Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

Life Sciences Commons

Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

PDF

Theses/Dissertations

Kinesiology

Gait

Institution
Publication Year
Publication

Articles 1 - 27 of 27

Full-Text Articles in Life Sciences

Walking For Object Transport: An Examination Of The Coordinative Adaptations To Locomotor, Perceptual, And Manual Task Constraints, Avelino Amado Jul 2019

Walking For Object Transport: An Examination Of The Coordinative Adaptations To Locomotor, Perceptual, And Manual Task Constraints, Avelino Amado

Doctoral Dissertations

The goal of this dissertation was to understand how the intrinsic dynamics of gait adapt to support the performance of an ecologically relevant object transport task. A common object transport task is walking with a cup of water. Because the water can move relatively independent of the cup, the cup and water system is classified as a complex object. To model this task participants carried a cup with a wooden lid placed on top. On the lid there was a circular region with the same circumference as the cup and a ball. The object of the task was to keep ...


The Impact Of Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstructive Surgery On Neuromotor Function, Cortney Noel Armitano Apr 2019

The Impact Of Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstructive Surgery On Neuromotor Function, Cortney Noel Armitano

Rehabilitation Sciences Theses & Dissertations

The purpose of this dissertation was to examine the systemic neuromechanical implications in individuals who have had an ACL reconstruction (ACLR) compared to healthy controls. The specific aims addressed were to: 1) examine differences in inter-limb coordination during walking at different speeds, 2) examine differences in trunk, neck and head acceleration during gait, and 3) investigate whether the reaction time responses assessed during stepping are negatively affected by ACLR.

The findings of study 1 revealed that maximal coordination stability was achieved when walking at the person’s preferred gait speed. However, individuals with a previous ACLR exhibited reduced coordination stability ...


Gait Alterations And Plantar Pressure In Diabetic Peripheral Neuropathy: A Preliminary Study, Adrienne Dora Henderson Jul 2018

Gait Alterations And Plantar Pressure In Diabetic Peripheral Neuropathy: A Preliminary Study, Adrienne Dora Henderson

Theses and Dissertations

Background: Despite a lack of consensus on its utility, clinicians have traditionally relied on plantar pressure (PP) to predict ulcer risk and prescribe interventions in individuals with diabetic peripheral neuropathy (DPN). Joint kinematics and kinetics have the potential to contribute to DPN assessment and treatment, however previous studies have not accounted for walking speed nor integrated a full-body analysis with a detailed foot model. Purpose: To assess PP and gait alterations in DPN by controlling walking speed and incorporating a multisegment foot model into a full-body gait analysis. We hypothesize that hip and ankle kinetics will be altered consistent with ...


Differences In Walking Mechanics Between A Traditional Walker And The Kb Balance Trainer, Silvia Zanini Jan 2018

Differences In Walking Mechanics Between A Traditional Walker And The Kb Balance Trainer, Silvia Zanini

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

INTRODUCTION: Millions of individuals with ambulatory difficulties rely on walking aids to maintain independence and mobility. However, users of traditional walkers typically exhibit increased forward lean of their trunk while using the assistive device. The KB Balance Trainer is a new posterior walker designed to facilitate a more erect position during gait. PURPOSE: To compare gait mechanics across three walking conditions: unassisted, using a traditional walker, and using the KB Balance Trainer. METHODS: Seven adults with experience using walkers due to ambulatory difficulties participated in the study. The study consisted of one training session and one gait analysis session. The ...


The Effect Of Treadmill Vs. Nustep Recumbent Cross Trainer On Gait And Lower Extremity Electromyography After Chronic Stroke, Nicholas Joseph Siekirk Jan 2018

The Effect Of Treadmill Vs. Nustep Recumbent Cross Trainer On Gait And Lower Extremity Electromyography After Chronic Stroke, Nicholas Joseph Siekirk

Wayne State University Dissertations

Pilot Part 1: The purpose was to investigate the effect of a perceived exertion based cadence on lower extremity muscle activation, as measured by surface electromyography (EMG) on a recumbent cross trainer. The purpose of this investigation was to study the EMG activity of 12 lower extremity muscles during five different stepping protocols; perceived exertion based self-selected (SS) cadence with level 1 resistance (SSL1), SS cadence with level 8 resistance (SSL8), +20% SS cadence (SS+20), -20% SS cadence (SS-20), and at a set 80 steps per minute at resistance level 1 (80L1). In order to determine SS cadence each ...


