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Full-Text Articles in Life Sciences

Analysis Of User Preference With N95 And Powered Air-Purifying Respirators In A Healthcare Work Environment, Brittany Renee Carver Jan 2019

Analysis Of User Preference With N95 And Powered Air-Purifying Respirators In A Healthcare Work Environment, Brittany Renee Carver

Graduate Theses, Dissertations, and Problem Reports

For those working in the healthcare field, personal protective equipment is vital. Healthcare workers are often first responders when it comes to dealing with patients who are infected or when a disease outbreak occurs. The Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) requires all healthcare operations to provide employee protection against blood borne pathogens. With the increase of life-threatening disease outbreaks, such as SARS in 2003 and Ebola in 2014, it is of the upmost importance to make sure respirators are best suited for users and acceptable for long term use. It has been shown through previous studies that due to ...


Optimizing The Design Of Planting Experiments For Agricultural Crops, Ashley Swift Jan 2019

Optimizing The Design Of Planting Experiments For Agricultural Crops, Ashley Swift

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

In commercial breeding, new genotypes are constantly being created and need to be tested to understand how a specific seed will perform in its target locations. A major constraint is that a genotype needs to go through multiple years of testing before it can be commercialized. With the volume of new genotypes that are constantly being enhanced, it is unrealistic to test every genotype in every target environment. Here, a methodology has been created that considers the fact that there are limited resources, whether it be limited space or a limited number of each genotype available in a single planting ...


Classifying Interdependencies In The Food And Agriculture Critical Infrastructure Sector, John Doerpinghaus Dec 2018

Classifying Interdependencies In The Food And Agriculture Critical Infrastructure Sector, John Doerpinghaus

Theses and Dissertations

This work classifies examples of infrastructure interdependencies found in the food and agriculture critical infrastructure sector. Interdependencies are identified through an examination of rice and poultry agriculture throughout the state of Arkansas. The subtleties of interdependence examples in the food and agriculture sector are inadequately captured by the well-studied interdependence classification taxonomies. Through 39 interviews, we develop an understanding of the subtle temporal, geographic, and productivity scales of interdependence in over 100 examples and present five new, distinct classifications of interdependence: (1) dynamic physical, (2) dynamic geographic, (3) deadline, (4) delay, and (5) human, economic, and natural resource interdependencies. An ...


The Role Of Criticality Of Gene Regulatory Networks On Emergent Properties Of Biological Systems, Hyobin Kim May 2018

The Role Of Criticality Of Gene Regulatory Networks On Emergent Properties Of Biological Systems, Hyobin Kim

Graduate Dissertations and Theses

The relationship between criticality of gene regulatory networks (GRNs) and dynamics of GRNs at a single cell level has been vigorously studied. However, the relationship between the criticality of GRNs and properties of multicellular organisms at a higher level has not been fully explored. Here we aim at revealing potential roles of the criticality of GRNs at a multicellular and hierarchical level, using a random Boolean network as a GRN. We perform three studies. Firstly, we propose a GRN-based morphogenetic model, and delve into the role of the criticality of GRNs in morphogenesis at a multicellular level. Secondly, we include ...


A Current State Analysis Of Preventive Control Requirements And Traceability Infrastructure In Small U.S. Food Facilities, Quin Schultz Jan 2018

A Current State Analysis Of Preventive Control Requirements And Traceability Infrastructure In Small U.S. Food Facilities, Quin Schultz

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

In 2011, the U.S. government enacted the Food Safety Modernization Act (FSMA). The goal of the new legislation was to reduce the 48 million people per year in the U.S. who are affected by food borne illnesses through the requirement of preventive controls in food supply chains. Compliance dates for small food businesses started in 2017, when the new preventive control measures were required to be implemented. This research focuses on understanding the current state of FSMA preventive control requirements in relationship to small food facilities. Also, an assessment of the traceability infrastructure within small food facilities was ...


