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Postactivation Potentiation Effects From Maximal Isometric Contractions Performed At Different Hip Joint Angles, Kyle Derosia Aug 2019

Postactivation Potentiation Effects From Maximal Isometric Contractions Performed At Different Hip Joint Angles, Kyle Derosia

Master's Theses

The purpose of this study was to investigate the differences in vertical ground reaction force (VGRF) production and myoelectric activity after performing maximal isometric contractions at different hip joint angles. 10 healthy, experienced participants reported to the lab on two separate occasions where they performed 3 power cleans at baseline, then 4 maximal isometric deadlifts at either ~50° hip flexion angle (Max) or ~90° hip flexion angle (Min). Following the isometric deadlifts, another 3 power clean trials at 70% 1 repetition maximum were performed and used as a post-test. The isometric deadlifts served as the conditioning contraction (CC) to induce ...


Quantitative Analysis Of The Kinematics Of The Foot During Gait With Respect To Barefoot Running Shoes Using A Multi-Segment Foot Model, Lisa Y. Oikawa Jul 2019

Quantitative Analysis Of The Kinematics Of The Foot During Gait With Respect To Barefoot Running Shoes Using A Multi-Segment Foot Model, Lisa Y. Oikawa

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Kinematics of the foot during static and dynamic tasks are technically challenging to accurately measure, making it difficult to evaluate their contribution to running-related injuries. Motion capture can detect changes in running mechanics, such as with differing footwear. Habitual barefoot runners and/habitual minimalist shoe runners underwent a biomechanical evaluation of their foot movement during running using reflective markers and optical motion capture. A five-segment foot model was used to compare motions between the different parts of the foot while running barefoot and wearing Vibram Five Fingers™ (VFF) barefoot mimicking shoes. Supination/pronation in the forefoot was larger but not ...


Application And Evaluation Of Lighthouse Technology For Precision Motion Capture, Soumitra Sitole Oct 2018

Application And Evaluation Of Lighthouse Technology For Precision Motion Capture, Soumitra Sitole

Masters Theses

This thesis presents the development towards a system that can capture and quantify motion for applications in biomechanical and medical fields demanding precision motion tracking using the lighthouse technology. Commercially known as SteamVR tracking, the lighthouse technology is a motion tracking system developed for virtual reality applications that makes use of patterned infrared light sources to highlight trackers (objects embedded with photodiodes) to obtain their pose or spatial position and orientation. Current motion capture systems such as the camera-based motion capture are expensive and not readily available outside of research labs. This thesis provides a case for low-cost motion capture ...


Performance Impact Of Different Lower-Limb Setup Positions In The Backstroke Swimming Start, Gordon E. Barkwell Aug 2018

Performance Impact Of Different Lower-Limb Setup Positions In The Backstroke Swimming Start, Gordon E. Barkwell

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

The performance impact of different knee extension angles in the setup position for a backstroke start was evaluated using an instrumented starting surface. Ten backstroke swimmers completed maximum-effort starts in each of two setup positions: one with the knees flexed, and one with the knees extended. The start handles and touchpad were instrumented with tri-axial force plates. Activity of major hip and knee extensors was measured using surface electromyography. Body position was recorded throughout the start using two high-speed cameras. There was no difference in time to 10 m between the two conditions, indicating there is likely no advantage in ...


Does Restricting Anterior Movement Of The Knees During A Barbell Back Squat Alter Lower Extremity Biomechanics?, Lucy Hayward Koshewa Aug 2018

Does Restricting Anterior Movement Of The Knees During A Barbell Back Squat Alter Lower Extremity Biomechanics?, Lucy Hayward Koshewa

Theses and Dissertations

INTRODUCTION: The strength implications of the barbell back squat make it ideal for use in training programs, rehabilitation, and competition. Even though the back squat is an integral part of these programs, there are also concerns about injury risk due to improper biomechanics. Restricted squats (knees kept behind the toes) are noted to reduce joint loading at the knees but may not take into account added potential risks for the entire lower extremity. Unrestricted squats are more representative of natural movement patterns but may increase joint loading especially at the knees. Research has explored the biomechanics of back squats in ...