The Slippery Slope Between Falling And Recovering: An Examination Of Sensory And Somatic Factors Influencing Recovery After A Slip, Samuel J. Wilson Jan 2018

The Slippery Slope Between Falling And Recovering: An Examination Of Sensory And Somatic Factors Influencing Recovery After A Slip, Samuel J. Wilson

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Background: Slips and falls account for large rates of injury and mortality in multiple populations. During an unexpected slip, sensory mechanisms are responsible for signaling the slip to the central nervous system, and a series of corrective responses is generated to arrest the slip and prevent a fall. While previous research has examined the corrective responses elicited, the answer of how these systems break down during a fall remains elusive. Purpose: To examine differences in postural control (slip detection), lower extremity corrective responses (slip recovery), and cortical control of the slip recovery response between individuals who fall and those who ...


The Effects Of An Inclined And Declined Slope On Backward Locomotion: A Kinematic And Electromyographic Analysis Of Retrowalking, Song Dan Vo Dec 2016

The Effects Of An Inclined And Declined Slope On Backward Locomotion: A Kinematic And Electromyographic Analysis Of Retrowalking, Song Dan Vo

UNLV Theses, Dissertations, Professional Papers, and Capstones

The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of an inclined and declined slopeon kinematic properties and muscle activation magnitudes. This purpose was achieved by using a +10% grade for inclined backward walking (IBW) and -10% grade for declined backwardwalking (DBW) on a treadmill. Eleven participants (24.6 ± 4.1 yrs, 68.5 ± 14.6 kg, 1.7 ± 0.1 m) were recruited from the UNLV student body and were subject to a three day adaptation protocol to allow them to choose a preferred walking speed and to familiarize themselves with such a novel task. Two consecutive practice ...


Mobility Of Individuals With Multiple Sclerosis And The Influence Of Physical Therapy, Brenda L. Davies May 2016

Mobility Of Individuals With Multiple Sclerosis And The Influence Of Physical Therapy, Brenda L. Davies

Theses & Dissertations

One main purpose was to explore the compensatory gait strategies of individuals with multiple sclerosis (MS). To address this purpose, we quantified the mechanical work generated by the lower extremity joints during walking. The outcomes from this investi­gation suggested that individuals with MS redistribute positive mechanical work during walking to the hip in order to compensate for a reduced ability of the ankle to generate positive mechanical work. Additionally, we also explored the motor control of the ankle as a potential contributing factor to the mobility limitations of individuals with MS. The outcomes from this investigation indicated that individuals ...


Failures In Adaptive Locomotion In Healthy Young Adults, Michel J. H. Heijnen Apr 2016

Failures In Adaptive Locomotion In Healthy Young Adults, Michel J. H. Heijnen

Open Access Dissertations

Young adults fall most frequently when walking, and trips account for 25% of these falls (Heijnen & Rietdyk, 2016). Common approaches to understanding tripping include the examination of behavior when a stationary obstacle is crossed successfully, or to deliberately trip the participant with a covert obstacle. However, these approaches do not establish the underlying cause of failure; examining inadvertent failures does, as this occurs most often in the field (Heijnen & Rietdyk, 2016). In order to identify the behavior that results in obstacle contact, this dissertation examined gait characteristics during inadvertent failures and manipulated the sensory information available to guide the limb trajectory. Manipulating the availability of sensory information is important to determine the information used to successfully guide the limbs, particularly the trail limb. Three experiments were conducted to systematically examine the role of visual and somatosensory information in young adults ...


Carrying Asymmetric Loads During Different Walking Conditions, Junsig Wang Jan 2016

Carrying Asymmetric Loads During Different Walking Conditions, Junsig Wang

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

The purpose of this dissertation was to investigate how asymmetric load carriage affects joint kinetics and postural control during walking and stair negotiation.

In the first two studies, frontal plane joint moments were analyzed when carrying unilateral versus bilateral loads during stair negotiation. Peak L5/S1 contralateral bending moments were significantly higher when carrying a 20% body weight (BW) unilateral load for both stair ascent and descent. In addition, peak external knee varus and hip abduction moments were significantly higher in unloaded limb stance as compared to loaded limb stance. Based on our findings, we suggest that the low back ...


The Effect Of Balance-Based Torso-Weighting On Mobility, Gait, Balance, Postural Control, And Falls Efficacy In Mobility Limited Older Adults, Jennifer L. Vincenzo May 2015

The Effect Of Balance-Based Torso-Weighting On Mobility, Gait, Balance, Postural Control, And Falls Efficacy In Mobility Limited Older Adults, Jennifer L. Vincenzo

Theses and Dissertations

Exercise is a known intervention to prevent fall risk among older adults; however, adherence is poor. Therefore, it is of interest to determine if other interventions improve function and decrease fall risk among older adults. Balance-Based Torso-Weighting (BBTW) is a non-exercise intervention that improves functional measures among adults with multiple sclerosis, yet the effectiveness of BBTW has not been assessed among older adults without progressive neurological disorders. We conducted a double-blind, randomized study to analyze the effect of BBTW on functional measures and falls efficacy among community-dwelling, mobility limited older adults after 5 days of wearing BalanceWear® for 4 hours ...