Two Essays On Whole Farm Modeling And Crop Marketing In Western Kentucky, Benjamin A. Martin Jan 2018

Two Essays On Whole Farm Modeling And Crop Marketing In Western Kentucky, Benjamin A. Martin

Theses and Dissertations--Agricultural Economics

This thesis is composed of two essays that investigate whole farm planning and crop marketing in western Kentucky. In the first essay, contracting decisions between food corn producers and a mill are analyzed to observe factors affecting the bushel amount farmers contract. Unbalanced panel data containing seven years’ worth of pricing and contract information are used with a fixed-effects model to generate parameter estimates and quantify their effect on bushels contracted. It was found that contract attributes, market condition, and relationship-specific assets had a significant effect on producers’ food corn contracting decisions. The second essay utilizes mixed-integer programming to optimize ...


Extrinsic And Intrinsic Control Of Integrative Processes In Neural Systems, Anirban Nandi Dec 2017

Extrinsic And Intrinsic Control Of Integrative Processes In Neural Systems, Anirban Nandi

Engineering and Applied Science Theses & Dissertations

At the simplest dynamical level, neurons can be understood as integrators. That is, neurons accumulate excitation from afferent neurons until, eventually, a threshold is reached and they produce a spike. Here, we consider the control of integrative processes in neural circuits in two contexts. First, we consider the problem of extrinsic neurocontrol, or modulating the spiking activity of neural circuits using stimulation, as is desired in a wide range of neural engineering applications. From a control-theoretic standpoint, such a problem presents several interesting nuances, including discontinuity in the dynamics due to the spiking process, and the technological limitations associated with ...


Developing Sustainable Rice Production Through Image Classification, Parker R. Fitzgerald May 2017

Developing Sustainable Rice Production Through Image Classification, Parker R. Fitzgerald

Industrial Engineering Undergraduate Honors Theses

The agricultural industry’s continued success is critical to our future. However, many agricultural practices—specifically rice farming—are currently based on unsustainable methods. The processes used in rice farming consume water at an unsupportable rate, and, consequently, are serious contributors to rising emission levels. Several alternative growing methods have been introduced, and one of the most promising candidates is Alternative Wetting and Drying (AWD). An obstacle encountered by proponents of these methods comes in implementation. Studies have shown AWD is more successful in fields with higher leveling precision. The research in this study works to create a stepping stone ...


Analysis Of Force, Time, Energy, Psychological Demand And Safety Of Common Kicks In Martial Arts, Anupam Singh Jan 2017

Analysis Of Force, Time, Energy, Psychological Demand And Safety Of Common Kicks In Martial Arts, Anupam Singh

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Different forms of Martial Arts have become a popular sport and ways of being fit in the past couple of decades; Kick boxing, Taekwondo, Mixed Martial Arts, being some of them. Complex combinations of punches, kicks and both have been developed over the years. This study focuses on kicks and the aim was to find the best kick with regards to force, time of kick, energy consumption, force/energy, heart rate, safety and psychological demand which was in terms of mental demand, physical demand, temporal demand, effort, performance and frustration. A study was conducted in which 16 participants (5 females ...


Operations Research Applications In Multi-Allelic Trait Introgression In Plant Breeding, Ye Han Jan 2017

Operations Research Applications In Multi-Allelic Trait Introgression In Plant Breeding, Ye Han

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Plant breeding has been defined as the art and science of producing desired characteristics through artificial selection. Practiced since the beginning of civilizations, plant breeders in the 20th Century made enormous changes to important agronomic traits. In the 21st Century, increasing demands for food, fiber, and energy with less water, land, fuel, and fertilizer will force plant breeding to become more efficient and effective. With the application of operations research, we frame the multi-allelic trait introgression project in plant breeding into an engineering system. We also discuss the major problems encountered and create new metrics or models to improve this ...


