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Kinesiology

Obesity

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Physical Activity Of Preschoolers With Developmental Disabilities And Delays, Michaela A. Schenkelberg Jul 2019

Physical Activity Of Preschoolers With Developmental Disabilities And Delays, Michaela A. Schenkelberg

Theses and Dissertations

Children with developmental disabilities and delays are at greater risk for developing overweight and obesity compared to typically developing peers. Participation in regular physical activity is a modifiable behavior that is consistently associated with improved weight status and other positive health outcomes. Previous studies have identified numerous individual- and environmental-level factors that associate with physical activity among school-age children with and without disabilities. However, little is known about physical activity behaviors and related correlates among preschool-aged children with disabilities (ages 3 – 5 years), especially while they are in preschool settings. Therefore, the overall purpose of this dissertation was to describe ...


Association Of Dietary Behaviors, Macro-Nutrients And Energy Intake With Body Fat Percentage, Lean Mass, And Bone Mineral Density., Makayla Goggins May 2019

Association Of Dietary Behaviors, Macro-Nutrients And Energy Intake With Body Fat Percentage, Lean Mass, And Bone Mineral Density., Makayla Goggins

Health, Human Performance and Recreation Undergraduate Honors Theses

Background: Due to the obesity epidemic, many studies have compared nutrient intake to human body composition. However, previous studies have not used gold standard measures of body composition in a college population. Purpose: The purpose of this study is to examine how dietary behaviors, overall energy intake, and macronutrient intake are associated with the body composition factors measured in a dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) scan. We hypothesize higher body fat percentage will be associated with higher fat and carbohydrate intake, but not total energy intake. Methodology: This was a cross-sectional study done as part of Exercise is Medicine® On Campus ...


Differences In Running Mechanics And Tibial Plateau Dimensions Between Overweight/Obese And Healthy Weight Children, Claire Sylvestre Jan 2019

Differences In Running Mechanics And Tibial Plateau Dimensions Between Overweight/Obese And Healthy Weight Children, Claire Sylvestre

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

INTRODUCTION: Overweight and obese (OW/OB) children display increased knee joint loading during running, which may lead to excessive frontal plane motion and moments at the knee joints. The relationship between tibial plateau dimensions and knee vertical loading may explain the loading related injuries OW/OB children experience.
PURPOSE: Compare knee mechanics during running and tibial plateau dimensions between healthy weight (HW) and OW/OB children.
METHODS: Ten HW children and ten OW/OB children aged 9-12 participated in the study. Kinematic and kinetic data were captured as participants ran across a force platform at 3.5m/s. Tibial plateau ...


Cultural Influences On Body Size Ideals Among African American Women In The Mississippi Delta, Lois Marie Coleman Jan 2019

Cultural Influences On Body Size Ideals Among African American Women In The Mississippi Delta, Lois Marie Coleman

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Results: One-on-one interviews yielded 25 cognitive maps. The maps contained a total of 169 concepts with 294 connections among them. The lowest number of variables identified on a participant’s map was 4 and the highest was 11. The lowest number of connections made on a participant’s map was 4 and the highest was 39. Through qualitative condensing and matrix addition, the 169 concepts were used to create 27 variables with 134 connections. Feedback from focus group participants resulted in the addition of 3 variables and 9 connections.


The Link Between Overweight, Obesity, And Perceived Exercise Benefits And Barriers Among College Students, Alexandra Szarabajko Jan 2018

The Link Between Overweight, Obesity, And Perceived Exercise Benefits And Barriers Among College Students, Alexandra Szarabajko

Online Theses and Dissertations

The transition to college is a critical period in a young adult's life. Education about obesity and physical activity has significant effects on lifetime wellness before graduating and reaching adulthood. The purpose of this study was to examine exercise benefits and barriers of overweight, obese, and normal weight college students. Participants (n = 595) were college students who completed a questionnaire and whose body composition was measured. Results of this study revealed significant differences in perceived exercise benefits and barriers based on weight group. Slight group differences were mainly found between normal weight and obese students. Implications for future studies ...


