, macrophages, microglia and dendritic cells) along with subcellular endosomal structures can now be targeted for drug delivery bringing therapeutics to areas where virus replicates. The overarching idea rests in improving precision targeted ARV delivery. Bringing ...


There Must Be Something In The Water: Understanding Pfas Contamination Of Groundwater As A National Security Issue, Kylie N. Ford Dec 2019

There Must Be Something In The Water: Understanding Pfas Contamination Of Groundwater As A National Security Issue, Kylie N. Ford

Student Theses 2015-Present

This report addresses the widespread pollution of domestic groundwater resources with Perfluoroalkyl and Polyfluoroalkyl Substances (PFAS) caused by firefighting activities performed at military installations across the United States. Two former military bases in Southeastern Pennsylvania are used as a single case study: the Naval Air Development Center (NADC) in Warminster and the Naval Air Station Joint Reserve Base (NASJRB) in Horsham. Chapter 1 gives a history of domestic military bases from the perspective of the infrastructure buildup and downsizing that occurred over the 20th Century, along with the environmental degradation revealed during brownfield redevelopment. The chapter then gives specifics about ...


Acute Exposure To Tcdd Increases Liver Disease Progression In Mice With Carbon Tetrachloride-Induced Liver Injury, Giovan N. Cholico Dec 2019

Acute Exposure To Tcdd Increases Liver Disease Progression In Mice With Carbon Tetrachloride-Induced Liver Injury, Giovan N. Cholico

Boise State University Theses and Dissertations

Liver disease is a worldwide problem and the 9th leading cause of death in the United States. Common causes of liver disease include alcohol abuse, virus infection, and nonalcoholic fatty liver. Regardless of etiology, liver damage elicits inflammation and drives the activation of hepatic stellate cells (HSCs), which deposit collagen throughout the liver. During chronic injury, excessive collagen deposition, referred to as fibrosis or “scarring”, can progress to cirrhosis, cancer, and organ failure. Emerging evidence indicates a strong association between liver disease and exposure to environmental chemicals. This research investigated mechanisms by which exposure to the environmental contaminant 2 ...


Effects Of Mercury On The Dopamine Transporter Cell Surface Expression In Pc12 Cells, Christina Hui Dec 2019

Effects Of Mercury On The Dopamine Transporter Cell Surface Expression In Pc12 Cells, Christina Hui

Student Theses

Environmental factors, such as heavy metal exposures, have been suggested to have an impact not only on neurodegenerative disease, such as Parkinson’s disease, but also on psychostimulants abuse and their toxicity. In this study, two questions were addressed: 1) effects of mercuric chloride on parkinsonian toxicant 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium (MPP+) induced cytotoxicity and 2) effects of mercuric chloride on cell surface dopamine transporter. Pheochromocytorma cells (PC12) were treated with various concentrations of mercuric chloride (0.02~2.0 ppm) for 4 hours with and without 0.1 mM MPP+. Significant potentiation of toxicity was observed when there was co-treatment with 0 ...


Cytotoxicity And Mutagenicity Of Disinfection Byproduct Mixtures Formulated Using Free Chlorine And Monochloramine, Yonas Ghebremedhin Dec 2019

Cytotoxicity And Mutagenicity Of Disinfection Byproduct Mixtures Formulated Using Free Chlorine And Monochloramine, Yonas Ghebremedhin

Theses and Dissertations

Bioassays have been used extensively to assess various toxicity endpoints of drinking water disinfection byproducts (DBPs), but an emphasis on single compounds prevails. In this research, DBP mixtures were assessed using a cytotoxicity test with Chinese Hamster Ovary (CHO) cells and an Ames fluctuation test with Salmonella typhimurium TA-98 and TA-100 with and without S9 rat liver homogenate. Seven whole mixture DBP concentrates were formulated using reconstituted natural organic matter (NOM) extracts from the Upper Mississippi River using scaled disinfectant dosing protocols with free chlorine and monochloramine in the presence and absence of added bromide. DBPs were identified by gas ...