Analysis Of Workers' Compensation Claims Data For Improving Safety Outcomes In Agribusiness Industries, Sai Kumar Ramaswamy Jan 2017

Analysis Of Workers' Compensation Claims Data For Improving Safety Outcomes In Agribusiness Industries, Sai Kumar Ramaswamy

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Occupational injuries continue to be a major issue for non-farm agricultural workplaces such as commercial grain elevators and ethanol plants. For preventing these injuries and improving workplace safety outcomes requires learning from past incidents, and identify the most significant causes and implement targeted prevention strategies. However, obtaining detailed records of past incidents is a challenge acknowledged by investigators across several industrial sectors including agribusiness. Previous researchers suggest workers ’ compensation claims as an excellent data source to address the existing informational gaps about safety incidents and injuries in the workplace. In this study, workers’ compensation claims obtained from a leading private ...


Technology Adoption In The Public Distribution System Of Chhattisgarh, India: Analysis Of Factors That Facilitate The Transition To Technology Utilization In Food Distribution, Varun Chhabra Jan 2017

Technology Adoption In The Public Distribution System Of Chhattisgarh, India: Analysis Of Factors That Facilitate The Transition To Technology Utilization In Food Distribution, Varun Chhabra

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Information and communication technologies in public administration and social welfare initiatives are increasingly being used by various countries with an intent to augment transparency and provide better services to citizens. However, lack of infrastructure, education, technology literacy, and training keeps a major proportion of target population deprived of the benefits of these initiatives in various developing countries. Hence services of technology intermediaries are utilized to bridge this gap between the benefits of e-government technologies and citizens. The public distribution system (PDS) is the biggest poverty alleviation program in India that aims to provide subsidized food grains and other essential commodities ...


Chocolate Bar Wrapping Machine, Austin M. Hoff, Daniel R. Trepke, Caleb B. Krichbuam Jan 2017

Chocolate Bar Wrapping Machine, Austin M. Hoff, Daniel R. Trepke, Caleb B. Krichbuam

Williams Honors College, Honors Research Projects

Gilbert Chocolates has proposed to manufacture a machine to wrap chocolate bars. This machine is intended to replace two people wrapping the chocolate bars by hand, which is a time consuming method. This is especially apparent between October and January when the workers are working long hours in preparation for the Christmas rush of customers. Currently wrapping a bar takes about a minute and Gilbert Chocolates wants this time reduced down to 20-30 seconds. The budget for this project is set at $1000, and is being funded by the company. This machine needs to fit in a cubic foot of ...


Soy Biocomposite Turfgrass Fertilizer, Jake Behrens Jan 2017

Soy Biocomposite Turfgrass Fertilizer, Jake Behrens

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Turfgrass production and maintenance relies heavily on the addition of nutrients, typically in the form of synthetic fertilizers based on natural gas. Soy-based biocomposite fertilizers have the potential to replace these synthetic fertilizers and reduce dependence on abiotic resources as well as decrease the environmental impact associated with the production and use of synthetic fertilizers.

Plant-based turfgrass fertilizers already exist on the market and typically use plant materials, such as sugar beets, that are relatively difficult and costly to produce. Soybeans are the preferred plant protein to provide nutrients in a biocomposite fertilizer because of the soybean’s unique relationship ...


The Optimization Of Introgression Projects For Plant Genetic Improvement, John Nicholas Cameron Jan 2017

The Optimization Of Introgression Projects For Plant Genetic Improvement, John Nicholas Cameron

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

We approach the problem of trait introgression as an optimization challenge with clearly defined objectives in 3 different scenarios that largely capture the introgression problem in a diploid outcrossing selfing-tolerant species: 1) the introgression of a single allele into a recipient background via backcrossing, 2) the introgression of multiple alleles from one line into a recipient line, and 3) the introgression of several alleles from multiple lines into the background of a recipient line. For each of the 3 cases, we present a mathematical formulation, based on optimization principles from Operations Research (OR), defining the objectives to be optimized, decision ...