Sagittal Abdominal Diameter, Waist Circumference, And Bmi As Predictors Of Multiple Measures Of Glucose Metabolism: An Nhanes Investigation Of U.S. Adults, Shelby Anne Firouzi Jul 2017

Sagittal Abdominal Diameter, Waist Circumference, And Bmi As Predictors Of Multiple Measures Of Glucose Metabolism: An Nhanes Investigation Of U.S. Adults, Shelby Anne Firouzi

Theses and Dissertations

OBJECTIVE: The key objective of the present investigation was to compare associations between sagittal abdominal diameter (SAD), waist circumference, and BMI to the oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT), along with fasting glucose, HbA1c, and HOMA-IR, in a nationally representative sample of U.S. adults. The study also analyzed the effect of multiple covariates on the anthropometric and glucose metabolism associations. METHODS: A cross-sectional design, including 3,582 subjects, was used. SAD was assessed using an abdominal caliper. All other data were collected following strict NHANES protocol. The OGTT was the primary variable used to index glucose metabolism. Fasting glucose, HbA1c ...


Effect Of Activity Trackers And Text Messaging On Exercise, Fitness, And Physical Activity Self-Efficacy Of Middle School Students, Alison F. Pittman May 2017

Effect Of Activity Trackers And Text Messaging On Exercise, Fitness, And Physical Activity Self-Efficacy Of Middle School Students, Alison F. Pittman

Nursing Theses and Dissertations

A decrease in physical activity as children age is a contributing factor to the U.S. obesity epidemic. Middle school children are particularly vulnerable to sedentary activities. Activity trackers show promise as a means to motivate children and adults to increase physical activity (PA). This study examined the effect of a text messaging intervention and use of activity trackers with a companion social website on the body mass index (BMI), body fat percentage, physical fitness, and PA self-efficacy of middle school children. Children aged 11-14 (n=102) were randomly assigned to one of three groups for a 10-week intervention: activity ...


The Effects Of An Acute Bout Of Exercise On Hunger Hormones In Individuals At Risk For Type 2 Diabetes, Sydney Spoon May 2017

The Effects Of An Acute Bout Of Exercise On Hunger Hormones In Individuals At Risk For Type 2 Diabetes, Sydney Spoon

UNLV Theses, Dissertations, Professional Papers, and Capstones

Background: Hunger hormone levels are typically dysregulated in obese and diabetic

populations, however; postprandial exercise has been shown to influence hunger hormone levels. Purpose: To determine if hunger hormones including acylated ghrelin and GLP-1 levels are altered in response to an acute bout (15 minutes) of walking in individuals at risk for type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM).

Methods: Ten subjects at risk for prediabetes (fasting blood glucose 100–125mg/dL) participated in this randomized crossover design trial. Subjects arrived at the laboratory following an overnight fast and underwent one of two conditions: 1) Test meal with no walking (CON) or ...


Effects Of Wider Step Width On Knee Biomechanics In Obese And Healthy-Weight Participants During Stair Ascent, Derek Scott Yocum Dec 2016

Effects Of Wider Step Width On Knee Biomechanics In Obese And Healthy-Weight Participants During Stair Ascent, Derek Scott Yocum

Masters Theses

An increased likelihood of developing obesity-related knee osteoarthritis may be associated with increased peak internal knee abduction moment. Increases in step width may act to reduce this moment. This study focused on how step width influenced the knee joint during stair ascent by healthy and obese participants. Participants ascended stairs while walking at their preferred speed and under one of two step width conditions – preferred and increased. Obese participants experienced greater mediolateral and vertical ground reaction forces (GRFs), as well as increased peak knee extensor moments and push-off peak internal knee adduction moments. The findings of this study indicate that ...


Validity And Reliability Of A Photographic Method Of Assessing Body Composition, Elizabeth Z. Macdonald Jun 2016

Validity And Reliability Of A Photographic Method Of Assessing Body Composition, Elizabeth Z. Macdonald

Theses and Dissertations

The LeanScreenTM app uses photographs and touchscreen technology of an iPad or iPhone to estimate body composition using the Department of Defense (DoD) prediction equations that use cirumference measurements of the neck, abdomen, waist, and hips. The purpose of this study was to determine the validity and reliability of the LeanScreenTM app in 148 weight-stable adults (82 men, 66 women) who were normal weight, overweight, or obese as defined by body mass index. The percent body fat (%BF) of each subject was estimated during one visit using dual-energy x-ray absorptiometery (DXA) as the criterion measure, and three field methods: the ...