Excess No Stabilizes The Luminal Domain Of Stim2 In A Cys-Specific Manner Thereby Regulating Basal Calcium Homeostasis And Store-Operated Calcium Entry, Matthew Novello Sep 2019

Excess No Stabilizes The Luminal Domain Of Stim2 In A Cys-Specific Manner Thereby Regulating Basal Calcium Homeostasis And Store-Operated Calcium Entry, Matthew Novello

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Stromal-interaction molecule 2 (STIM2) is an endoplasmic reticulum (ER) membrane-inserted Ca2+-sensing protein which, together with the plasma membrane Ca2+ channel Orai1, regulates basal Ca2+ homeostasis and store-operated Ca2+ entry (SOCE). Recent evidence suggests that S-nitrosylation, which is the covalent attachment of a nitric oxide (NO) moiety to a cysteine thiol, can attenuate the function of the paralog STIM1 protein. Compared to STIM1, STIM2 also functions as a basal Ca2+ homeostatic feedback regulator. Therefore, the objective of my study was to evaluate the susceptibility of STIM2 to S-nitrosylation and the effects that this ...


The Role Of Secretory Phospholipase A2 Group Iia In Obesity And Metabolism, Michael S. Kuefner Aug 2019

The Role Of Secretory Phospholipase A2 Group Iia In Obesity And Metabolism, Michael S. Kuefner

Theses and Dissertations (ETD)

Secretory phospholipase A2 group IIA (PLA2G2A) is a member of a family of secretory phospholipases previously implicated in inflammation, atherogenesis, and antibacterial actions. These enzymes hydrolyze glycerophospholipids at the sn-2 position releasing lysophospholipids and fatty acids. Though studies have shown PLA2G2A is pro-inflammatory and promotes atherosclerosis, no research has analyzed the role of this enzyme in obesity and metabolism. Studies in the past 5-10 years utilizing various knock- out or over-expression mouse models have analyzed the role of different secretory phospholipase A2s (sPLA2) in metabolic diseases. From these studies, it is known that at least seven of the 11 sPLA2 ...


Investigation Of Riluzole’S Synaptic Protection Mechanism Through Hsf1-Bdnf Axis, Yi Zhang Aug 2019

Investigation Of Riluzole’S Synaptic Protection Mechanism Through Hsf1-Bdnf Axis, Yi Zhang

Theses and Dissertations (ETD)

The FDA-approved amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) drug Riluzole has great potential in treating Alzheimer’s disease (AD) based on promising animal data as well as its known action on modulating synaptic transmission. However, its detailed mechanism of action is not fully understood. Here, we proposed work aiming to address this aspect via focus- ing on the Heat Shock Factor 1 (HSF1)-dependent mechanisms. We found that Riluzole could increase HSF1 and BDNF (Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor) expression both at transcriptional and translational levels. CA1 (Cornu Ammonia, the first region in the hip- pocampal circuit), is its main target. We also demonstrated ...


The Health Implication And Application Of Silver And Iron Oxide Nanoparticles, Sahar Pourhoseini Jul 2019

The Health Implication And Application Of Silver And Iron Oxide Nanoparticles, Sahar Pourhoseini

Theses and Dissertations

Nanoscience and nanotechnology have successfully created different nanomaterials, which are defined as materials with at least one dimension between 1-100 nm. This small size gives nanomaterials unique and novel properties compared with bulk material, such as a high surface area, specific mechanical, optical and magnetic properties. These novel properties have stimulated the interest of using nanoparticles in a wide range of consumer products and applications including biomedical, pharmaceutical and drug delivery. Silver and iron oxide nanoparticles attracted more attention commercially due to their antibacterial and magnetic properties, respectively. So, the overall objective of this dissertation was: 1) to examine the ...


Development And Validation Of A Lc-Ms/Ms Method For Detection And Quantification Of 18 Antidepressants In Whole Blood, Linda Kim Jun 2019

Development And Validation Of A Lc-Ms/Ms Method For Detection And Quantification Of 18 Antidepressants In Whole Blood, Linda Kim

Student Theses

Antidepressants are one of the most commonly prescribed drugs in America, with researchers reporting one in six Americans take some form of psychiatric drugs-mostly antidepressants (NBC News, 2016). Antidepressants are often present in combination with other drugs in suicides and drug-related deaths, so a sensitive and specific method to detect and quantify antidepressants is necessary. We developed a method for the detection and quantification of 18 different antidepressants in whole blood, with a range of 2.5-900 ng/mL and LOQ of 2.5 ng/mL. Three hundred uL of blood was used and the analytes were extracted using solid-phase ...