Methods For Incorporating Ecological Impacts With Climate Uncertainty To Support Robust Flood Management Decision-Making, Caitlin M. Spence Jan 2017

Methods For Incorporating Ecological Impacts With Climate Uncertainty To Support Robust Flood Management Decision-Making, Caitlin M. Spence

Doctoral Dissertations

Modern and historic flood risk management involves accommodating multiple sources of sources of uncertainty and potential impacts across a broad range of interrelated sectors. Sources of uncertainty that affect planning include internal climate variability, anthropogenic changes such as land use and system performance expectations, and more recently changes in climatology that affect the resources supporting the system. Flood management systems potentially impact human settlements within and beyond the systems’ scope of planning, local weather patterns, and associated ecological systems. Federal guidelines across nations have called for greater consideration of uncertainty and impacts of water resources planning projects, but methods for ...


Photovoltaic Cooking In The Developing World, Tyler Watkins, Christopher O'Day, Omar Arriaga Dec 2016

Photovoltaic Cooking In The Developing World, Tyler Watkins, Christopher O'Day, Omar Arriaga

Mechanical Engineering

The challenge of clean cooking is faced by hundreds of millions of people worldwide. We present a cooking technology consisting of a solar panel directly connected to an electric heater in a well-insulated chamber. Assuming continued decrease in solar panel prices, we anticipate that in a few decades Solar Electric Cooking technologies will be the most common cooking technology for the poor. Appropriate use of insulation reduces the power demand making low-power Insulated Solar Electric Cooking systems already cost competitive.


Optimal Population Value Selection: A Population-Based Selection Strategy For Genomic Selection, Matthew Daniel Goiffon Jan 2016

Optimal Population Value Selection: A Population-Based Selection Strategy For Genomic Selection, Matthew Daniel Goiffon

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

In order to feed the world’s growing population, an interdisciplinary effort is needed. In this thesis, operations research tools of mathematical modeling, optimization, and simulation are used to improve an existing plant breeding method, genomic selection. To do this, a new method, called optimal population value (OPV) selection, is proposed. In this paper, OPV selection is first defined as an optimization problem that selects a breeding population using a population metric, instead of individual metrics. Then, OPV selection is thoroughly tested in a simulation study against the existing methods of genomic selection, weighted genomic selection, and optimal haploid value ...


Using Precision Agriculture Field Data To Evaluate Combine Harvesting Efficiency, Justin Carroll Dec 2015

Using Precision Agriculture Field Data To Evaluate Combine Harvesting Efficiency, Justin Carroll

Agricultural Education, Communications and Technology Undergraduate Honors Theses

Soybean crops must be harvested during a limited time period using expensive combines and associated equipment. Maximizing combine field efficiency, the ratio of the actual harvesting capacity to theoretical harvesting capacity, is an important objective of machinery managers. Spatial and temporal yield data from a 2012 CaseIH 8120 Axial-Flow combine equipped with a 30-foot MacDon D-65 Draper header and the Case-IH Advanced Farming System (AFS) yield monitoring system were used to examine field efficiency when harvesting soybean in three Arkansas Delta irrigated soybean fields during the 2015 season. Time efficiencies (TE) in the three fields ranged from 72.9 to ...


Estimating Likelihood Of Having A Brca Gene Mutation Based On Family History Of Cancers And Recommending Optimized Cancer Preventive Actions, Mehrnaz Abdollahian Nov 2015

Estimating Likelihood Of Having A Brca Gene Mutation Based On Family History Of Cancers And Recommending Optimized Cancer Preventive Actions, Mehrnaz Abdollahian

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

BRCA1 and BRCA2 are gene mutations that drastically increase chances of developing breast and ovarian cancers, up to 20-fold, for women. A genetic blood test is used to detect BRCA mutations. Though these mutations occur in one of every 400 in the general population (excluding Ashkenazi Jewish ethnicity), they are present in most cases of hereditary breast and ovarian cancer patients. Hence, it is common practice for the physicians to require genetic testing for those that fit the rules as recommended by the National Cancer Comprehensive Network. However, data from the Myriad Laboratory, the only provider of the test until ...