Anti-Fat Attitudes And Weight Bias Internalization: An Investigation Of How Bmi Impacts Perceptions, Opinions And Attitudes, Laurie Schrider Mar 2016

Anti-Fat Attitudes And Weight Bias Internalization: An Investigation Of How Bmi Impacts Perceptions, Opinions And Attitudes, Laurie Schrider

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Americans hold negative and judgmental attitudes towards obese and overweight individuals and these anti-fat attitudes and weight stigma have become a damaging form of discrimination. The internalization of weight bias and anti-fat attitudes contributes to negative health outcomes including: feelings of devalue, self-hate, anxiety, depression, body dissatisfaction and eating disturbances. The purpose of this study was to investigate weight bias internalization in individuals who perceive themselves as overweight as well as to examine differences in anti-fat attitudes among normal and overweight individuals. A sample of 202 male and females completed an online survey that assessed anti-fat attitudes via the Anti-Fat ...


Central And Peripheral Weight Gain Affect Trunk Kinematics And Lower-Extremity Muscle Activation Differently During Sit-To-Stand, Michelle Christine Walaszek Jan 2016

Central And Peripheral Weight Gain Affect Trunk Kinematics And Lower-Extremity Muscle Activation Differently During Sit-To-Stand, Michelle Christine Walaszek

Theses and Dissertations--Kinesiology and Health Promotion

Background: Obesity-induced alterations in biomechanics and muscle recruitment during activities of daily living, such as sit-to-stand (STS) are often attributed to increases in adipose tissue (AT) mass. Central or peripheral distribution of AT may differently affect biomechanics and muscle recruitment.

Methods: Fifteen healthy, normal weight (BMI 22.4 ± 1.9 kg/m2, 24.1 ± 4.2 years) subjects volunteered. External loads equivalent to a 5 kg/m2 BMI increase were applied in three conditions: unloaded (UN), centrally loaded (CL), and peripherally loaded (PL). Subjects completed three successful STS movements in a backless chair under each load condition in ...


Autophagy Regulation After Diet And Exercise In Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease, Megan Elizabeth Rosa Jan 2016

Autophagy Regulation After Diet And Exercise In Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease, Megan Elizabeth Rosa

Theses and Dissertations

Along with the rise in obesity, rates of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) have also increased. NAFLD may begin with fat accumulation in the liver, but can progress to non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), fibrosis, and eventual cirrhosis. With no pharmacological treatment for NASH, lifestyle interventions appear vital to maintaining liver health. Previous work has shown aberrant mitochondrial content/quality and autophagy in models of NAFLD. Exercise is known to improve mitochondrial health and possibly autophagy, thus autophagy may be a key regulatory factor for treatment of obesity induced-NAFLD. PURPOSE: The purpose of the study was to examine how weight loss from ...


Sedentary Lifestyle And Obesity In Adults, Youngwon Kim Jan 2015

Sedentary Lifestyle And Obesity In Adults, Youngwon Kim

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Excessive time spent on sedentary behavior (SB) can increase the risks of obesity, regardless of engagement in physical activity (PA). Subjective and objective measures are both available to assess SB but little is known about the relative utility of these measures for epidemiological research. The purposes of this dissertation were to 1) evaluate the accuracy of 24-hour Physical Activity Recall (24PAR) relative to SenseWear Armband (SWA) for assessing SB, 2) characterize the context of SB by demographic indicators, and 3) determine the independent/joint associations of SB and PA with obesity by the 24PAR versus SWA.

The first study demonstrated ...


Associations Between Measures Of Obesity And Arterial Stiffness Of Young Hispanic Men, Maria Perez Jan 2015

Associations Between Measures Of Obesity And Arterial Stiffness Of Young Hispanic Men, Maria Perez

Open Access Theses & Dissertations

Arterial stiffness and obesity are independent predictors of coronary heart disease and cardiovascular disease mortality; however, there is conflicting evidence for the association between arterial stiffness and obesity. Arterial stiffness research of young Hispanic males is limited. PURPOSE: To examine the association between measures of obesity and peripheral and aortic stiffness of young Hispanic men. METHODS: All data are expressed as mean ± SD. Participants were 23 non-obese (nOB; BMI 25.87±3.09 kg/m2) and 21 obese (OB: BMI 35.42±4.87 kg/m2) young Hispanic men (age range 18–25 years). Measures of obesity included body fat ...


