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The Effects Of Increasing Running Speed On Vgrf And Asymmetry, Kaela M. Hierholzer Aug 2020

The Effects Of Increasing Running Speed On Vgrf And Asymmetry, Kaela M. Hierholzer

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Biomechanical and physiological parameters related to running performance are usually studied separately. However, evaluating both aspects together could be beneficial in improving athletic performance. The purpose of this study was to observe the change in peak vGRF and asymmetry as speed increases, while observing physiological responses during a O2maxtest. Data from athlete monitoring of 12 cross-country and triathlon athletes were analyzed. The athlete monitoring protocol included three unweighted countermovement jumps and a O2maxtest performed by the athletes. The athletes had an average O2maxof 53.4 ± 7.7 mL/kg/min, while their average vGRF ...


The Effect Of Interval Intensity On Time To Exhaustion During High Intensity Interval Training (Hiit) Running In Recreational Male Runners, Andrew M. Hahn Jan 2019

The Effect Of Interval Intensity On Time To Exhaustion During High Intensity Interval Training (Hiit) Running In Recreational Male Runners, Andrew M. Hahn

Theses and projects

High Intensity Interval Training (HIIT) has become extremely popular in recent years, however, current HIIT prescriptions lack guidelines regarding interval intensities and associated margins. The purpose of this study is to investigate Run Time to Exhaustion (Te) and provide insight regarding HIIT intensities for future aerobic exercise programming. Ten healthy adult male recreational runners (Age=22.9 ± 2.5 yr., Ht=1.72 ± 0.1m, BM=74.1 ± 7.4 kg) measured maximal oxygen consumption (VO2max) (52.4 ± 6.1ml/kg/min) with a graded exercise test (GXT). Running speed was determined using ACSM running equation for exercise metabolism. Protocols ...


Trunk, Hip And Knee Motions During A Step-Down Test And Running In Patellofemoral Pain Individuals, Katie Olinger Jan 2019

Trunk, Hip And Knee Motions During A Step-Down Test And Running In Patellofemoral Pain Individuals, Katie Olinger

WWU Graduate School Collection

Context: A common knee injury in runners is patellofemoral femoral pain syndrome (PFPS). The step-down test (SDT) is used to analyze lower extremity motions in runners with PFPS because kinematics are similar for the SDT and running. Individuals with PFPS often experience altered kinematics when compared to healthy. However, there are no known studies that examine the relationship in kinematics between the SDT and running.

Objective: Examine the relationship between lower extremity kinematics of the knee, hip and trunk in runners with PFPS and healthy controls, during the midstance of running and during a SDT.

Patients or Other Participants: Sixteen ...


Differences In Running Mechanics And Tibial Plateau Dimensions Between Overweight/Obese And Healthy Weight Children, Claire Sylvestre Jan 2019

Differences In Running Mechanics And Tibial Plateau Dimensions Between Overweight/Obese And Healthy Weight Children, Claire Sylvestre

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

INTRODUCTION: Overweight and obese (OW/OB) children display increased knee joint loading during running, which may lead to excessive frontal plane motion and moments at the knee joints. The relationship between tibial plateau dimensions and knee vertical loading may explain the loading related injuries OW/OB children experience.
PURPOSE: Compare knee mechanics during running and tibial plateau dimensions between healthy weight (HW) and OW/OB children.
METHODS: Ten HW children and ten OW/OB children aged 9-12 participated in the study. Kinematic and kinetic data were captured as participants ran across a force platform at 3.5m/s. Tibial plateau ...


The Relationship Between Mental Health And Ultra-Running: A Case Study, Joshua Justin Cook Aug 2018

The Relationship Between Mental Health And Ultra-Running: A Case Study, Joshua Justin Cook

Theses and Dissertations

This instrumental case study sought to explore the relationship between ultra-running and mental health through the lived experiences of a single participant who self-identifies as an ultra-runner. Three research questions were used to explore this relationship; how did the individual decide to participate in ultra-running, what aspects of ultra-running impact the participant’s mental health, and how has engaging in ultra-running impacted the participant’s mental health? The case study utilized three semi-structured interviews, two participant observations, video documentary review, and journaling to answer these questions. A thematic analysis of the data revealed four essential themes; 1) Development of participation ...


