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Full-Text Articles in Life Sciences

Development And Cross-Validation Of A Cadence-Based Metabolic Equation For Walking, Christopher C. Moore Jul 2019

Comparison Of An Acute Bout Of Exercise To A Sugary Snack On Energy, Mood And Cognitive Performance, Erica Knowles May 2019

Comparison Of An Acute Bout Of Exercise To A Sugary Snack On Energy, Mood And Cognitive Performance, Erica Knowles

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Low perceived energy and a decline in cognitive performance throughout the day are common issues, though exercise and food consumption are suggested to improve mood and cognition. The present study compares effects of acute exercise to consuming sugar on mood, energy, and cognitive performance. Subjects underwent blood glucose testing, completed an Abbreviated Profile of Mood States Questionnaire, and Automated Operation Span (OSPAN) and Digit Span tests to measure memory and attention. On two separate days subjects consumed candy or walked on a treadmill for 10 minutes, then measurements were repeated at 30-min, 60-min, and 120-min post. Two-way ANOVA over time ...


Walking As Ontological Shifter: Thoughts In The Key Of Life, Bibi (Silvina) Calderaro Sep 2017

Walking As Ontological Shifter: Thoughts In The Key Of Life, Bibi (Silvina) Calderaro

All Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

With walking as ontological shifter I pursue an alternative to the dominant modernist episteme that offers either/or onto-epistemologies of opposition and their reifying engagements. I propose this type of walking is an intentional turning towards a set of radical positions that, as integrative aesthetic and therapeutic practice, brings multiplicity and synchronicity to experience and being in an expanded sociality. This practice facilitates the conditions of possibility for recurring points of contact between the interiority perceived as ‘body’ and the exteriority perceived as ‘world.’ While making evident the self’s at once incoherence with it-self, it opens to a space ...


The Effects Of An Acute Bout Of Exercise On Hunger Hormones In Individuals At Risk For Type 2 Diabetes, Sydney Spoon May 2017

The Effects Of An Acute Bout Of Exercise On Hunger Hormones In Individuals At Risk For Type 2 Diabetes, Sydney Spoon

UNLV Theses, Dissertations, Professional Papers, and Capstones

Background: Hunger hormone levels are typically dysregulated in obese and diabetic

populations, however; postprandial exercise has been shown to influence hunger hormone levels. Purpose: To determine if hunger hormones including acylated ghrelin and GLP-1 levels are altered in response to an acute bout (15 minutes) of walking in individuals at risk for type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM).

Methods: Ten subjects at risk for prediabetes (fasting blood glucose 100–125mg/dL) participated in this randomized crossover design trial. Subjects arrived at the laboratory following an overnight fast and underwent one of two conditions: 1) Test meal with no walking (CON) or ...


Identifying Gait Deficits In Stroke Patients Using Inertial Sensors, Lauren Benson Aug 2016

Identifying Gait Deficits In Stroke Patients Using Inertial Sensors, Lauren Benson

Theses and Dissertations

Falls remain a significant problem for stroke patients. Tripping, the main cause of falls, occurs when there is insufficient clearance between the foot and ground. Based on an individual’s gait deficits, different joint angles and coordination patterns are necessary to achieve adequate foot clearance during walking. However, gait deficits are typically only quantified in a research or clinical setting, and it would be helpful to use wearable devices – such as accelerometers – to quantify gait disorders in real-world situations. Therefore, the objective of this project was to understand gait characteristics that influence the risk of tripping, and to detect these ...


The Effects Of External Focus Of Attention Exercise Rehabilitation On Dual Task Walking In Parkinson's Disease, Eric N. Beck Jan 2016

The Effects Of External Focus Of Attention Exercise Rehabilitation On Dual Task Walking In Parkinson's Disease, Eric N. Beck

Theses and Dissertations (Comprehensive)

Parkinson’s disease impairs control of well-learned movements, and therefore, individuals with Parkinson’s disease are forced to walk with greater conscious control. This causes difficulties while walking and completing a secondary task simultaneously (dual tasking), in that distractions from conscious control of walking increase the risk of falls and injury. Although, attention-based exercise may be a potential avenue to decrease the demands associated with walking in Parkinson’s disease. For example, an external focus of attention (on manipulated objects) has been found to recruit the networks that are important for walking with little conscious control (automatic control networks). In ...