Economic And Environmental Optimization In The Supply Of Switchgrass In Tennessee, Jia Zhong Aug 2015

Economic And Environmental Optimization In The Supply Of Switchgrass In Tennessee, Jia Zhong

Masters Theses

The low efficiency of collection, storage and transportation in the switchgrass supply chain has hindered the commercialization of a switchgrass-based biofuel industry, even given its ecological and environmental advantages in carbon sequestrate, soil quality, water use, and pollution pressure. Thus, designing a switchgrass-based supply chain balancing both environmental and economic performance is important to expedite the development of the cellulosic biofuel industry to meet the national energy plan.

The objectives of this study are to 1) determine economic cost and multiple environmental outcomes in feedstock supply chains and 2) identify the relation between the economic and environmental performances. The first ...


Classification Of Adequate Impact Protection For Hands, Patrick Dylan Loshek Aug 2015

Classification Of Adequate Impact Protection For Hands, Patrick Dylan Loshek

Theses and Dissertations

ABSTRACT

CLASSIFICATION OF ADEQUATE

IMPACT PROTECTION FOR HANDS

by

Patrick D. Loshek

The University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee, 2015

Under the Supervision of Professor Naira Campbell-Kyureghyan

Historically, hand injuries have been a large burden for the manufacturing, construction, mining, oil and gas industries. Specially designed gloves are commonly used in industry today to protect hands from impacts. These gloves are designed to reduce hand injuries by absorbing the impact forces workers may encounter due to objects striking the hand. However, to date, there is no standard for the testing of these gloves and quantifying the force reduction a user would experience when ...


Individual, Occupational And Biomechanical Factors That Affect Slip And Fall Risk From Fixed Ladders, Erika Mae Pliner Aug 2015

Individual, Occupational And Biomechanical Factors That Affect Slip And Fall Risk From Fixed Ladders, Erika Mae Pliner

Theses and Dissertations

Injuries from ladder falls are prevalent and severe. Previous research has examined certain elements of ladder falls such as the ladder base slipping, but few studies have examined the factors that contribute to climbers falling from the ladder, particularly for permanent/fixed ladders. In addition, the biomechanical response to a ladder slip/misstep during ladder climbing and the factors that affect a fall from a ladder are not well understood. This thesis is a two part study that simulated ladder slips and missteps in order to find factors 1) associated with ladder slip risk and 2) that decrease fall severity ...


A Framework And System For A Multi-Model Decision Aid For Sustainable Farming Practices, Kasi Bharath Vegesana Jan 2015

A Framework And System For A Multi-Model Decision Aid For Sustainable Farming Practices, Kasi Bharath Vegesana

Computational Modeling and Simulation Engineering Theses & Dissertations

Decision support systems (DSS) for farmers address the need for modeling multiple processes and scenarios that affect farmer decision making. Existing DSS have various drawbacks that stop them from being deployed as decision support tools. This research proposes a multi-model simulation framework that can be used to analyze farm management practices at the crop level, individual farm level and at the community level to show the impact and alternatives for smallholder farming practices. A generic crop growth model is proposed, based on existing equations. We run sensitivity analysis on the model to identify important variables. The outputs from the crop ...


Wildlife Deterrence Method Test Device, Garrett Tietz, Adam Webb, Dane Knutson Dec 2014

Wildlife Deterrence Method Test Device, Garrett Tietz, Adam Webb, Dane Knutson

Mechanical Engineering

The objective of the Deer Busters team is to design and build a device or system of devices that will be used to determine which method, or methods, are most effective at deer deterrence. JumpSport suspects that a method which gives the appearance of approach to the deer in an aggressive or startling manner but also changes the way it attacks so that the deer do not get used to the device will be most effective. Deer Busters is committed to the completion of the deer deterrent testing device by the end of the fall quarter of 2014.