The Effects Of Running Speed, Form, And Fatigue On Intervertebral Disc Pressures At L5/S1: A Developmental Musculoskeletal And Finite Element Modeling Approach, Jeffrey Ray Mcclellan Jan 2018

The Effects Of Running Speed, Form, And Fatigue On Intervertebral Disc Pressures At L5/S1: A Developmental Musculoskeletal And Finite Element Modeling Approach, Jeffrey Ray Mcclellan

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

The occurrence of low back pain in society is a widespread and costly problem, while running is an accessible and common form of physical exercise. The intervertebral disc is a commonly studied location of interest within the low back, however limited research has been performed attempting to assess the risks or benefits associated with running on the health of the intervertebral disc, with zero research which estimates in-vivo loading on the intervertebral disc during running. Meanwhile, the available literature is not in agreement on whether running poses more of a risk or a benefit to intervertebral disc health, with some ...


The Influence Of Crossfit Training On Running Mechanics, Sophia D. Bradley Aug 2017

The Influence Of Crossfit Training On Running Mechanics, Sophia D. Bradley

UNLV Theses, Dissertations, Professional Papers, and Capstones

Introduction

40 million Americans run regularly.1 Contrary to many runner’s beliefs, increased strength may be beneficial while not adding body mass. An increase in strength in specific muscles may improve running gait and performance. 9,6 Strength training may also play an important role in preventing common overuse injuries in running 11,12 Depending on the style of strength training, it may also have an enhanced benefit on running economy.4,16

Participation in CrossFit is also widely popular, with an increase in participation of 923% in the past ten years.2 CrossFit is a type of strength ...


Bone Strain Change As A Result Of A Long Distance Run Modeled On A Finite Element Tibia, Jenna Kirstin Burnett Jan 2017

Bone Strain Change As A Result Of A Long Distance Run Modeled On A Finite Element Tibia, Jenna Kirstin Burnett

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Stress injuries typically develop as a result of overuse and lack of recovery. However, despite a 7-year stress fracture incidence rate of approximately 40%, in vivo bone stresses and strains do not approach levels of ultimate strength. Therefore, there must be outside factors such as muscle fatigue which lead to increased strain and injury risks. PURPOSE: Muscle fatigue during a long distance run may lead to increased bone strain in the tibia, and result in increased injury risk. METHODS: Sixteen runners did a graded treadmill test to determine max heart rate and VO2,max, which were then used to set ...


The Effect Of Patellofemoral Pain On Joint Motion And Variability During A Prolonged Run, Klarie Ake Jan 2017

The Effect Of Patellofemoral Pain On Joint Motion And Variability During A Prolonged Run, Klarie Ake

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

INTRODUCTION: Patellofemoral pain (PFP) is a common overuse injury where the cause of the pain is largely unknown. Previous research has not compared the variability of joint coordination and kinematics in the same study. PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of PFP and exertion on the variability of lower extremity kinematics, and joint coordination. METHODS: The participants included 6 female runners with PFP (R-PFP) (21.0 ± 0.55 years; 66.1 ± 7.9 kg; 1.62 ± 0.09 m), and a control group of 6 healthy female runners (CON) (21.2 ± 1.17 years; 61 ...


The Effects Of Experimental Anterior Knee Pain On Bilateral Ground Reaction Forces During Running, Emily Rachel Cronk Dec 2016

The Effects Of Experimental Anterior Knee Pain On Bilateral Ground Reaction Forces During Running, Emily Rachel Cronk

Theses and Dissertations

The purpose of this study was to examine the independent effects of anterior knee pain (AKP) on bilateral ground reaction force (GRF) during running, with a focus on GRF applied to the uninvolved leg, which, prior to this study, had never been evaluated. Twelve volunteers completed three data collection sessions, that corresponded to one of three conditions (control, sham, and pain), in a counterbalanced order. For each session, subjects ran for five minutes. For the pain and sham sessions, respectively, hypertonic and isotonic saline were infused into the infrapatellar fat pad of the right leg during the running, while no ...