Effects Of Obesity On Slip-Related Falls Among Young Adults During Gait, Jae Eun Kim Jan 2015

Effects Of Obesity On Slip-Related Falls Among Young Adults During Gait, Jae Eun Kim

Open Access Theses & Dissertations

Falls present serious medical, health, and societal challenges to not only the frail elderly or individuals with mobility disorders; but also the active and vigorous older adults. Slip-related falls account for about 40% of all falls among older adults. Individuals with obesity are subject to an elevated risk of falls associated with muscle weakness, abnormal body mass distribution, and postural instability. Dynamic gait stability has been identified as a key factor leading to falls after a slip during gait. Despite individuals with obesity suffer higher risk of falls compared to their lean counterparts, no study has investigated how the dynamic ...


Alternate Foot Placement: Investigating The Role Of Gait Parameters, Planar Obstacle Complexity, And Athletic Training, Brittany A. Baxter Jan 2015

Alternate Foot Placement: Investigating The Role Of Gait Parameters, Planar Obstacle Complexity, And Athletic Training, Brittany A. Baxter

Theses and Dissertations (Comprehensive)

On a daily basis modifications, based upon environmental demands and the capabilities of the individual, are made to the locomotor pattern to enable avoidance of undesirable landing areas (i.e. planar obstacles). Athletes and dancers have been suggested to have superior perception-action coupling compared to non-athletes, allowing them to perform various tasks at a greater speed without a loss of precision (Federici et al., 2005; Gerin-Lajoie et al. (2007). The current study assessed non-athletes, dancers, and field athletes to investigate whether training influences the maintenance of forward progression and stability in relation to alternate foot placement during planar obstacle avoidance ...


Stride Length-Speed Relationship During Body Weight Supported Running, Carmen Chona Aug 2014

Stride Length-Speed Relationship During Body Weight Supported Running, Carmen Chona

UNLV Theses, Dissertations, Professional Papers, and Capstones

The purpose of this study was to determine if body weight support influences the stride length-speed relationship. Additionally, the purpose was to determine if impact characteristics of running are influenced by body weight support and speed. Subjects (n=10; 6 female, 4 male) volunteered to participate in this study. All subjects were injury free and were comfortable running on a treadmill for 30 minutes. Subjects ran on a lower body positive (LBPP, Alter-G, G-Trainer) treadmill for 4 conditions of body weight (100, 40, 30 and 20% of body weight) and 4 running speeds (100, 110, 120 and 130% of the ...


Gait Initiation Mechanics In Concussed Varsity Athletes, Adam Harper Jan 2014

Gait Initiation Mechanics In Concussed Varsity Athletes, Adam Harper

Theses and Dissertations (Comprehensive)

Concussions are a common and potentially serious injury that affects athletes across multiple sports. More than ever concussions are now at the forefront of sport-related research.

Current research indicates that in a cohort of Canadian junior hockey players examined during the 2009-2010 season showed a rate of concussion at 36.5% of all athletic injuries (Echlin et al., 2010). This rate of concussion injury indicates that proper evaluations and examination tools are key to successful management of concussions. The objective of this study was to determine whether a functional task such as gait initiation is able to quantify stability difference ...


Changes In The Dynamics Of Postural And Locomotor Control As A Result Of Varying Task Demands, Kathleen Sherry Thomas Apr 2013

Changes In The Dynamics Of Postural And Locomotor Control As A Result Of Varying Task Demands, Kathleen Sherry Thomas

Human Movement Sciences Theses & Dissertations

The aim of this study was to examine changes in postural and locomotor control under varying task demands. Three experiments were designed to address the impact that fast walking had on standing posture over time, slow walking had on gait dynamics over time, and the extent to which gait speed interacts with the ability to walk randomly.

For experiment I, the aim was to identify the time course in which postural adaptation occurred while walking at faster than preferred speeds. Postural motion was assessed at specific intervals over a 35-min walking trial. Findings revealed that walking at a faster speed ...