Effects Of Obesity On Slip-Related Falls Among Young Adults During Gait, Jae Eun Kim Jan 2015

Effects Of Obesity On Slip-Related Falls Among Young Adults During Gait, Jae Eun Kim

Open Access Theses & Dissertations

Falls present serious medical, health, and societal challenges to not only the frail elderly or individuals with mobility disorders; but also the active and vigorous older adults. Slip-related falls account for about 40% of all falls among older adults. Individuals with obesity are subject to an elevated risk of falls associated with muscle weakness, abnormal body mass distribution, and postural instability. Dynamic gait stability has been identified as a key factor leading to falls after a slip during gait. Despite individuals with obesity suffer higher risk of falls compared to their lean counterparts, no study has investigated how the dynamic ...


Effects Of Controlled Whole-Body Vibration Training On Reducing Risk Of Falls Among Young Adults With Obesity, Jose Jesus Munoz Jan 2015

Effects Of Controlled Whole-Body Vibration Training On Reducing Risk Of Falls Among Young Adults With Obesity, Jose Jesus Munoz

Open Access Theses & Dissertations

Introduction: Among people with obesity, several factors increase the risk of falls: an abnormal body mass distribution, muscle weakness, and postural instability. Although standard exercise-based training could change these factors, a significant portion of people with obesity may be unable or unwilling to comply with long duration and high intensity training programs. Therefore, alternative training methods are highly demanded. Growing evidence supports that controlled whole-body vibration (CWBV) training can reduce risk of falls among older adults. No study has yet investigated the potential effect of CWBV training on reducing risk of falls among obese populations. The purpose of this study ...


25-Hydroxyvitamin D, Igf-1, And Waist Circumference A Cross-Sectional Study, Damon Mccune Aug 2014

25-Hydroxyvitamin D, Igf-1, And Waist Circumference A Cross-Sectional Study, Damon Mccune

UNLV Theses, Dissertations, Professional Papers, and Capstones

Purpose: Waist circumference has been shown to have a link to various forms of chronic disease and low levels of Vitamin D (25(OH)D) and IGF-1. The purpose of this study is to assess if there is a relationship with Vitamin D (25(OH)D) and IGF-1 levels and waist circumference.

Methods: As part of a cross-sectional correlation study, participants were males and females (n=26), ages 25-65, who were students at UNLV and/or individuals who attend local health and wellness facilities as well as attendees of classes held by the UNLV Nutrition Center. Participants reported to UNLV ...


Exercise And Time Of Day: Influence On Hunger And Caloric Intake Among Overweight/Obese Adults, Molly C. Weber May 2014

Exercise And Time Of Day: Influence On Hunger And Caloric Intake Among Overweight/Obese Adults, Molly C. Weber

Masters Theses

The purpose of this study was to determine whether or not the time of day at which exercise was performed, morning compared to evening, influences acute daily caloric intake and hunger in overweight/obese sedentary adults. 8 overweight/obese (Age: 40 ± 4 yrs, Height: 170 ± 4 cm, Weight: 85.7 ± 6.4 kg, BMI: 29 ± 2 kg/m2) sedentary adults completed 3 trials: control, morning, evening in a randomly counterbalanced cross over design. Caloric intake was assessed over three 4-day periods with subjects consuming ad libitum diets. Hunger was measured 15 minutes before exercise and 15 and 30 minutes following ...


Soccer Participation And Youth Obesity In The United States, Lee Schober May 2014

Soccer Participation And Youth Obesity In The United States, Lee Schober

Chancellor’s Honors Program Projects

No abstract provided.