Examining The Effects Of Body Weight Support And Speed On Physiological Measures And Lower Leg Muscular Activity, Michael Thomas Soucy Aug 2016

Examining The Effects Of Body Weight Support And Speed On Physiological Measures And Lower Leg Muscular Activity, Michael Thomas Soucy

UNLV Theses, Dissertations, Professional Papers, and Capstones

The purpose of this study was to determine if body weight support or speed influences specific physiological and biomechanical parameters while running at a preferred pace, or variations of preferred pace. Nine participants (age: 28.56 ± 7.88 years, height: 1.68 ± 0.08 cm, mass: 65.70 ± 7.64 kg) who were running a minimum of 10 miles per week (14.67 ± 4.92 miles) were recruited for participation. Participants were asked to sign an institutionally approved informed consent form upon arrival to the lab. After determining preferred running speed at each body weight support condition (no support, 10 ...


Foot Kinematics And Neuromuscular Preactivation In Habitual Forefoot And Rearfoot Runners, Rhiannon Seneli May 2016

Foot Kinematics And Neuromuscular Preactivation In Habitual Forefoot And Rearfoot Runners, Rhiannon Seneli

Theses and Dissertations

As the rate of running related injuries has failed to decline despite advances in footwear, many researchers have begun focusing on different foot strike patterns possible contribution to injury risk. While many studies have focused on the differences between RFS and FFS running, few have investigated kinematic differences within the distal foot in habitual RFS and FFS runners and have failed to consider mechanical and neuromuscular changes due to fatigue. The purpose of this study, therefore, was to investigate foot kinematics and neuromuscular differences between RFS and FFS runners at the beginning and end of an exhaustive run. Fifteen habitual ...


Investigation Of Sequential Intermittent Pneumatic Compression Effect On Run Performance, Max Evan Jones May 2016

Investigation Of Sequential Intermittent Pneumatic Compression Effect On Run Performance, Max Evan Jones

UNLV Theses, Dissertations, Professional Papers, and Capstones

The main aim of this study was to determine if IPC after a 5000 m run influences maximal effort 1600 m run performance. A secondary purpose was to determine if the level of IPC pressure used influences run performance. Nine subjects (6 male and 3 female were included in the study; 30 years±5.19 years; Height 173.72cm±8.25; Weight; 72.54±9.97 kg). These subjects were recruited to be in this study via word of mouth or social media advertisement in the Las Vegas area. Participant inclusion criteria was 18- 50 year old apparently healthy, had ...


Acute Changes In Running Mechanics Across Footwear With Various Heel-To-Toe Height Differences, Daniel C. Moody Mar 2016

Acute Changes In Running Mechanics Across Footwear With Various Heel-To-Toe Height Differences, Daniel C. Moody

Theses and Dissertations

There are many different types of footwear available for runners in today's market. Many of these shoes claim to improve a runner's efficiency by altering their stride mechanics. Minimalist footwear claims to aid runners in running more on their forefeet whereas more traditional footwear provides more cushioning specifically for a heel-first landing. The purpose of this research was to determine if runners who were accustomed to running in traditional footwear would acutely alter their running biomechanics when they ran barefoot or in various types of minimalist footwear. Twelve subjects, who were accustomed to running in traditional 12 mm ...


Biomechanical Analysis Of The Transition From Cycling To Running For Triathletes, Katherine Meade Desimone Jan 2016

Biomechanical Analysis Of The Transition From Cycling To Running For Triathletes, Katherine Meade Desimone

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Background: Injury rates among triathletes have been reported to be as high as 87%. Previous research has established that some triathletes display altered kinematics during running after cycling, compared to an isolated run. These kinematic changes include increased anterior pelvic tilt, decreased hip extension, and increased variability in stride length and time. The purpose of this study was to determine whether a hip flexor stretch performed in the brief transition period between cycling and running would result in a post-cycling (transition) run more similar to a control run.

Methods: Twelve participants performed a 5-minute baseline run, a 15-minute transition run ...