Gait Variability Is An Independent Marker Of Frailty, Anam Islam May 2012

Gait Variability Is An Independent Marker Of Frailty, Anam Islam

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

The objectives of this study were to 1) determine if high gait variability is associated with frailty; 2) test the inter-rater reliability of the Clinical Frailty Scale (CFS) and its concurrent validity against the Frailty Phenotype Index (FPI) in classifying frailty. Frailty status was determined by applying the FPI and CFS to the sample of 107 community-dwelling older adults. Inter-rater reliability of the CFS was assessed using kappa statistics. Mantel-Haenszel test for trends evaluated concurrent validity of the CFS against the FPI components. Quantitative gait variables were assessed with an electronic walkway. Multivariable linear regression analysis evaluated the outcome of ...


The Clinical Usefulness Of Vector Coding Variability In Female Runners With And Without Patellofemoral Pain, Tommy Joseph Cunningham Jan 2012

The Clinical Usefulness Of Vector Coding Variability In Female Runners With And Without Patellofemoral Pain, Tommy Joseph Cunningham

Theses and Dissertations--Kinesiology and Health Promotion

It has been suggested that Patellofemoral Pain (PFP) may be the result of a coordinate state which exhibits less joint coordination variability. The ability to relate joint coordination variability to PFP pathology could have many clinical uses; however, evidence to support clinical application is lacking. Vector coding’s coupling angle variability (CAV) has been introduced as a possible analysis method to quantify joint coordination variability. The purpose of this study was to assess the clinical usefulness of CAV measures from a dynamical systems perspective. This involved establishing the precision limits of CAV measures when physiological conditions are held constant, altering ...


Variability Of Vertical Ground Reaction Forces In Patients With Chronic Low Back Pain, Before And After Chiropractic Care., Brent S. Russell, Mark D. Geil, Jianhua Wu, Kathryn T. Hoiriis Aug 2011

Variability Of Vertical Ground Reaction Forces In Patients With Chronic Low Back Pain, Before And After Chiropractic Care., Brent S. Russell, Mark D. Geil, Jianhua Wu, Kathryn T. Hoiriis

Kinesiology Theses

Introduction

Many chiropractic articles and textbooks discuss gait, but there actually has been little research into the effects of chiropractic adjustment on gait. This pilot study used a quantitative method of gait evaluation before and after a series of chiropractic visits. Hypotheses: (1) adults with chronic low back pain (CLBP) would show increased variability in vertical ground reaction forces (VGRF) while walking, as compared to healthy control subjects, and (2) that, following chiropractic care, will show decreased variability.

Methods

VGRF data were collected for 6 controls and compared to 9 CLBP participants, who were also evaluated before and after the ...


Walk-Run Transition Speed And The Relevance Of Loading, Muscular Fatigue, And Human Kinematics: A Comparison Of Human Gait Patterns, Callie Elizabeth Gunderson May 2011

Walk-Run Transition Speed And The Relevance Of Loading, Muscular Fatigue, And Human Kinematics: A Comparison Of Human Gait Patterns, Callie Elizabeth Gunderson

Boise State University Theses and Dissertations

INTRODUCTION: The walk-to-run transition (WRT) typically occurs at a preferred transition speed (PTS) of 1.9-2.1ms-1. Previous research has focused on potential triggers for this transition such as leg length, muscular fatigue, loading rates (LR), and vertical ground reaction forces (VGRFs). Rather than focus on mechanisms responsible for the transition, the purpose of the current study was to determine if basic anthropometrics or gait characteristics are predictive of the WRT. METHODS: Thirty participants were recruited for the current study (n = 13 male, 17 female; n = 11 normal weight, n = 10 overweight, n = 9 obese; age M = 26.3 ...


The Effect Of Joint Mobilization On Functional Outcomes Associated With Chronic Ankle Instability, Matthew C. Hoch Jan 2011

The Effect Of Joint Mobilization On Functional Outcomes Associated With Chronic Ankle Instability, Matthew C. Hoch

University of Kentucky Doctoral Dissertations

Ankle sprains are among the most common injuries sustained by physically active individuals. Although ankle sprains are often considered innocuous in nature, a large percentage of individuals experience repetitive sprains, residual symptoms, and recurrent ankle instability following a single acute sprain; otherwise known as chronic ankle instability (CAI). In addition to repetitive ankle trauma, those with CAI experience reductions in functional capacity over the life span. This indicates that current intervention strategies for CAI are inadequate and require further investigation.

The objective of this dissertation was to explore differences in walking and running gait parameters between individuals with and without ...