Comparing Functional Motor Control And Gait Parameters In Children With Autism To Those Of Age-Matched Peers Who Are Typically Developing, Patricia Stevenson, Samantha Novotny, Jillian May, Christopher Ancell May 2015

Comparing Functional Motor Control And Gait Parameters In Children With Autism To Those Of Age-Matched Peers Who Are Typically Developing, Patricia Stevenson, Samantha Novotny, Jillian May, Christopher Ancell

UNLV Theses, Dissertations, Professional Papers, and Capstones

The purpose of this study was to compare motor performance of children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) to that of age-matched peers who are typically developing (TD) on motor control tasks plus symmetry and variability of gait parameters across four walking conditions. A sample of convenience of children with ASD (n=6) and peers who are TD (n=6) were recruited. Motor control was assessed using initiation and completion times on the Timed Up and Go (TUG) test. Gait parameters were collected using a computerized walkway under four trial conditions: 1) walking at self-selected velocity (SSV); 2) walking during a ...


Age-Associated Adaptations In Lower Limb Motor Patterns During Walking And Cycling, Harsh Harish Buddhadev Jan 2015

Age-Associated Adaptations In Lower Limb Motor Patterns During Walking And Cycling, Harsh Harish Buddhadev

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Muscular strength and power generating ability decline with advancing age. Older adults adapt their lower limb motor patterns to cope with these declines in muscle function. When mechanical demands approach limits of lower limb muscular capacity, motor patterns must be adapted to produce a desired movement. The term “motor pattern” is used to broadly represent the kinematic and kinetic profile of a person accomplishing a given task. Generally, these adaptations involve higher reliance on stronger proximal muscles to compensate for limitations or weakness of distal muscles. Three studies were conducted to examine factors affecting differences between older and young adults ...


Knoxville Moves: Log-In And Get Mobile, Courtney Marie Monroe Dec 2014

Knoxville Moves: Log-In And Get Mobile, Courtney Marie Monroe

Doctoral Dissertations

This dissertation evaluated 1) the efficacy of a course-based Internet-technology intervention rooted in social cognitive theory (SCT) for increasing step counts in university faculty and staff, and 2) the effect of online social support tools on step counts among adults using a randomized control trial.

Thirty-six sedentary/insufficiently active university faculty and staff participated in an eight-week, Internet-delivered walking intervention. They received an Omron HJ-720ITC pedometer, personal step goals, and access to a Blackboard LearnTM website comprised of SCTbased features. Outcomes included daily steps, social support, self-regulation, self-efficacy, and outcome expectations. Participants significantly increased their average daily steps (p < 0.001) between baseline and week 1 by 1800. A similar increase in daily steps was observed between baseline and all other intervention weeks (p < 0.001). Social support and self-regulation significantly improved (p < 0.001). These findings helped inform the design of the second study.

In ...


A Comparative Evaluation Of The Effects Of Incline On Kinematics And Muscle Function During Backward Walking, Daniel Brent Jensen Aug 2014

A Comparative Evaluation Of The Effects Of Incline On Kinematics And Muscle Function During Backward Walking, Daniel Brent Jensen

UNLV Theses, Dissertations, Professional Papers, and Capstones

The purpose of this study was to investigate lower extremity kinematics and muscle activation patterns in inclined backward walking (IBW) versus traditional backward walking (BW). This purpose was achieved by evaluating performance of individuals walking backward on a treadmill at inclines of 0%, 6%, 8%, 10%, and 12%. Eleven participants (24.9 ± 4.8 yrs, 71.9 ± 11.6 kg, 1.7 ± 0.09m) recruited from the UNLV student body went through a familiarization training program before any data were collected. The familiarization training, which took place across 3 different days, served to: 1) help the participants become comfortable and ...


Biomechanical Analysis Of Gait Kinetics Resulting From Use Of A Vacuum Socket On A Transtibial Prosthesis, Maria De Lourdes Ramos Gonzalez May 2014

Biomechanical Analysis Of Gait Kinetics Resulting From Use Of A Vacuum Socket On A Transtibial Prosthesis, Maria De Lourdes Ramos Gonzalez

Honors College Theses

The technology and design of lower limb prosthetics have evolved greatly since their introduction. The current study proposed to compare the effects of a conventional pin socket attachment and a vacuum socket attachment for a transtibial amputee. Whereas traditional measurements of gait utilize force plates and camera systems, this study made use of a small tri-axial load cell located at the base of the socket to measure the forces and moments exerted during a regular gait cycle. The hypothesis tested stated that a vacuum pump socket attachment, when compared to a non-vacuum (pin) socket, will have a significant effect on ...