Health Disparities Among South Asians: Is Food Insecurity The Missing Link?, Valentina Chawdhury Jun 2019

Health Disparities Among South Asians: Is Food Insecurity The Missing Link?, Valentina Chawdhury

Electronic Theses, Projects, and Dissertations

Objective: Food insecurity among South Asians in the US is a public health issue. Food insecure adults face a plethora of adverse outcomes and research shows that individuals with ancestral origins from South Asia have a higher susceptibility rate for cardiovascular disease after migrating to urban environments. As such, the goal of this study was to research possible barriers South Asians face when creating cultural dishes in the US.

Methods: This was a convergent parallel mixed-methods analysis to understand how South Asians feel about food insecurity. Pricing and availability of cultural food items were obtained from South Asian and Western ...


Fouling And Aging In Membrane Filtration : Hybrid Afm-Based Characterization, Modelling And Reactive Membrane Design, Wanyi Fu May 2019

Fouling And Aging In Membrane Filtration : Hybrid Afm-Based Characterization, Modelling And Reactive Membrane Design, Wanyi Fu

Dissertations

Membrane filtration has been extensively used in water and wastewater treatment, desalination, dairy making, and biomass/water separation. However, membrane fouling, aging and insufficient removal efficiency for dissolved organic matters remain major challenges for wider industrial applications. In order to tackle these challenges, this doctoral dissertation investigates mechanisms of membrane fouling and development of antifouling membrane filtration technologies. Specifically, four major research areas are explored: (i) nanoscale physicochemical characterization of the chemically modified polymeric membranes; (ii) quantitative modelling between membrane properties and membrane fouling and defouling kinetics; (iii) development of quantitative structure-activity relationships for membranes that undergo thermal and chemical ...


Extraction, Purification And Evaluation Of Prmt5-Inhibitory Phytochemical Compounds For The Treatment Of Prostate Adenocarcinoma, Oliver H. Richmond Iii May 2019

Extraction, Purification And Evaluation Of Prmt5-Inhibitory Phytochemical Compounds For The Treatment Of Prostate Adenocarcinoma, Oliver H. Richmond Iii

Electronic Theses & Dissertations Collection for Atlanta University & Clark Atlanta University

The development and advancement of prostate cancer is supported by a plethora of genetic and proteomic abnormalities, including events of post-translational modifications. The protein arginine methyltransferase 5 (PRMT5) enzyme regulates epigenetic events of histone modifications and protein post-translational modifications within protein signaling pathways. PRMT5 functions by catalyzing the symmetric dimethylation of terminal arginine residues on target protein substrates. Under abnormal conditions of overexpression and upregulation, PRMT5 methyltransferase activity constitutively drives the growth and proliferation of dysregulated cells. Overexpression or upregulation of PRMT5 correlates with disease progression as observed among numerous cancer types, including breast, colorectal, leukemia, lung, melanoma and prostate ...


Reversal Of P-Glycoprotein And Breast Cancer Resistance Protein Mediated Multidrug Resistance In Vitro Using In Silico Identified Novel Compounds, Amila Nanayakkara May 2019

Reversal Of P-Glycoprotein And Breast Cancer Resistance Protein Mediated Multidrug Resistance In Vitro Using In Silico Identified Novel Compounds, Amila Nanayakkara

Biological Sciences Theses and Dissertations

Multidrug resistance (MDR) is a major cause of chemotherapy failure. Overexpression of ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters, P-glycoprotein (P-gp) and breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP) are two well-studied drug transporters which are associated with MDR. These two transporters also act as a major functional unit of the blood brain barrier to protect the brain from xenobiotics and toxins. Lack of clinically approved P-gp and BCRP inhibitors renders chemotherapy treatments of many MDR cancers ineffective and obstructs drug uptake into the brain.

Using computational methods, we have identified new compounds that inhibit P-gp (Brewer et al., Mol. Pharmacol. 2014). Several of these ...