Developing Motion Platform Dynamics For Studying Biomechanical Responses During Exercise For Human Spaceflight Applications, Kaitlin Lostroscio Mar 2018

Developing Motion Platform Dynamics For Studying Biomechanical Responses During Exercise For Human Spaceflight Applications, Kaitlin Lostroscio

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

In future human spaceflight missions, with prolonged exposure to microgravity, resistive and aerobic exercises will be countermeasures for bone loss, muscle loss, and decreased aerobic capacity. Two of the exercises of interest are squats and rowing. The cyclic forces produced during these exercises are at relatively low frequencies which are likely to excite structural resonances of space vehicles. Vibration Isolation Systems (VIS) are being designed to be paired with future exploration exercise devices in order to prevent these cyclic exercise forces from impacting the space vehicle. The VIS may be configured such that a platform supports the human and exercise ...


Muscle Activation Analysis With Kinematic Comparison Between Wind-Up And Stretch Pitching With Respect To The Upper And Lower Extremities, Megan M. Smidebush Jan 2018

Muscle Activation Analysis With Kinematic Comparison Between Wind-Up And Stretch Pitching With Respect To The Upper And Lower Extremities, Megan M. Smidebush

Theses and Dissertations--Kinesiology and Health Promotion

Introduction: Baseball pitching is considered one of the most intense aspects within the game of baseball, as well as the most complicated dynamic throwing task in all of sports. The biomechanics of pitching have been heavily investigated in an attempt to identify optimal pitching mechanics in terms of pitching performance. Previous quantified upper body kinetics research has concluded that improved muscle strength is needed in attempting to achieve adequate upper body kinetics and efficient pitching performances. Therefore, it is the purpose of this research study to compare the lower extremity muscle and upper extremity muscle activation patterns and kinematic variables ...


Joint Motions Of The Knee, Hip, And Trunk During A Single-Leg Step-Down Test And Running, Cody J. Brocato Jan 2018

Joint Motions Of The Knee, Hip, And Trunk During A Single-Leg Step-Down Test And Running, Cody J. Brocato

WWU Graduate School Collection

The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between kinematic variables at the knee, hip, and trunk during a single-leg step-down test (SDT) and running. Twenty-five healthy subjects (12 male, 13 female) participated in the study; mean ± SD age, 32.8 ± 5.9 years; height, 173.9 ± 8.7 cm; body mass, 70.84 ± 11.3 kg; run volume, 59.5 ± 30.4 km/wk; cadence, 173.1 ± 11.5 steps/min). Dominant leg peak knee flexion was identified during the run (PKF-RUN) and used to find frontal plane knee and hip, and sagittal plane trunk angles. The ...


Physical Activity And Age-Related Mechanical Risk Factors For Knee Osteoarthritis, Jocelyn F. Hafer Nov 2017

Physical Activity And Age-Related Mechanical Risk Factors For Knee Osteoarthritis, Jocelyn F. Hafer

Doctoral Dissertations

Knee osteoarthritis is an age-related disease which will affect nearly 50% of individuals in their lifetime. Because there are currently no treatments to substantially slow the progression of this disease, it is important to identify mechanisms to reduce the risk of osteoarthritis initiation. Osteoarthritis is a disease which is at least partially mediated by mechanical factors which may result from age-related changes in gait. The extent to which habitual physical activity can modify the impact of age on gait, knee mechanics, and thus cartilage loading is unknown. The aim of this dissertation was to examine the effects of age and ...


Analysis Of Human Movement Patterns During Endurance Running, Joshua Paul Bailey Aug 2017

Analysis Of Human Movement Patterns During Endurance Running, Joshua Paul Bailey

UNLV Theses, Dissertations, Professional Papers, and Capstones

Endurance running and participation in racing events has flourished over the last decade. Recreational runners enter the training period for an upcoming race at differing levels of fitness and training. As individuals sign-up for the race, they typically follow the commitment with an increase in training load. The increases in training load are accomplished through a combination of increasing mileage, or duration of running, and running intensity through increase velocity. These increases are theoretically being applied in a progressive overload principle, where the musculoskeletal system has time to adapt to the breakdown provided from the previous training session. Progressive overload ...