Examining Mediators To Physical Activity As A Link To Interventional Efforts Aimed At Increasing Activity Levels And Improving Physical Functioning In Older Adults, Christopher Dondzila Aug 2013

Examining Mediators To Physical Activity As A Link To Interventional Efforts Aimed At Increasing Activity Levels And Improving Physical Functioning In Older Adults, Christopher Dondzila

Theses and Dissertations

The number of older adults living in the United States is growing at an increasingly rapid rate, and is host to a high prevalence of chronic diseases and physical impairments. Physical activity and exercise have been shown to be beneficial in impacting such conditions, yet the majority of older adults remain inactive. The purpose of this dissertation was to employ a sequence of studies to investigate mediators to physical activity, leading to an intervention to increase activity and promote health.

The purpose of Project VOICE was to examine whether awareness and utilization of community resources to promote physical activity and ...


Biomechanical Comparison Of A Rounded Outsole Shoe And Traditional Outsole Shoe, Sarah Horsch May 2013

Biomechanical Comparison Of A Rounded Outsole Shoe And Traditional Outsole Shoe, Sarah Horsch

UNLV Theses, Dissertations, Professional Papers, and Capstones

The purpose of the study was to determine the effects of shoe outsole design on maximum vertical acceleration and select kinematic parameters during level and uphill walking across phases of stance. Twelve participants, 7 males (75.1±9.3 kg, 173.6±3.6 cm, 22.9±3.5 yrs) and 5 females (56.5±5.1 kg, 158.3±4.5 cm, 25.4±11.1 yrs) granted written consent and preferred walking speed was determined. An accelerometer (480 Hz) was attached to the distal leg to measure maximum leg acceleration (Aleg) and an electrogoniometer (480 Hz) was placed ...


Loading Of The Lower Extremity And Low Back When Using Wedge Orthotics During Walking And Stair Negotiation, Tami Janssen Jan 2013

Loading Of The Lower Extremity And Low Back When Using Wedge Orthotics During Walking And Stair Negotiation, Tami Janssen

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

ABSTRACT

Wedge orthotics are commonly prescribed for patients with hyperpronation and/or low back pain to improve lower limb alignment and to reduce pain. The purpose of this study was to examine the kinetic effects of medial and lateral wedge orthotics during walking and stair negotiation. Twenty-two healthy young adults participated in the study. Each participant wore no wedge (W0) as a baseline and lateral and medial wedge orthotics at 3 degrees and 7 degrees bilaterally (L3, L7, M3, M7) during walking, stair ascent, and stair descent. Ankle, knee, and hip joint moments were calculated using inverse dynamics during the ...


Adaptations To Stride Patterns And Head Movements During Walking In Persons With And Without Multiple Sclerosis, Jebb Grigory Remelius Feb 2012

Adaptations To Stride Patterns And Head Movements During Walking In Persons With And Without Multiple Sclerosis, Jebb Grigory Remelius

Open Access Dissertations

Many people with multiple sclerosis (MS) have difficulty with walking, which can decrease their sense of mobility. Gait stability was investigated by studying stride parameters and head movements at preferred and fixed speeds in those with MS. First, walking gait data were recorded at preferred and fixed walking speeds from 19 individuals with MS and 19 controls. Traditional gait parameters were compared, as was swing foot to center of mass (CoM) timing at mid-swing. Second, walking gait data in healthy young adults (n=20) were recorded at preferred speed and while stepping over an obstacle. Study 2 developed novel swing ...


Variability Of Vertical Ground Reaction Forces In Patients With Chronic Low Back Pain, Before And After Chiropractic Care., Brent S. Russell, Mark D. Geil, Jianhua Wu, Kathryn T. Hoiriis Aug 2011

Variability Of Vertical Ground Reaction Forces In Patients With Chronic Low Back Pain, Before And After Chiropractic Care., Brent S. Russell, Mark D. Geil, Jianhua Wu, Kathryn T. Hoiriis

Kinesiology Theses

Introduction

Many chiropractic articles and textbooks discuss gait, but there actually has been little research into the effects of chiropractic adjustment on gait. This pilot study used a quantitative method of gait evaluation before and after a series of chiropractic visits. Hypotheses: (1) adults with chronic low back pain (CLBP) would show increased variability in vertical ground reaction forces (VGRF) while walking, as compared to healthy control subjects, and (2) that, following chiropractic care, will show decreased variability.

Methods

VGRF data were collected for 6 controls and compared to 9 CLBP participants, who were also evaluated before and after the ...


