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Feasibility And Efficacy Of A Recess-Based Combined Fitness Intervention On Cognition And Academic Performance In Elementary School Children, Christine St Laurent Jul 2019

Feasibility And Efficacy Of A Recess-Based Combined Fitness Intervention On Cognition And Academic Performance In Elementary School Children, Christine St Laurent

Doctoral Dissertations

Youth physical activity and fitness have been reported to influence cognition and academic related outcomes. Despite the potential benefits of muscular fitness, few intervention studies have examined the impact of an intervention that has incorporated both cardiorespiratory and muscular fitness training on cognition and academic performance in children. Previous studies have mainly been implemented either during the school day or immediately after-school. Although recess may be an ideal time to promote physical activity because it does not compete with other academic demands, it has been an understudied setting. Therefore, the purpose of this dissertation project was to examine the feasibility ...


Differences In Running Mechanics And Tibial Plateau Dimensions Between Overweight/Obese And Healthy Weight Children, Claire Sylvestre Jan 2019

Differences In Running Mechanics And Tibial Plateau Dimensions Between Overweight/Obese And Healthy Weight Children, Claire Sylvestre

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

INTRODUCTION: Overweight and obese (OW/OB) children display increased knee joint loading during running, which may lead to excessive frontal plane motion and moments at the knee joints. The relationship between tibial plateau dimensions and knee vertical loading may explain the loading related injuries OW/OB children experience.
PURPOSE: Compare knee mechanics during running and tibial plateau dimensions between healthy weight (HW) and OW/OB children.
METHODS: Ten HW children and ten OW/OB children aged 9-12 participated in the study. Kinematic and kinetic data were captured as participants ran across a force platform at 3.5m/s. Tibial plateau ...


A Comparison Between The Efficacy Of Traditional Periodization, Undulating Periodization, And Plyometric Training And Their Lasting Effects On Performance Outcomes In Youth Athletes. A Systematic Review And Meta-Analysis, Andre Mcintyre Jan 2019

A Comparison Between The Efficacy Of Traditional Periodization, Undulating Periodization, And Plyometric Training And Their Lasting Effects On Performance Outcomes In Youth Athletes. A Systematic Review And Meta-Analysis, Andre Mcintyre

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Recreational and competitive youth (≤ 16 years old) sport participation over the years has increased in recent years. As a result of increased sport participation an emphasis on sport performance training and more particularly resistance training along with plyometric training have been on the rise. Resistance training and plyometric training can improve sports performance, rehabilitate injuries, prevent injuries, and enhance long-term health in adolescent athletes. Resistance training can be periodized numerous different ways, but the most popular training methods are traditional periodization, undulating periodization, and plyometric training. This systematic review and meta-analysis examined studies that compared traditional periodization, undulating periodization, plyometric ...


Physical Activity Interventions For Children With Down Syndrome: A Synthesis Of The Research Literature, Maleda Funk Dec 2017

Physical Activity Interventions For Children With Down Syndrome: A Synthesis Of The Research Literature, Maleda Funk

Kinesiology, Sport Studies, and Physical Education Synthesis Projects

This synthesis highlights the available physical activity interventions/programs for children with Down syndrome. More specifically, the literature review examined evidence-based research in the areas of dance and movement, balance and stability, two-wheel bicycle, strength and agility and barriers and facilitators. The literature review used peer-reviewed and scholarly articles in order to examine the most effective physical activity intervention/programs for children with Down syndrome. Results showed that all physical activity interventions/programs can be effective for children with Down syndrome, especially when developmentally appropriate modifications and adaptations are incorporated. Dance and movement programs, balance and stability exercises using virtual ...


Children’S Obesogenic Behaviors During Summer Versus School, Keith Brazendale Jan 2017

Children’S Obesogenic Behaviors During Summer Versus School, Keith Brazendale

Theses and Dissertations

Emerging evidence shows children gain 3-5 times the amount of weight and lose cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) during summer compared to the 9-months of the school year. Notably, this trend is more pronounced in children who are already overweight or obese going into summer and/or from low-income ethnic minority households. There is little evidence to investigating the underlying mechanisms driving the pronounced occurrence of these negative health outcomes during summer.

The purpose of this dissertation as a whole was to investigate children’s obesogenic behaviors (physical activity, sedentary/ screen time, sleep, and diet) during summer versus school, and compare any ...


Physical Health And Physical Self-Concept: A Comparison Of Physical Activity Electives At The Middle School Level, Lisa J. Jennings Jan 2017

Physical Health And Physical Self-Concept: A Comparison Of Physical Activity Electives At The Middle School Level, Lisa J. Jennings

Theses and projects

ABSTRACT

Physical Health and Physical Self-Description: A Comparison of Physical Activity Electives at the Middle School Level

Lisa Jennings

Objective: The purpose of this study was to compare traditional physical education with Zumba to determine which method is the most appropriate and beneficial to the psychological development and well-being of children and adolescents, as well as the ability to increase the activity rates and levels in the United States.