The Effect Of Heel Height On Frontal Plane Joint Moments, Impact Accelertion, And Shock Attenuation During Walking, Danielle Barkema Jan 2010

The Effect Of Heel Height On Frontal Plane Joint Moments, Impact Accelertion, And Shock Attenuation During Walking, Danielle Barkema

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Wearing high heels alters walking kinematics and kinetics and can create potentially adverse effects on the body. Our purpose was to determine how heel height affects frontal plane joint moments at the hip, knee, and ankle, with a specific focus on the external knee moment due to its importance in medial loading and knee osteoarthritis. In addition, this study examined the effect of heel height on impact acceleration of tibia and head and shock attenuation of the body. Fifteen women completed overground walking trials in three different heel height conditions (1, 5, and 9 cm) for a fixed walking speed ...


Age- And Speed-Related Differences In Walking Smoothness, Kristin Ann Lowry Jan 2010

Age- And Speed-Related Differences In Walking Smoothness, Kristin Ann Lowry

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Extensive literature documents age-related differences in spatiotemporal variables during gait. Recent efforts have focused on upper body control and balance during gait. Harmonic ratios, derived from trunk acceleration signals, measure smoothness of motion, and are an indication of dynamic balance during gait. Limited and conflicting information exists regarding the effect of walking speed on harmonic ratios, as well as age-related differences. This research extends previous literature by: 1) examining harmonic ratios across a range of self-selected speeds in young adults; 2) comparing harmonic ratios at preferred speed in young adults, healthy 60-year-olds, and healthy 80-year-olds; and 3) comparing harmonic ratios ...


Mediolateral Stability During Gait In People With Parkinson's Disease, Sudeshna Aloke Chatterjee Jan 2010

Mediolateral Stability During Gait In People With Parkinson's Disease, Sudeshna Aloke Chatterjee

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Gait control is a clinical problem in people with Parkinson's disease (PD). Gait variability leading to instability is commonly measured using spatio-temporal variables like step length, step time, step width and cadence. Another measurement that provides information about directional instability is harmonic ratios (HRs). The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between step width and mediolateral stability using HRs in people with Parkinson's disease (n = 19) and age matched controls (n = 19). The participants walked at their preferred pace and then with a wider step width and narrower step width. The results showed that the ...


Hip Muscle Strength And Pelvic Obliquity In Collegiate Females During Walking And Stair Descent Tasks, Kelly Rodriguez Jan 2009

Hip Muscle Strength And Pelvic Obliquity In Collegiate Females During Walking And Stair Descent Tasks, Kelly Rodriguez

University of Kentucky Master's Theses

The goals of the pelvis include maintaining the center of mass of the body, assisting in foot clearance and absorb forces from the lower extremities using muscles and ligaments to stabilize the joint. A better understanding of the influence of muscle strength on controlling pelvic obliquity in a healthy population will help in understanding low back pain and overuse lower extremity injuries. Thirteen females (22 ±2 yrs) participated in isokinetic strength testing of the hip abductors, adductors, internal rotators and external rotators on a Biodex dynamometer. The subjects also underwent gait analysis during self selected pace walking and stair descent ...


Does Practice Of Multi-Directional Stepping With Auditory Stimulation Improve Movement Performance In Patients With Parkinson's Disease, Zahra Kadivar Jan 2009

Does Practice Of Multi-Directional Stepping With Auditory Stimulation Improve Movement Performance In Patients With Parkinson's Disease, Zahra Kadivar

LSU Doctoral Dissertations

Parkinson’s disease (PD) is a debilitating neurodegenerative disorder causing many physical limitations. Rhythmic auditory stimulation (RAS) influences motor complications not alleviated by medicine and has been used to modify straight line walking in this population. However, motor complications are exacerbated during more complex movements including those involving direction changes. Thus immediate RAS effects on direction switch duration (DSD) and other kinematic measures during a multi-directional step task were investigated in PD patients. Long term RAS application was also explored by evaluating functional gait and balance and kinematic step measures before and after 6 weeks of multi-directional stepping either with ...


The Influence Of Peripheral Neuropathy On Walking Kinematics And Physical Function, Bradley Manor Jan 2008

The Influence Of Peripheral Neuropathy On Walking Kinematics And Physical Function, Bradley Manor

LSU Doctoral Dissertations

The 108th Congress (2005) has reported that 20 million U.S. citizens suffer from Peripheral Neuropathy (PN). Characterized by sensory nerve deterioration, PN reduces somatosensation (Padua et al., 2005) and increases the risk of fall-related injury (Richardson et al., 1992). The purpose of this dissertation was to provide insight into 1) the effects of acute loss of foot sole sensation on locomotor system health, 2) the effects of PN on locomotor system health, and 3) the underlying impairments associated with reduced physical function within the older adult and PN populations. Locomotor system health was assessed by the magnitude of stride-to-stride ...