Can America’S Top Sedentary Activity Be Made More Active?: Physical Activity And Leisure-Time Study (Pals), Jeremy Adam Steeves May 2011

Can America’S Top Sedentary Activity Be Made More Active?: Physical Activity And Leisure-Time Study (Pals), Jeremy Adam Steeves

Doctoral Dissertations

This dissertation investigated 1) the energy expenditure of stepping in place during TV commercials (commercial stepping), 2) determined the best objective tool to measure commercial stepping, 3) and assessed the efficacy of commercial stepping to increase the activity levels of sedentary, overweight adults.
First, twenty-three adults (normal to obese) had their energy expenditure measured while at rest, sitting, standing, stepping in place and walking at 3.0 mph on the treadmill, followed by one hour each of sedentary TV viewing and commercial stepping in the laboratory. Stepping in place, walking at 3.0 mph, and commercial stepping, had a higher ...


Biomechanical Risk Factors For Knee Osteoarthritis In Young Adults: The Influence Of Obesity And Gait Instruction, Julia Ann Freedman Dec 2010

Biomechanical Risk Factors For Knee Osteoarthritis In Young Adults: The Influence Of Obesity And Gait Instruction, Julia Ann Freedman

Doctoral Dissertations

With increasing rates of obesity, research has begun to focus of co-morbidities of obesity such as osteoarthritis. The majority of existing research has focused on older adults as the group most likely to suffer from osteoarthritis. The purpose of this study was to determine if overweight and obese young adults exhibit biomechanical risk factors for knee osteoarthritis, and to determine if young adults with biomechanical risk factors of osteoarthritis can modify these with instruction. This purpose was divided into two separate studies.

Study 1: Thirty adults between 18-35 years old were recruited into three groups according to body mass index ...


A Comparison Of Commonly Used Accelerometer Based Activity Monitors In Controlled And Free-Living Environment, Yuri Feito Dec 2010

A Comparison Of Commonly Used Accelerometer Based Activity Monitors In Controlled And Free-Living Environment, Yuri Feito

Doctoral Dissertations

This dissertation was designed to determine the effects of body mass index (BMI) and walking speed on activity monitor outputs. A secondary purpose was to compare the activity monitors’ performance in a free-living environment. In the first experiment, 71 participants wore three waist-mounted activity monitors (Actical, ActiGraph, and NL-2000) and an ankle-mounted device (StepWatch 3) while walking on a treadmill (40, 67 and 94 m/min). The tilt angle of each device was measured. The Actical recorded 26% higher activity counts (P < 0.01) in obese persons with a tilt <10 degrees, compared to normal weight persons. The ActiGraph was unaffected by BMI or tilt angle. In the second experiment, the steps recorded by the devices were compared to actual steps. Speed had the greatest influence on the accuracy these devices. At 40 m/min, the ActiGraph was the least accurate device for normal weight (38%), overweight (46%) and obese (48%) individuals. The Actical, NL-2000 and StepWatch averaged 65%, 73% and 99% of steps taken, respectively. Lastly, several generations of the ActiGraph (7164, GT1M, and GT3X), and other research grade activity monitors (Actical; ActivPAL; and Digi-Walker) were compared to a criterion measure of steps. Fifty-six participants performed treadmill walking (40, 54, 67, 80 and 94 m/min) and wore the devices for 24-hours under free-living conditions. BMI did not affect step count accuracy during treadmill walking. The StepWatch, PAL, and the AG7164 were the most accurate across all speeds; the other devices were only accurate at the faster speeds. In the free-living environment, all devices recorded about 75% of StepWatch-determined steps, except the AG7164 (99%). Based on these findings, we conclude that BMI does not affect the output of these activity monitors. However, waist-borne activity monitors are highly susceptible to under-counting steps at walking speeds below 67 m/min, or stepping rates below 100 steps/min. An activity monitor worn on the ankle is less susceptible to these speed effects and provides the greatest accuracy for step counting.


Medial Longitudinal Arch Mechanics Before And After A Prolonged Run, Elizabeth Rose Hageman Jan 2010

Medial Longitudinal Arch Mechanics Before And After A Prolonged Run, Elizabeth Rose Hageman

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Collapse and reformation of the medial longitudinal arch during gait is controlled passively and actively. If either tissue group fatigues over the duration of a run, the change in arch mechanics may increase risk of running injuries. However, a 3-dimensional kinematic analysis of the medial longitudinal arch after a prolonged run has not been performed. Additionally, rarely has arch collapse been quantified for walking and running in the same study. PURPOSE: To compare arch mechanics before and after a 45 minute run and to compare walking and running arch deformation. METHODS: Thirty runners performed barefoot walking and running trials before ...