Reversal Of P-Glycoprotein And Breast Cancer Resistance Protein Mediated Multidrug Resistance In Vitro Using In Silico Identified Novel Compounds, Amila Nanayakkara May 2019

Reversal Of P-Glycoprotein And Breast Cancer Resistance Protein Mediated Multidrug Resistance In Vitro Using In Silico Identified Novel Compounds, Amila Nanayakkara

Biological Sciences Theses and Dissertations

Multidrug resistance (MDR) is a major cause of chemotherapy failure. Overexpression of ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters, P-glycoprotein (P-gp) and breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP) are two well-studied drug transporters which are associated with MDR. These two transporters also act as a major functional unit of the blood brain barrier to protect the brain from xenobiotics and toxins. Lack of clinically approved P-gp and BCRP inhibitors renders chemotherapy treatments of many MDR cancers ineffective and obstructs drug uptake into the brain.

Using computational methods, we have identified new compounds that inhibit P-gp (Brewer et al., Mol. Pharmacol. 2014). Several of these ...


Internal Design Of A Hydroponics Greenhouse For Tri Cycle Farms, Sarah Gould May 2019

Internal Design Of A Hydroponics Greenhouse For Tri Cycle Farms, Sarah Gould

Biological and Agricultural Engineering Undergraduate Honors Theses

Hydroponics is the agricultural technique of growing plants without soil, using other growing media and added nutrients in a solvent. It is an attractive agricultural method over conventional agriculture because it is more water efficient, is less labor intensive, yields higher quality crops in less time, and is easier to control. According to the Digital Journal, “hydroponics crop value is anticipated to grow to USD 27.29 Billion by 2022 at an estimated CAGR of 6.39% from 2015 to 2020” (Sawant, 2016). Alongside this growing market acceptance for hydroponics, there is also a local demand that requires only a ...


Biotransformation Of Praziquantel By Cunninghamella Elegans, Umbelopsis Ramanniana, And Yarrowia Lipolytica Metabolism, Samuel Chivers May 2019

Biotransformation Of Praziquantel By Cunninghamella Elegans, Umbelopsis Ramanniana, And Yarrowia Lipolytica Metabolism, Samuel Chivers

Theses & Dissertations

Schistosomiasis is a neglected tropical disease rampant in developing countries. Widespread chemotherapy is reliant on a single drug, praziquantel, which increases the risk of resistance and creates an urgent need for the development of new alternatives for treatment. Fungal biotransformation is a well-documented tool in the pharmaceutical synthesis of new drugs. This study examined the efficacy of four fungal strains, Cunninghamella elegans (ATCC 9245 and ATCC 8688a), Umbelopsis ramanniana, (ATCC 9628) and Yarrowia lipolytica (ATCC 20225), in the biotransformation of praziquantel. Colonies were cultured, dosed with praziquantel, incubated for 5, 10 or 15 days to metabolize, after which the cultures ...


Design Of Cotton Fabric-Based Binary And Ternary Composite Materials Containing Nanostructured Zno, Tio2, And Plasmonic Nanoparticles: Photocatalytic Applications, Latanya Downer May 2019

Design Of Cotton Fabric-Based Binary And Ternary Composite Materials Containing Nanostructured Zno, Tio2, And Plasmonic Nanoparticles: Photocatalytic Applications, Latanya Downer

Master of Science in Chemical Sciences Theses

Nanostructure metals and metal oxides can be used for surface functionalization and combined with different materials to increase functionality. Recently, surface functionality has been of interest due to its multi-component and its ability to generate new material properties. One of its main application is the creation of nanomaterials because of its novel physical properties which contribute towards stabilization, strength, and catalytic properties. Nanomaterials makes it possible to fabricate objects in the nanoscale size range which offers beneficial physical properties. The nanomaterial distinctiveness allows for the creation of materials with unique characteristics for different applications such as photocatalytic coatings. Semiconductor and ...


Development Of Bar-Peptide Nanoparticles And Electrospun Fibers For The Prevention And Treatment Of Oral Biofilms., Mohamed Yehia Mahmoud May 2019

Development Of Bar-Peptide Nanoparticles And Electrospun Fibers For The Prevention And Treatment Of Oral Biofilms., Mohamed Yehia Mahmoud

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Background: Periodontal diseases are globally prevalent inflammatory disorders that affect ~47% of U.S adults. Porphyromonas gingivalis (Pg) has been identified as a “keystone” pathogen that disrupts host-microbe homeostasis and contributes to the initiation and progression of periodontitis. Pg associates with oral streptococci in supragingival plaque and this interaction represents a potential target for therapeutic intervention. Previously our group developed a peptide (designated BAR), that potently inhibits Pg/Streptococcus gordonii (Sg) adherence in vitro and Pg virulence in a murine model of periodontitis. While efficacious, BAR (SspB Adherence Region) provided transient inhibition and required higher concentrations of BAR to disrupt ...