Reliability Of A Multisegment Foot Model In Shod Running, Austin Coupe May 2015

Reliability Of A Multisegment Foot Model In Shod Running, Austin Coupe

UNLV Theses, Dissertations, Professional Papers, and Capstones

The purpose of this study was to determine kinematic and marker placement reliability of the Leardini multisegment foot model (LMFM) for tracking foot kinematics during barefoot and shod running without alteration of footwear. Eleven participants, five males (25.6±5 yrs, 73±15.8 kg, 1.75±0.05m) and six females (22.5±2.9 yrs, 66.6±7.2 kg, 1.71±0.05 m) granted institutionally approved written consent to participate. Three-dimensional motion capture (10 Vicon T40-S cameras) was used to capture kinematic data at 200Hz. Kinetic data was captured with an in-ground force platform (Kistler Instruments ...


Rearfoot, Mid/Forefoot, And Barefoot Running: Biomechanical Differences Related To Injury, Elizabeth Rose Boyer Jan 2015

Rearfoot, Mid/Forefoot, And Barefoot Running: Biomechanical Differences Related To Injury, Elizabeth Rose Boyer

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Running is an accessible, inexpensive form of exercise. However, running injuries are common and burdensome. Many runners are curious about switching to barefoot (BF) running or minimalist shoes to avoid injuries, which is commonly associated with rearfoot strikers (runners who land on the posterior third of their foot) landing on the middle or front third (mid- or forefoot strike; FFS). My purposes were to determine if undocumented aspects of FFS and BF running are beneficial or harmful compared to rearfoot striking (RFS), and if any potential benefits of FFS or BF running can be achieved by shortening one’s stride ...


The Effects Of Medial And Lateral Wedges On Iliotibial Band Strain During Overground Running, Evan M. Day Jan 2015

The Effects Of Medial And Lateral Wedges On Iliotibial Band Strain During Overground Running, Evan M. Day

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Background: Iliotibial band syndrome (ITBS) is the leading cause of lateral knee pain in runners. Previous research has theorized that higher ITB strain rate leads to ITBS development. Orthotics are commonly used to correct gait mechanics and may reduce ITB strain and strain rate. The purpose of this research was to investigate how wedge inserts and gender affect kinematics, kinetics, and ITB strain and strain rate during running. Methods: Thirty (15 male, 15 female) participants ran with lateral 7°, lateral 3°, no wedge, medial 3°, and medial 7° wedges. A motion capture system and force platform were used to collect ...


Kinetic Asymmetries During Submaximal And Maximal Speed Running, Devon H. Frayne Aug 2014

Kinetic Asymmetries During Submaximal And Maximal Speed Running, Devon H. Frayne

Masters Theses

An important issue for sports scientists, coaches and athletes is an understanding of the factors within a running stride that can enhance or limit maximal running speed. Previous research has identified many sprint-related parameters as potential kinetic limiters of maximal Center of Mass velocity (Chapman and Caldwell, 1983b; Weyand et al., 2001). Bilateral asymmetry is present for many of these parameters during running; however the degree to which such asymmetries change as running speed increases is unknown. It was hypothesized that asymmetries in key sprinting parameters would be larger at maximal speed than all other tested speeds. Kinematics and kinetics ...


Stride Length-Speed Relationship During Body Weight Supported Running, Carmen Chona Aug 2014

Stride Length-Speed Relationship During Body Weight Supported Running, Carmen Chona

UNLV Theses, Dissertations, Professional Papers, and Capstones

The purpose of this study was to determine if body weight support influences the stride length-speed relationship. Additionally, the purpose was to determine if impact characteristics of running are influenced by body weight support and speed. Subjects (n=10; 6 female, 4 male) volunteered to participate in this study. All subjects were injury free and were comfortable running on a treadmill for 30 minutes. Subjects ran on a lower body positive (LBPP, Alter-G, G-Trainer) treadmill for 4 conditions of body weight (100, 40, 30 and 20% of body weight) and 4 running speeds (100, 110, 120 and 130% of the ...