The Influence Of Crossfit Training On Running Mechanics, Sophia D. Bradley Aug 2017

The Influence Of Crossfit Training On Running Mechanics, Sophia D. Bradley

UNLV Theses, Dissertations, Professional Papers, and Capstones

Introduction

40 million Americans run regularly.1 Contrary to many runner’s beliefs, increased strength may be beneficial while not adding body mass. An increase in strength in specific muscles may improve running gait and performance. 9,6 Strength training may also play an important role in preventing common overuse injuries in running 11,12 Depending on the style of strength training, it may also have an enhanced benefit on running economy.4,16

Participation in CrossFit is also widely popular, with an increase in participation of 923% in the past ten years.2 CrossFit is a type of strength ...


Burrowing And Walking Mechanisms Of North American Moles, Yi-Fen Lin Jul 2017

Burrowing And Walking Mechanisms Of North American Moles, Yi-Fen Lin

Doctoral Dissertations

Moles (Family Talpidae) are a classic example of extreme specialization, in their case highly derived forelimb morphologies associated with burrowing. Despite many observations of mole burrows and behaviors gathered in the field, we know very little about how and how well moles use their forelimbs to dig tunnels and to walk within the built tunnels to collect and transport food. The first chapter investigates the effect of soil compactness on two sympatric mole species under controlled laboratory conditions. My results demonstrate that increasing soil compactness impedes tunneling performance as evidenced by reduced burrowing speed, increased soil transport, shorter tunnels, shorter ...


The Development Of A Platform Interface With The Use Of Virtual Reality To Enhance Upper-Extremity Prosthetic Training And Rehabilitation, Ashley D. Knight Jun 2017

The Development Of A Platform Interface With The Use Of Virtual Reality To Enhance Upper-Extremity Prosthetic Training And Rehabilitation, Ashley D. Knight

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

This dissertation focuses on the investigation and development of an effective prosthetic training and rehabilitation platform with the use of virtual reality to facilitate an effective process to return amputees to the highest level of independence and functioning possible.

It has been reported that approximately 10 million people live with a limb loss worldwide, with around 30% being an upper-extremity amputee. The sudden loss of a hand or arm causes the loss of fine, coordinated movements, reduced joint range of motion (ROM), proprioceptive feedback and aesthetic appearance, all which can be improved with the use of a prosthesis and proper ...


The Consequences Of Speed: Studies Of Cavitation During The Mantis Shrimp Strike And The Control Of Rapid Deceleration During Toad Landing, Suzanne M. Cox Nov 2016

The Consequences Of Speed: Studies Of Cavitation During The Mantis Shrimp Strike And The Control Of Rapid Deceleration During Toad Landing, Suzanne M. Cox

Doctoral Dissertations

There are consequences of moving quickly in this world. Here we investigate how two very different species, mantis shrimp (Odontodactylus scyllarus) and cane toads (Bufo marinus), negotiate forces that result from moving rapidly in different environments. To study the mechanical principles and fluid dynamics of ultrafast power-amplified systems, we built Ninjabot, a physical model of the extremely fast mantis shrimp. While mantis shrimp produce damaging cavitation upon impact with their prey, they do not cavitate during the forward portion of their strike despite extreme speeds. In order to study cavitation onset in non-linear flows common during the mantis shrimp strike ...


The Effects Of Ice Hockey Goaltender Leg Pads On Safety And Performance, Ryan J. Frayne Oct 2016

The Effects Of Ice Hockey Goaltender Leg Pads On Safety And Performance, Ryan J. Frayne

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Ice hockey goaltenders have the highest percentage of cam-type femoroacetabular impingement (FAI). The exact cause of these injuries in goaltenders remains unknown; however, it has been suggested that common goaltender movements and a goaltender’s underlying hip pathology may be contributing factors. The butterfly save technique, commonly used by goaltenders, has been linked to FAI. Simply stopping these movements would likely be detrimental to goaltender performance. Therefore, changing other aspects of goaltending, such as altering the goaltender equipment, should be considered. The overall objective of this thesis was to understand how ice hockey goaltender leg pads influence both the safety ...