Design: Survey/Questionnaire and Observation Experimental

Methods: Participants included a total of 53 students, currently enrolled in one of two PA elective courses, physical education or Zumba dance class. Participants included ...


Feasibility Of A Combined Physical Activity And Sleep Education Intervention For Girls Living In A Low Socioeconomic Status Urban Community, Cory J. Greever Jul 2016

Feasibility Of A Combined Physical Activity And Sleep Education Intervention For Girls Living In A Low Socioeconomic Status Urban Community, Cory J. Greever

Doctoral Dissertations

Declining sleep duration and poor sleep quality is a public health epidemic disproportionately effecting elementary age girls living in low socioeconomic status urban communities. The Girls Dancing and Sleeping for Health (Girls DASH) program was designed to test the feasibility, acceptability, and efficacy of a combined physical activity and sleep education program in this population. In combination with baseline data from a previously conducted intervention in elementary age urban girls living in a low SES community in Springfield, MA, results from a cross-sectional analysis indicated that greater screen time was positively associated with parental reports of child’s sleep quality ...


Rep As A Predictor Of Weight Categories Determined By Anthropometric Measurements, Nicholas Mendola Jan 2016

Rep As A Predictor Of Weight Categories Determined By Anthropometric Measurements, Nicholas Mendola

Williams Honors College, Honors Research Projects

Obesity has become one of the leading public health issues in the world today. An aspect of this issue that must be addressed in order for it to not persist as a problem in the future is the issue of childhood obesity. One of the most common screening methods to determine if a child is classified as overweight or obese is to utilize anthropometric measurements like body mass index, and waist-to-height ratios. Past studies have shown that children who are categorized as overweight or obese can struggle with physical activity and typically have lower fitness levels as their anthropometric measurements ...


Exploring Children’S Physical Activity Levels Through Structure And Measurement, Jessica L. Chandler Jan 2016

Exploring Children’S Physical Activity Levels Through Structure And Measurement, Jessica L. Chandler

Theses and Dissertations

The purpose of this dissertation was twofold: 1) to establish best practices for wrist-based accelerometry for 5-11 year old children and 2) to explore the contribution of activity structure to children’s physical activity (PA) levels.

The purpose of study 1 aimed to determine differences in counts/5second epoch produced by the dominant and non-dominant wrist during seated, sedentary activities in 5-11 year old children and ultimately create a cutpoint threshold to distinguish seated sedentary behavior from light physical activity. 167 children, ages 5-11 years, performed up to 8 sedentary activities for 5 minutes while wearing ActiGraph GT3X+ accelerometers on ...


An Examination Of Children's Active Play Imagery, Danielle C. Tobin Jul 2015

An Examination Of Children's Active Play Imagery, Danielle C. Tobin

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

The general purpose of this dissertation was to examine children’s active play imagery using Self-Determination Theory (Deci & Ryan, 2002) as a theoretical basis. The research was comprised of three studies. Study 1examined how the three types of active play imagery (i.e., fun, capability, and social) were associated with the three basic psychological needs (i.e., autonomy, competence, and relatedness). A total of 253 children aged 7-14 years old completed both the Children’s Active Play Imagery Questionnaire (Cooke et al., 2014) and the Basic Need Satisfaction in Physical Activity (Gray et al., 2009). Capability imagery was found to be positively associated with competence, social imagery was positively associated with relatedness, and fun imagery was positively associated with competence. These findings provided valuable information for Study 2.

Study 2 investigated whether a 6-week imagery intervention could increase active play levels in children 9-11 years old. The study revealed the participants in the imagery group were able to maintain their active play levels (measured by pedometers) throughout the intervention, while the control group significantly decreased their active play levels from baseline to post-intervention. These findings provided support for continuing to pursue this avenue of research and informed Study 3.

Study 3 expanded upon Study 2’s intervention by lengthening the intervention to 18 weeks, having individualized imagery scripts for the participants, and using accelerometers to measure active play. A case study was conducted with two 11 year olds. The results revealed that participant 2 was able to increase her active play levels from baseline to intervention, and maintained those levels in post-intervention. Challenges were seen in regards to wear time for participant 3; however, her subjective measure of active play followed the same pattern as participant 2. The overall findings from this dissertation established that imagery can be a promising avenue for increasing children’s active play levels.