Methane Production By A Packed-Bed Anaerobic Digester Fed Dairy Barn Flush Water, Sean Richard Thomson Dec 2014

Methane Production By A Packed-Bed Anaerobic Digester Fed Dairy Barn Flush Water, Sean Richard Thomson

Master's Theses and Project Reports

Packed-bed digesters are an alternative to covered lagoon digesters for methane production and anaerobic treatment of dilute wastewaters such as dairy barn flush water. The physical media of packed-beds retain biofilms, often allowing increased treatment rates. Previous studies have evaluated several types of media for digestion of dilute wastewaters, but cost and media fouling have setback commercial development. A major operational cost has been effluent recirculation pumping.

In the present effort, a novel approach to anaerobic digestion of flush dairy water was developed at pilot-scale: broken walnut shells were used as a low-cost packed-bed medium and effluent recirculation was replaced ...


Economic Evaluation Of Potential Applications Of Gene Expression Profiling In Clinical Oncology, Malek Hannouf Apr 2014

Economic Evaluation Of Potential Applications Of Gene Expression Profiling In Clinical Oncology, Malek Hannouf

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Histopathological analysis of tumor is currently the main tool used to guide cancer management. Gene expression profiling may provide additional valuable information for both classification and prognostication of individual tumors. A number of gene expression profiling assays have been developed recently to inform therapy decisions in women with early stage breast cancer and help identify the primary tumor site in patients with metastatic cancer of unknown primary. The impact of these assays on health and economic outcomes, if introduced into general practice, has not been determined. I aimed to conduct an economic evaluation of regulatory-approved gene expression profiling assays for ...


A New Metric For Parental Selection In Plant Breeding, Ye Han Jan 2014

A New Metric For Parental Selection In Plant Breeding, Ye Han

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Plant breeding is the art of genetic improvement through creation and selection for novel characteristics in plants. Parental selection provides the raw materials for creating each new generation of genetic improvements. Ultimately, the probability of successfully meeting the breeding objectives depends on selection of parents for intermating. With the application of operations research, we developed a new metric, parental breeding value (PBV), based on application of conditional probability distribution to help to solve the parental selection problem to accelerate the process of plant breeding and save resources at the same time. The water pipe model is provided in the thesis ...


Process Optimization: Ultrasonic Welding Of Coextruded Polymer Film, Jessica Ann Riedl Jan 2013

Process Optimization: Ultrasonic Welding Of Coextruded Polymer Film, Jessica Ann Riedl

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

The purpose of this research is to determine the effect of various weld and machine parameters on ultrasonic weld strength. Specifically, welds with six different triple-layer coextruded polyethylene and metallized polypropylene films were examined. These materials were welded in separate experimental studies using a bench top weld system and a high production volume packaging machine.

The first study investigated the effect of a range of weld forces, energies, and amplitudes in a lap joint geometry using a bench top ultrasonic plunge welding system. Weld strength was determined by measuring resistance to tearing and peel and shear strength. It was observed ...


Evaluating Food Safety Systems Development And Implementation By Quantifying Haccp Training Durability, Marienne A. Anandappa Jan 2013

Evaluating Food Safety Systems Development And Implementation By Quantifying Haccp Training Durability, Marienne A. Anandappa

Theses and Dissertations--Animal and Food Sciences

HACCP-based food safety programs have been widely acclaimed, accepted and implemented as an effective means of managing food safety risks. While HACCP training is a cornerstone of managing HACCP programs, there is little information about the effectiveness of HACCP training and the durability of HACCP knowledge. Findings reveal a link between involvement level in HACCP activities and the accuracy of HACCP knowledge over time. Opportunities for peer training in HACCP, irrespective of overall experience in the food industry provide favorable circumstances for maintaining accuracy of HACCP knowledge. The optimal window for engaging employees in HACCP is directly following the completion ...