Markerless Radiostereogammetry Of The Shoulder Joint In Humans: Comparisons Of Scapulohumeral Kinematics Between Individuals With Healthy And Supraspinatus-Impaired Shoulders, Ashley N. Hannon Apr 2016

Markerless Radiostereogammetry Of The Shoulder Joint In Humans: Comparisons Of Scapulohumeral Kinematics Between Individuals With Healthy And Supraspinatus-Impaired Shoulders, Ashley N. Hannon

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

The purpose of this collection of studies was to further develop the knowledge of shoulder motion in order to better understand joint function through direct measurement of 3D scapulohumeral joint kinematics using a technique of high accuracy. Markerless, bi-planar fluoroscopic radiostereometric analysis using a generic shoulder model was developed in this thesis, reducing the amount of radiation exposure to subjects. The studies compared kinematic data of the scapulohumeral joint in six degrees of freedom with a precise, in-vivo measuring technique. Data were collected on young and older healthy individuals, individuals with a torn supraspinatus and post-surgical intervention.

Although this generic ...


A Complete Kinematic, Kinetic, And Electromyographical Analysis Of The Football Throw In Collegiate Quarterbacks, Kyle R. Bohnert Jan 2016

A Complete Kinematic, Kinetic, And Electromyographical Analysis Of The Football Throw In Collegiate Quarterbacks, Kyle R. Bohnert

Theses and Dissertations--Kinesiology and Health Promotion

The biomechanics of the overhead throw has been extensively studied in regards to baseball pitching. However, an understanding of the proper mechanics needed to successfully throw a football has not previously been investigated. Thus, the purpose of this study was to investigate the kinematics, kinetics, and electromyography of the football throws in elite quarterbacks. Three collegiate quarterbacks were evaluated using a multi-camera motion capture system and electromyography electrodes. The results of this study are able to give a breakdown in the types of mechanics needed in each of the phases of the throw. This study demonstrated that during the early ...


The Influence Of Transcranial Random Noise Stimulation On Motor Skill Acquisition And Learning In A Modified Golf Putting Task, Lidio Lima De Albuquerque Dec 2015

The Influence Of Transcranial Random Noise Stimulation On Motor Skill Acquisition And Learning In A Modified Golf Putting Task, Lidio Lima De Albuquerque

UNLV Theses, Dissertations, Professional Papers, and Capstones

Transcranial random noise stimulation (tRNS) is a form of non-invasive brain stimulation (NIBS) that has been shown to increase motor performance in simple motor tasks. The purpose of the present study was to determine the influence of tRNS on motor skill acquisition and learning in a complex, modified golf putting task in young adults. Twenty-four (n = 12 per group) healthy young adult males were allocated to either a tRNS group or a SHAM stimulation group. Both groups performed 6 trials of the golf putting task in a baseline testing block, followed by 4 practice blocks of 15 trials. The practice ...


Kinematics And Hydrodynamics Of Cephalopod Turning Performance In Routine Swimming And Predatory Attacks, Rachel A. Jastrebsky Oct 2015

Kinematics And Hydrodynamics Of Cephalopod Turning Performance In Routine Swimming And Predatory Attacks, Rachel A. Jastrebsky

Biological Sciences Theses & Dissertations

Steady rectilinear swimming has received considerable attention in aquatic animal locomotion studies. Unsteady swimming movements, however, represent a large portion of many aquatic animals’ locomotive repertoire and have not been examined extensively. This study incorporates kinematic analyses of routine turning performance of brief squid Lolliguncula brevis and dwarf cuttlefish Sepia bandensis (Chapter 2), 3D velocimetry techniques to examine hydrodynamic turning performance of L. brevis (Chapter 3) and kinematic analyses of turning performance of L. brevis during predatory attacks on shrimp and fish prey (Chapter 4).

Both L. brevis and S. bandensis demonstrated high maneuverability, having the lowest measures of length-specific ...


Lower Extremity Neuromechanics During A Forward-Side Jump Following Functional Fatigue In Patients With Ankle Instability, Hyun Kim Jun 2015

Lower Extremity Neuromechanics During A Forward-Side Jump Following Functional Fatigue In Patients With Ankle Instability, Hyun Kim

Theses and Dissertations

Ankle instability (AI) and fatigue impair neuromuscular control as well as dynamic joint stability of the lower extremity. No one has comprehensively examined the effects of AI and fatigue on neuromechanics of the lower extremity during a functional activity. Deficits associated with AI and fatigue could be additive in increasing the risk for injury in patients with AI. PURPOSE: To examine the interaction of AI and fatigue on lower extremity muscle activity, kinematic, and kinetic patterns during a forward-side jump. METHODS: 25 AI (23.3 ± 1.9 yrs, 176.5 ± 10.5 cm, 70.9 ± 11.4 kg), and 25 ...