Paraoxonase 2 Is Critical For Non-Small Cell Lung Carcinoma Proliferation., Aaron Whitt May 2019

Paraoxonase 2 Is Critical For Non-Small Cell Lung Carcinoma Proliferation., Aaron Whitt

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Non-small cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC) comprises 85% of lung cancer diagnoses and is plagued by drug resistance. Thus, elucidating the underlying mechanisms of NSCLC is paramount to expand future treatment options. Paraoxonase 2 (PON2), an intracellular enzyme with arylesterase and lactonase functions, has well-established anti-atherosclerotic activity. Recent studies show PON2 is overexpressed in a variety of tumors and confers drug resistance, although these interactions have not been thoroughly examined in NSCLC. Thus, we sought to investigate the role of PON2 in cellular proliferation using PON2-knockout mice, primary mouse cells, and NSCLC cell lines. Using these approaches, we demonstrate that PON2 ...


Development Of A Lectin-Fc Fusion Protein With Antiviral And Anti-Cancer Activity., Matthew William Dent May 2019

Development Of A Lectin-Fc Fusion Protein With Antiviral And Anti-Cancer Activity., Matthew William Dent

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

This thesis describes the development of a novel lectin-Fc fusion protein and its antiviral and anti-cancer activity. The molecule, Avaren-Fc (AvFc), is a fusion of a variant of the actinomycete lectin actinohivin (Avaren) and the Fc region of human IgG1, and is selective for the terminal α1,2-mannose residues found at the ends of high-mannose-type glycans that can be found on the surface of certain heavily glycosylated viruses and cancer cells. Here, AvFc was found to be able to neutralize simian immunodeficiency virus as well as Hepatitis C virus with nanomolar IC50 values. Furthermore, AvFc recognizes a number of ...


Vasopressin In Preeclampsia, Jeremy Anton Sandgren May 2019

Vasopressin In Preeclampsia, Jeremy Anton Sandgren

Theses and Dissertations

Preeclampsia is a devastating disorder of pregnancy characterized by high blood pressure, proteinuria, headache, renal glomerular endotheliosis, multi-organ system failure, and fetal and maternal demise. As reviewed in Chapter I, not much is known about the pathogenesis of preeclampsia, contributing to a lack of biomarkers and treatments for the disease. In Chapter II, we review arginine vasopressin, a circulating neuropeptide hormone with important fluid balance and cardiovascular actions. Vasopressin binds to numerous receptors throughout the body to elicit its effects and is associated with various disease states. In Chapter III, we discuss evidence for vasopressin as an etiology of preeclampsia ...


A Retrospective Study Of The Opioid Epidemic And Fentanyl Related Overdose Fatality Cases In A Florida West Coast Medical Examiner District Population, Anne Terese Powell Apr 2019

A Retrospective Study Of The Opioid Epidemic And Fentanyl Related Overdose Fatality Cases In A Florida West Coast Medical Examiner District Population, Anne Terese Powell

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Opioids are scheduled by the propensity for misuse and abuse with a high rate of dependency and risk of fatal overdose. Opioids can be divided into different classes, including, natural, synthetic, and semi-synthetic. Opiates are naturally occurring and come directly from the opium poppy plant; whereas the semi synthetics opioids are chemical modifications of the poppy plant. Synthetic opioids attach to the opioid receptor but contain no part of the poppy plant. The increased variety and frequency in opioid prescriptions contributed to an opioid epidemic in the United States which is still on going.

According to the CDC, the opioid ...