Elementary School Teachers’ Perceptions Of The Role Of Physical Activity In Schools, Amanda Millwood Harrison May 2014

Elementary School Teachers’ Perceptions Of The Role Of Physical Activity In Schools, Amanda Millwood Harrison

Masters Theses

The purpose of this qualitative study was to examine and describe elementary school teachers’ perceptions of physical activity among children in an urban, Title I, school in Tennessee. Twelve elementary teachers in Second and Third grade were interviewed using a semi-structured interview. The interview protocol was developed to guide participants from broader concepts regarding physical activity to more focused discussions on the use of physical activity during the school day.

Data presented examines the perceptions of teachers’ overall view of physical activity among children during school hours, the amount of physical activity children engaged in during school hours, the impact ...


Racial Differences In Self-Efficacy Expectations For Exercise, Selena P. Smith Dec 2013

Racial Differences In Self-Efficacy Expectations For Exercise, Selena P. Smith

Honors Theses

This project examined the link between race and self-efficacy. Self-efficacy pertains to an individual’s confidence in ability to complete or engage in a particular task or activity (Bandura, 1986). Prior research shows that self-efficacy has a great influence on exercise initiation and adherence (Bandura, 1986; Dishman, 1982; Rodgers and Sullivan, 2001). Research also supports that Caucasians are more likely to participate in exercise than African Americans (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2000).

Participants included 51 females, 31 Caucasians and 20 African Americans, between the ages of 18 and 50 years old. The women were recruited from local fitness ...


The Relationship Between Television Viewing Time And Cardiorespiratory Fitness In Adult Women, Peter Jacob Arens Nov 2013

The Relationship Between Television Viewing Time And Cardiorespiratory Fitness In Adult Women, Peter Jacob Arens

Theses and Dissertations

Purpose: The present investigation was conducted to assess the relationship between television viewing time and cardiorespiratory fitness. Design: Cross-sectional. Setting: Intermountain West. Participants: 302 middle-aged women. Method: TV viewing was assessed using a questionnaire. Cardiorespiratory fitness was measured using a maximal graded treadmill test. Physical activity (PA) was evaluated using Actigraph accelerometers worn over seven consecutive days, while body fat percentage (BF%) was measured using air displacement plethysmography (Bod Pod). Results: (Mean ± SD) age: 40.2 ± 3.0 years. VO2max of the frequent (≥ 3hrs/day) TV group (32.6 ± 6.4) was significantly lower than both the moderate (1-2 hrs ...


Cardiorespiratory Responses In Healthy-Weight And Obese Women And Children, Elizabeth Ann Easley Jan 2013

Cardiorespiratory Responses In Healthy-Weight And Obese Women And Children, Elizabeth Ann Easley

Theses and Dissertations--Kinesiology and Health Promotion

A criterion method to evaluate cardiorespiratory health is measuring peak oxygen consumption (VO2 peak) from a maximal graded exercise test (GXT). While VO2 peak is a valuable measure, heart rate recovery (HRRec) and endothelial function (EF) also describe cardiorespiratory health and fitness. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether differences exist in VO2 peak, HRRec, and EF between healthy-weight (HW) and obese (OB) women and children and to determine if there were significant correlations among these variables. A total of 60 women and children participated in this study. Anthropometric, body composition, resting heart rate and ...


An Investigation Into The Influence Of Dietary Saturated Fat And Quercetin Supplementation On Adiposity, Macrophage Behavior, Inflammation, And Non-Alcoholic Fatty-Liver Disease, Reilly Enos Jan 2013

An Investigation Into The Influence Of Dietary Saturated Fat And Quercetin Supplementation On Adiposity, Macrophage Behavior, Inflammation, And Non-Alcoholic Fatty-Liver Disease, Reilly Enos

Theses and Dissertations

The overall objective of this dissertation was to examine the degree to which manipulation of the saturated fat content of a high-fat diet influenced obesity-related outcomes as well as to see if the naturally-occurring flavonoid, quercetin, could attenuate the resulting obesity and related metabolic and inflammatory side effects. Specifically, these studies examined 1) the influential role of saturated fat on macrophage function, inflammation, and other obesity-related comorbidities, including non-alcoholic fatty-liver disease, and 2) the potential benefits of quercetin supplementation. Overall, results from these studies suggest that adiposity, macrophage behavior, inflammation, insulin resistance, and non-alcoholic fatty-liver disease progression can be greatly ...