Reimagining Fitness Practice In Schools: An Experimental Study On Self-Perceptions And Motivational Outcomes In Youth, Amanda Beth Mischo Jan 2015

Reimagining Fitness Practice In Schools: An Experimental Study On Self-Perceptions And Motivational Outcomes In Youth, Amanda Beth Mischo

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

BACKGROUND: Physical fitness testing in physical education (PE) is mandatory in several US states, based on the promise that testing will "assist students in establishing lifelong habits of regular physical activity." However, in actuality, the influence of fitness practice for testing, as commonly implemented in schools, on motivational outcomes remains largely unknown. Modifying the experience of fitness practice testing by translating psychological theory into practice may represent untapped potential in the effort to promote physical activity in childhood. Thus, the purpose of the present study is to examine the effect of different structures of fitness practice (traditional versus needs supporting ...


Active Families In The Great Outdoors: A Family-Centered Program To Increase Physical Activity Levels, Perceptions, And Behaviors, Jennifer Irene Flynn Aug 2014

Active Families In The Great Outdoors: A Family-Centered Program To Increase Physical Activity Levels, Perceptions, And Behaviors, Jennifer Irene Flynn

Doctoral Dissertations

Physical activity levels of adults and children are low, and the amount of time children spend being active outdoors is decreasing. Parents play a critical role in developing health behaviors of children and ways to increase physical activity and encourage an active family culture are needed. Promotion of family outdoor physical activity, which includes at least one parent and one child from a home engaging in physical activity together, is understudied. Therefore, the purpose of this dissertation was to 1) describe the type, frequency, and duration of family physical activity, 2) determine whether changes in the duration and number of ...


Play Behaviors And Physical Activity Patterns In Kindergarten Children In A Natural Playground Setting, Anna Rose Mislitskiy May 2014

Play Behaviors And Physical Activity Patterns In Kindergarten Children In A Natural Playground Setting, Anna Rose Mislitskiy

Chancellor’s Honors Program Projects

No abstract provided.


An Exploratory Examination Of Families Engaged In An Adventure Running Kids Program, Heather Isnor Jan 2014

An Exploratory Examination Of Families Engaged In An Adventure Running Kids Program, Heather Isnor

Theses and Dissertations (Comprehensive)

Academics and practitioners have only just begun to delve into the health benefits of outdoor activities in the last few years. In general, the forested settings of these activities have been documented to decrease stress levels, increase recovery rates from disease, and lessen the symptoms of mental illnesses (Kuo & Faber Taylor, 2004). It is believed that the natural environment acts as a setting where humans can engage in physical activity, aesthetic experiences, and social interactions that, in turn, release stress and lead to improved well-being (Bird, 2012). Currently, however, children are experiencing limited exposure to nature and which has been ...


Cardiorespiratory Responses In Healthy-Weight And Obese Women And Children, Elizabeth Ann Easley Jan 2013

Cardiorespiratory Responses In Healthy-Weight And Obese Women And Children, Elizabeth Ann Easley

Theses and Dissertations--Kinesiology and Health Promotion

A criterion method to evaluate cardiorespiratory health is measuring peak oxygen consumption (VO2 peak) from a maximal graded exercise test (GXT). While VO2 peak is a valuable measure, heart rate recovery (HRRec) and endothelial function (EF) also describe cardiorespiratory health and fitness. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether differences exist in VO2 peak, HRRec, and EF between healthy-weight (HW) and obese (OB) women and children and to determine if there were significant correlations among these variables. A total of 60 women and children participated in this study. Anthropometric, body composition, resting heart rate and ...


Classroom Exercise Breaks And Educational Outcomes In Elementary School Students, Erin Kaye Howie Jan 2013

Classroom Exercise Breaks And Educational Outcomes In Elementary School Students, Erin Kaye Howie

Theses and Dissertations

Previous research has shown that physical activity may have beneficial effects on cognitive performance and academic achievement in children, but the optimal type and dose are unknown. Classroom exercise breaks are one type of physical activity opportunity in schools, with the potential to reach a large number of children. The purpose of this dissertation was to describe the prevalence and characteristics of classroom exercise breaks in central South Carolina, and to determine the acute effects of classroom exercise breaks on executive functions, math performance, on-task behavior and affective responses in 9 to 12 year-old children. Additionally, the dissertation examined the ...


School-Based Physical Activity In Children: An Evaluation Of The Daily Physical Activity Program In Ontario Elementary Schools., Ian T. Patton Aug 2012

School-Based Physical Activity In Children: An Evaluation Of The Daily Physical Activity Program In Ontario Elementary Schools., Ian T. Patton

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Ontarioimplemented the Daily Physical Activity program in all elementary schools to counteract the recent decline in children’s physical activity levels. The program mandates that all students in kindergarten to grade 8 are provided with 20 minutes of physical activity every day. The purpose of this thesis was to evaluate the delivery of Daily Physical Activity as well as identify any supports or barriers to program delivery.