Perceptions And Practices Of Hydration In Triathlon, Corey Stephen O'Connor Mar 2014

Perceptions And Practices Of Hydration In Triathlon, Corey Stephen O'Connor

Theses and Dissertations

Perceptions and Practices of Hydration in Triathlon

Corey S. O'Connor, David Q. Thomas, Kelly R. Laurson, Dale D. Brown. Illinois State University, Normal, IL

Purpose: To examine where triathletes obtain information regarding hydration, if their performances have been affected by dehydration, and how they monitor their hydration status. Methods: Two hundred and two participants (age=38.70 ± 9.73 years) from various triathlon groups in Illinois participated in the study. Each participant was asked to complete an electronic survey. The survey was composed of twenty seven items and was developed by O'Neal (2011). The survey was modified ...


The Relationship Between Subjectively Motivational Music And Various Exercise Variables While Running At Maximal Speed, Michael Maloney Oct 2013

The Relationship Between Subjectively Motivational Music And Various Exercise Variables While Running At Maximal Speed, Michael Maloney

Honors College Theses

Purpose: To determine whether there are differences in steps/min/m, highest achieved exercise heart rate, average exercise heart rate, average running speed, estimated relative VO2, and RPE, while listening to subjectively motivating music, as compared to non-motivating music, while running at max speed. Methods: Eleven students enrolled at the University of Massachusetts Boston, considered “non-runners” from 19 to 34 years of age, ran at max speeds for 12-15 minutes, once while listening to a play-list of songs they ranked most motivating, and a second time on a separate day, while listening to a play-list of songs they ranked least ...


Arterial Adaptations To Training Among First Time Marathoners, Nicole Hafner May 2013

Arterial Adaptations To Training Among First Time Marathoners, Nicole Hafner

Masters Theses

Increased arterial wall thickness has been positively related to cardiovascular disease. Exercise has been found to favorably alter arterial anatomy in the trained limbs, but its effects on untrained limbs and the carotid artery are unclear. Thus, brachial (non-trained limb), popliteal (trained limb) and carotid, wall thickness (WT), wall to lumen diameter ratios (W:L), intima-media thickness (IMT) and lumen diameters (LD) were compared between recreationally active (n=14) and untrained (n=11) subjects before and after, the active subjects participated in 12 weeks of marathon run training. Arterial dimensions were measured with B-mode ultrasonography. Pre and post-training VO2max and ...


Effects Of Foot Type On Multi-Segment Foot Motion In High- And Low-Arched Female Recreational Athletes, Douglas W. Powell May 2013

Effects Of Foot Type On Multi-Segment Foot Motion In High- And Low-Arched Female Recreational Athletes, Douglas W. Powell

Doctoral Dissertations

Introduction: Mal-alignment and dysfunction of the foot have been shown to result in an increased rate of injury and unique injury patterns. Aberrant foot function has been shown to contribute to repetitive stress and acute injuries. High-arched athletes have been shown to experience a greater rate of bony injury to the lateral aspect of the lower extremity while low-arched athletes experience greater rates of soft-tissue injury to the medial aspect of the lower extremity. Though foot type has been linked to these injury patterns, the mechanism by which these injury patterns occur remains unknown. Multi-segment foot models have been developed ...


The Effect Of Exertion On Intra-Limb Joint Coordination Variability During Running Using A Waveform Analysis Approach, Lauren Benson May 2013

The Effect Of Exertion On Intra-Limb Joint Coordination Variability During Running Using A Waveform Analysis Approach, Lauren Benson

Theses and Dissertations

About half of all runners sustain a running-related injury in a given year. Less variable joint coordination patterns may be detrimental as stress endured by the same tissue, encountered over many running cycles, could lead to overuse running injuries. The effects of fatigue may contribute to runners' risk of injury by altering joint coordination variability. Since fatigue is task-dependent, it is practical to consider a level of fatigue typically experienced by runners. The purpose of this study was to examine the influence of running in an exerted state on lower extremity joint coordination variability, using Principal Components Analysis (PCA) and ...