Associations Between Resting Metabolic Rate And Energy Storage In Young Adults, Robin Shook Jan 2013

Associations Between Resting Metabolic Rate And Energy Storage In Young Adults, Robin Shook

Theses and Dissertations

At the most basic level obesity is the result of a chronic imbalance between energy intake and energy expenditure. However, the exact etiology is considerably more complex and may involve a variety of physiological and behavioral factors. Metabolic disturbances, including reduced fat oxidation as measured by the respiratory quotient (RQ) and reduced resting metabolic rate (RMR), have been identified as possible predictors of changes in body weight and body composition. RMR represents the largest component (60-80%) of caloric expenditure that contributes to total daily energy expenditure in humans and has high inter-person variability (±25%) but not within individuals (<±5%). The cause of this variability between individuals and the exact role of RMR and RQ in determining body weight and body composition are uncertain.

This dissertation ...


The Effects Of A High Fat Diet On Mitochondrial Biogenesis And Inflammation In The Brain., Lauren Suzanne Vervaecke Jan 2013

The Effects Of A High Fat Diet On Mitochondrial Biogenesis And Inflammation In The Brain., Lauren Suzanne Vervaecke

Theses and Dissertations

INTRO: High fat diets (HFD) ingested over long periods of time have been shown to cause diet induced obesity leading to excessive adiposity and chronic low grade inflammation. Here we have shown how differing levels of saturated fats (SF), which are common storage fats, affect markers of inflammation and mitochondrial biogenesis. IL-1â and TNF-alpha are pro-inflammatory cytokines that have been shown to increase with a HFD, while molecular signalers, PGC-1alpha, cyt c, and SIRT1, related to mitochondrial biogenesis have been shown to decrease. Despite the risks of consuming a diet high in SF's, consumers continue to buy energy dense ...


Effects Of Obesity On Thermoregulation And Cardiovascular Function During Exercise In Females, Jon David Adams Dec 2012

Effects Of Obesity On Thermoregulation And Cardiovascular Function During Exercise In Females, Jon David Adams

Theses and Dissertations

Previous research has shown that obese individuals are at greater risk for heat illnesses because of impaired thermoregulation. However, laboratory studies investigating cardiovascular and thermoregulatory function in obese individuals are difficult to interpret because of low sample sizes and methodological concerns. The purpose of this study was to determine if there are differences in thermoregulatory and cardiovascular function between obese and non-obese females. Twenty-four females, 13 obese (43.3 ± 4 .3 % fat, 77.2 ± 13.7 kg) and 11 non-obese (27.8 ± 6.0 % fat, 55.7±6.7 kg), cycled for 60 min in a warm environment (~40°C ...


Effect Of Body Size And Exercise On Mood State, Alexandra Lachance Dec 2012

Effect Of Body Size And Exercise On Mood State, Alexandra Lachance

Theses and Dissertations

Exercising in the presence of nature (i.e., "green exercise"), has been shown to heighten the physiological and mental benefits of traditional exercise on non-obese individuals. The effects of green exercise on obese individuals are unknown. It is hypothesized that green exercise is more beneficial for obese (greater positive improvements in mental health scores), compared to non-obese individuals. For example, the benefits of green exercise could help lower feelings of depression, improve mood and self-esteem to increase the propensity of obese individuals to meet exercise recommendations. Accordingly, this study investigated the physiological and psychological effects of green exercise on 12 ...


Kids Can Bike! A Parks And Recreation Program To Promote Youth Cycling, Jessica Lynn Chandler Aug 2012

Kids Can Bike! A Parks And Recreation Program To Promote Youth Cycling, Jessica Lynn Chandler

Masters Theses

Physical inactivity is a major concern, and is believed to contribute to the high prevalence of childhood obesity in U.S. schoolchildren. To address this problem, the Knoxville Area Coalition on Childhood Obesity launched a ‘Kids Can BIKE!’ program in 2012. The bicycling program is seven weeks long and is designed to increase physical activity, teach safe cycling skills, and explore Knoxville parks and greenways while having fun. The program targeted children in grades 4 and 5 who were already enrolled in an afterschool or summer program. Once a week, the children were transported to a location where they could ...