Nutrient Limitation Of Phytoplankton In Lake Wateree, South Carolina: Implications For Future Water Quality Management, Kara M. Clyburn Apr 2019

Nutrient Limitation Of Phytoplankton In Lake Wateree, South Carolina: Implications For Future Water Quality Management, Kara M. Clyburn

Theses and Dissertations

Cultural eutrophication is a primary contributor to phytoplankton production in freshwater lakes from excess anthropogenic nutrient inputs, and resulting impacts on water quality, aquatic ecosystems, human and animal health are increasing worldwide. Understanding the factors that limit phytoplankton growth is an important strategy for identifying and managing nutrient sources and successfully controlling the over- enrichment of nitrogen (N) and/or phosphorus (P) in freshwater lakes. The Redfield molecular ratio of carbon (C), N and P maintains that the C:N:P molar ratio is 106:16:1 when nutrients are not limiting, and the ecosystem is balanced. A N:P ...


A Site Characterization And Assessment Of The Bushy Park Reservoir, A Charleston-Area Drinking Water Source, And Its Surrounding Watersheds In Response To Community Concerns, Bradley Joseph Chandler Apr 2019

A Site Characterization And Assessment Of The Bushy Park Reservoir, A Charleston-Area Drinking Water Source, And Its Surrounding Watersheds In Response To Community Concerns, Bradley Joseph Chandler

Theses and Dissertations

Access to clean, safe drinking water is considered a basic human right (WHO 2004). It is vital to maintain adequate monitoring of source waters as well as to investigate claims of degraded source waters. In June of 2017, inaccurate reporting led many community members in Mt. Pleasant, SC to believe that their drinking water might be tainted, leading to elevated cases of brain cancer in children. Though steps were taken to test and ensure the drinking water was safe, fear over the health of the city’s drinking water still persists. This is largely due to the involvement of famed ...


Relative Importance Of Ions And Particles In Silver Nanoparticle Uptake And Accumulation In Keystone Estuarine Organisms; Prorocentrum Minimum And Crassostrea Virginica, Shelby Victoria Butz Apr 2019

Relative Importance Of Ions And Particles In Silver Nanoparticle Uptake And Accumulation In Keystone Estuarine Organisms; Prorocentrum Minimum And Crassostrea Virginica, Shelby Victoria Butz

Theses and Dissertations

In marine systems, silver is regarded as being one of the most toxic and readily accumulated metals, and is known to be taken up and accumulate within marine invertebrates, fish, phytoplankton and seaweeds. Reported open ocean concentrations of silver range from 0.1 – 2 ng L-1 while silver concentrations in coastal waters are typically 5 to 10 times higher than open ocean values (0.1 - 50 ng L-1). The determination of silver in marine and coastal waters presents several challenges including low concentrations and matrix complexity of seawater, which creates interferences and other challenges for many instrumental techniques creating a ...


An Investigation Into The Effect Of Clinical States Of Infection On Pharmacokinetics And Pharmacodynamics In Ruminant Food Animal Species, Joseph Sameul Smith Jan 2019

An Investigation Into The Effect Of Clinical States Of Infection On Pharmacokinetics And Pharmacodynamics In Ruminant Food Animal Species, Joseph Sameul Smith

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

The effects of clinical states of infection on the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics (PK/PD) in ruminant food animal species are not well described. The majority of PK studies utilize healthy animals, and this creates challenges for veterinary professionals treating clinical patients. Knowledge gaps explored are 1) effect of clinical disease on the PK/PD of fentanyl in cattle, 2) effect of pneumonia on the PK/PD of tulathromycin in goats, and 3) the effect of co-administration of ertapenem and an immunomodulator on PK/PD in sheep.

The pharmacokinetics for calves were determined after intravenous dosing of 5 µg/kg fentanyl ...


An Investigation Into The Effect Of Clinical States Of Infection On Pharmacokinetics And Pharmacodynamics In Ruminant Food Animal Species, Joseph Sameul Smith Jan 2019

An Investigation Into The Effect Of Clinical States Of Infection On Pharmacokinetics And Pharmacodynamics In Ruminant Food Animal Species, Joseph Sameul Smith

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

The effects of clinical states of infection on the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics (PK/PD) in ruminant food animal species are not well described. The majority of PK studies utilize healthy animals, and this creates challenges for veterinary professionals treating clinical patients. Knowledge gaps explored are 1) effect of clinical disease on the PK/PD of fentanyl in cattle, 2) effect of pneumonia on the PK/PD of tulathromycin in goats, and 3) the effect of co-administration of ertapenem and an immunomodulator on PK/PD in sheep.

The pharmacokinetics for calves were determined after intravenous dosing of 5 µg/kg fentanyl ...