Changes In Sprint Kinetics Or Kinematics Following Static Or Dynamic Stretching, Kristyne Bartel May 2015

Changes In Sprint Kinetics Or Kinematics Following Static Or Dynamic Stretching, Kristyne Bartel

UNLV Theses, Dissertations, Professional Papers, and Capstones

The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of static or dynamic stretching on hip kinematics and kinetics during intermittent sprinting. To achieve this aim, intermittent sprint athletes were asked to complete either a static or dynamic stretch, followed by a repeated-sprint protocol. Hip joint kinematics and performance measures were evaluated during the sprint, including changes that occurred in these variables over the course of the sprint protocol. In addition, hip flexion torque was measured with an isokinetic dynamometer. Ten male (age = 25±2.3 years, 175±3.2 cm, 76.2±2.7 kg) and female (age ...


Reliability Of A Multisegment Foot Model In Shod Running, Austin Coupe May 2015

Reliability Of A Multisegment Foot Model In Shod Running, Austin Coupe

UNLV Theses, Dissertations, Professional Papers, and Capstones

The purpose of this study was to determine kinematic and marker placement reliability of the Leardini multisegment foot model (LMFM) for tracking foot kinematics during barefoot and shod running without alteration of footwear. Eleven participants, five males (25.6±5 yrs, 73±15.8 kg, 1.75±0.05m) and six females (22.5±2.9 yrs, 66.6±7.2 kg, 1.71±0.05 m) granted institutionally approved written consent to participate. Three-dimensional motion capture (10 Vicon T40-S cameras) was used to capture kinematic data at 200Hz. Kinetic data was captured with an in-ground force platform (Kistler Instruments ...


Investigating Single-Leg Landing Strategies And Movement Control Across Changes In Task Demands, Andrew D. Nordin May 2015

Investigating Single-Leg Landing Strategies And Movement Control Across Changes In Task Demands, Andrew D. Nordin

UNLV Theses, Dissertations, Professional Papers, and Capstones

Variability is an intrinsic characteristic of human movement, with hypothesized connections to neuromotor functioning and mechanisms of injury. The purpose of this study was to evaluate changes in movement variability among kinematic, kinetic, and electromyographic (EMG) variables following mechanical task demand manipulations during single-leg drop landings. Biomechanical outcome variables included 3 kinematic (sagittal, hip, knee, and ankle angles), 4 kinetic (sagittal hip, knee, ankle moments and vertical ground reaction force; GRFz), and 5 EMG variables (gluteus maximus, vastus medialis, biceps femoris, medial gastrocnemius, and tibialis anterior muscles). Mechanical task demands were altered using load and landing height manipulations, computed as ...


Rearfoot, Mid/Forefoot, And Barefoot Running: Biomechanical Differences Related To Injury, Elizabeth Rose Boyer Jan 2015

Rearfoot, Mid/Forefoot, And Barefoot Running: Biomechanical Differences Related To Injury, Elizabeth Rose Boyer

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Running is an accessible, inexpensive form of exercise. However, running injuries are common and burdensome. Many runners are curious about switching to barefoot (BF) running or minimalist shoes to avoid injuries, which is commonly associated with rearfoot strikers (runners who land on the posterior third of their foot) landing on the middle or front third (mid- or forefoot strike; FFS). My purposes were to determine if undocumented aspects of FFS and BF running are beneficial or harmful compared to rearfoot striking (RFS), and if any potential benefits of FFS or BF running can be achieved by shortening one’s stride ...


Active Versus Passive Control Of Arm Swing: Implication Of The Restriction Of Pelvis Rotation During Human Locomotion, Stephen Paul Canton Jan 2015

Active Versus Passive Control Of Arm Swing: Implication Of The Restriction Of Pelvis Rotation During Human Locomotion, Stephen Paul Canton

LSU Master's Theses

To date, it remains unclear how passive dynamics and active neural control contribute to arm swing during human locomotion. The passive hypothesis attributes arm swing to the passive transfer of energy from the legs to the arms via biomechanical linkages, while the active hypothesis states that arm swing is actively driven by muscles via neural mechanisms. The present study aims to investigate this phenomenon further by disrupting the biomechanical linkages, thereby directly challenging the passive hypothesis. Ten healthy individuals walked on a treadmill with and without an apparatus that constrained pelvis rotation at 3 different speeds (2 mph, 3 mph ...