Effects Of Footstrike Pattern On Low Back Posture, Shock Attenuation, And Comfort During Running, Traci L. Delgado, Emilia Kubera-Shelton, Robert R. Robb May 2013

Effects Of Footstrike Pattern On Low Back Posture, Shock Attenuation, And Comfort During Running, Traci L. Delgado, Emilia Kubera-Shelton, Robert R. Robb

UNLV Theses, Dissertations, Professional Papers, and Capstones

Purpose: Barefoot running (BF) is popular in the running community. Biomechanical changes occur with BF, especially when initial contact changes from rearfoot strike (RFS) to forefoot strike (FFS). In addition, changes in lumbar spine range of motion (ROM), particularly involving lumbar lordosis, have been associated with increased low back pain (LBP). However it is not known how changing from RFS to FFS affects lumbar lordosis or LBP. Thus, the purpose of this study was to determine if a change from RFS to FFS would change lumbar lordosis, and/or decrease shock attenuation, and/or change comfort levels in healthy recreational ...


Effect Of Step Rate On Foot Strike Pattern And Running Economy In Novice Runners, Janae Lynn Richardson May 2013

Effect Of Step Rate On Foot Strike Pattern And Running Economy In Novice Runners, Janae Lynn Richardson

All Graduate Plan B and other Reports

Purpose—The objective was to examine if step rates ±5% or ±10% of a novice runner's preferred step rate (SR) is sufficient enough to shift a novice runner’s foot strike pattern (FSP) (rear-foot, mid-foot, forefoot) and whether these SR changes produce changes in the rate of submaximal oxygen consumption (VO2). Methods—Foot strike angle (FSA) was recorded using sagittal plane video images and VO2 was measured for novice runners while running on a treadmill at a constant speed during increased and decreased (±5% and ±10%) SR conditions. Foot strike angle was used to predict strike index (SI) (predicted ...


Effect Of Racing Flats On Running Economy In Male Adolescent Runners, Paul Hafen May 2013

Effect Of Racing Flats On Running Economy In Male Adolescent Runners, Paul Hafen

UNLV Theses, Dissertations, Professional Papers, and Capstones

The purpose of this study was to investigate whether running economy differs in racing flats versus standard running shoes in high school cross-country runners. In order to measure running economy the oxygen cost of running (mL O2∙kg-1∙min-1) was measured in 20 male adolescent runners (mean age = 16.25 ± 0.97 years, 5 km best time = 17.52 ± 0.78 min) when running two separate trials at a controlled speed. The speed was determined by estimating treadmill running speed at 85% of each runner's VO2max. Each trial required the participants to run while wearing ...


The Effects Of Arch Taping On Shock Attenuation During Landing, Shun Jinnouchi May 2013

The Effects Of Arch Taping On Shock Attenuation During Landing, Shun Jinnouchi

UNLV Theses, Dissertations, Professional Papers, and Capstones

The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of two different arch taping techniques on shock attenuation during landing. Each subject (n=12, age 25.5 ± 3.37 years, height 1.73 ± 0.04 m, mass 82.06 ± 16.23) was instrumented with accelerometers at the leg and forehead (sample rate = 1000 Hz). Subjects performed landings from a 30 cm box under three taping conditions: no tape, Low Dye, and Weave. For each condition, subjects completed 5 landing trials. Rest was provided between each trial and order of conditions was counterbalanced. During each landing, accelerations were recorded at ...


An Examination Of Finish Time Variation For Collegiate Cross Country National Championships By Gender, Kevin Riley Peters Dec 2012

An Examination Of Finish Time Variation For Collegiate Cross Country National Championships By Gender, Kevin Riley Peters

Boise State University Theses and Dissertations

In cross country, women compete over shorter distances than men with little justification for these differences. The purpose of this study was to assess gender differences for the spread of finishing times and examine the appropriateness of shorter competition distances for females. Forty-six cross country national championship data sets (nmales = 10,788; nfemales = 10,884) from the NCAA (1999-2011) and NAIA (2005-2011) were utilized for analyses. Several measures of variation were computed to assess spread of finishing times data (i.e., Coefficient of Variation [CV]; Interpercentile Ranges [IR], and Rates of Separation [RS; IR divided by the distance ...