Kinetic And Kinematic Properties Of D-I Male Sprinters, Zhanxin Sha Dec 2014

Kinetic And Kinematic Properties Of D-I Male Sprinters, Zhanxin Sha

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

The purpose of the study was to explore and determine kinetic and kinematic variables that related to D-I male sprinters maximal running velocity performance. The current study was separated into 3 individual chapters: 1.) Kinematic analysis magnitude of acceleration for braking and propulsion phases during foot contact phase at maximal speed sprinting; 2.) Using kinetic isometric mid-thigh pull variables to predict D-I male sprinters’ 60m performance; 3.) Relationship of whole and lower body angular momentum cancellation during terminal swing phase to sprint performance.

Methods: for sprint measurement all the athletes were participated 2 trials of 100% effort running through 60 ...


Modeling And Development Of Human Interface For Pedestrian Simulator, Romesh Khaddar Aug 2014

Modeling And Development Of Human Interface For Pedestrian Simulator, Romesh Khaddar

UNLV Theses, Dissertations, Professional Papers, and Capstones

According to Traveler opinion and perception survey of 2005, 107.4 million Americans use walking as regular mode of travel, which amounts to 51% of American population. In 2009, 4092 pedestrian fatalities have been reported nationwide with a fatality rate of 1.33 which totals 59,000 crashes. Also, pedestrians are over represented in crash data by accounting more than 12% of fatalities but on 10.9% of trips. This makes a perfect case for understanding the causes behind such statistics, calling for a continuous research on pedestrians walking behavior and their interactions with surroundings.

Current research in pedestrian simulation ...


A Comparative Evaluation Of The Effects Of Incline On Kinematics And Muscle Function During Backward Walking, Daniel Brent Jensen Aug 2014

A Comparative Evaluation Of The Effects Of Incline On Kinematics And Muscle Function During Backward Walking, Daniel Brent Jensen

UNLV Theses, Dissertations, Professional Papers, and Capstones

The purpose of this study was to investigate lower extremity kinematics and muscle activation patterns in inclined backward walking (IBW) versus traditional backward walking (BW). This purpose was achieved by evaluating performance of individuals walking backward on a treadmill at inclines of 0%, 6%, 8%, 10%, and 12%. Eleven participants (24.9 ± 4.8 yrs, 71.9 ± 11.6 kg, 1.7 ± 0.09m) recruited from the UNLV student body went through a familiarization training program before any data were collected. The familiarization training, which took place across 3 different days, served to: 1) help the participants become comfortable and ...


An Evaluation Of Kinematic Variables During Stance Phase Of A Training Endurance Run, Joshua Paul Bailey Aug 2014

An Evaluation Of Kinematic Variables During Stance Phase Of A Training Endurance Run, Joshua Paul Bailey

UNLV Theses, Dissertations, Professional Papers, and Capstones

The purpose of the study was to evaluate kinematics of the lower extremity during the stance phase of an endurance training run. Fifteen participants (8 male, 7 female; 30.5 ± 8.4 years; 71.8 ± 11 kg; 1.73 ± 0.07 m) reported that they were currently signed up for, or planned on signing up for, an endurance race within the next six months of participation in the study (9 half marathon, 3 marathon, 1 triathlon, 2 21k trail run). All had a weekly running mileage greater than 20 miles (23.8 ±4.6 miles). Participants were required to complete ...


Biomechanical Comparison Of A Rounded Outsole Shoe And Traditional Outsole Shoe, Sarah Horsch May 2013

Biomechanical Comparison Of A Rounded Outsole Shoe And Traditional Outsole Shoe, Sarah Horsch

UNLV Theses, Dissertations, Professional Papers, and Capstones

The purpose of the study was to determine the effects of shoe outsole design on maximum vertical acceleration and select kinematic parameters during level and uphill walking across phases of stance. Twelve participants, 7 males (75.1±9.3 kg, 173.6±3.6 cm, 22.9±3.5 yrs) and 5 females (56.5±5.1 kg, 158.3±4.5 cm, 25.4±11.1 yrs) granted written consent and preferred walking speed was determined. An accelerometer (480 Hz) was attached to the distal leg to measure maximum leg acceleration (Aleg) and an electrogoniometer (480 Hz) was placed ...