Study 1 consisted of a questionnaire investigating the perspectives of the teachers involved in the Daily Physical Activity program. Teachers were questioned about how they implement the DPA program, the supports and barriers ...


Early Child Care And Adiposity At Kindergarten Entry, Jessica D. Mackle Aug 2012

Early Child Care And Adiposity At Kindergarten Entry, Jessica D. Mackle

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

The association between pre-school child care participation and markers of adiposity at kindergarten entry was examined using parent reported previous child care exposure and directly measured body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC) of kindergarten children (N=201; boys=106, girls=95). It was hypothesized that kindergarten children with previous exposure to full-time non-parent child care (FNPC; >20h/week) would have increased risk of overweight/obesity (BMI≥ 85th percentile) and high central adiposity (WC ≥80th percentile) compared to parent care (PC). The data suggest that there was no significant relationship between FNPC (n=112) and risk of ...


Kids Can Bike! A Parks And Recreation Program To Promote Youth Cycling, Jessica Lynn Chandler Aug 2012

Kids Can Bike! A Parks And Recreation Program To Promote Youth Cycling, Jessica Lynn Chandler

Masters Theses

Physical inactivity is a major concern, and is believed to contribute to the high prevalence of childhood obesity in U.S. schoolchildren. To address this problem, the Knoxville Area Coalition on Childhood Obesity launched a ‘Kids Can BIKE!’ program in 2012. The bicycling program is seven weeks long and is designed to increase physical activity, teach safe cycling skills, and explore Knoxville parks and greenways while having fun. The program targeted children in grades 4 and 5 who were already enrolled in an afterschool or summer program. Once a week, the children were transported to a location where they could ...


Effects Of Environment On Children's Motor Scores, Eligibility Status, And Administration Times, Derrick Mittelstadt, Abigail Parker, Kirsten Pickett, Heather Temkin May 2011

Effects Of Environment On Children's Motor Scores, Eligibility Status, And Administration Times, Derrick Mittelstadt, Abigail Parker, Kirsten Pickett, Heather Temkin

UNLV Theses, Dissertations, Professional Papers, and Capstones

Best practices for assessing developmental skills in young children focus on naturalistic observation in everyday settings, but the effects of environment on test scores, eligibility status and administration time have not been explored. The Peabody Developmental Motor Scales-Second Edition (PDMS-2) was administered to 34 children aged 18 to 59 months in natural and pull-out settings. PDMS-2 total, gross, and fine motor quotient (TMQ, GMQ, and FMQ) scores were significantly lower in the natural environment (p’s≤.014). Based on our results, more children would qualify for services when tested in natural environments using TMQ and GMQ scores. It also took ...


Examining Activity Levels And Motor Proficiency: A Comparison Of Children Who Are Overweight And At A Healthy Weight To Their Parents And Peers, Aaron Copeland, Maresa Madsen, Riley Phelps, Brandon Richards May 2011

Examining Activity Levels And Motor Proficiency: A Comparison Of Children Who Are Overweight And At A Healthy Weight To Their Parents And Peers, Aaron Copeland, Maresa Madsen, Riley Phelps, Brandon Richards

UNLV Theses, Dissertations, Professional Papers, and Capstones

Objective: The purpose of this study was to examine relationships and differences between motor proficiency, activity level, and parental activity level in children who are at a healthy weight and children who are overweight or obese.

Methods: Forty-four children (26 children at a healthy weight and 18 children who were overweight or obese) between the ages of 8-16 (BMI: 14.3-43.6 kg/m2) and 36 parents (BMI: 18.1-44.7) participated in this study. Children and parents wore StepWatch activity monitors (SAM) to measure activity levels over a 72 hour period. Tests reflecting several determinants of motor performance were ...


The Effect Of A Physical Education Games Unit On Children’S Participation In Neighborhood Physical Activity, Beth Erin Eddy Jan 2011

The Effect Of A Physical Education Games Unit On Children’S Participation In Neighborhood Physical Activity, Beth Erin Eddy

University of Kentucky Master's Theses

Many strategies to increase children’s physical activity have been studied, noted and implemented. It is important that physical educators realize their role in increasing physical activity both in school and outside of school. In order to promote physical activity outside of school it is important to understand what types of physical activities in which children enjoy participating. This study manipulated specific games taught in physical education classes and then explored how many and what types of these activities were continued in out-of-school free play at home in the children’s neighborhood. The students’ activities increased after the intervention, especially ...


Physical Activity Assessment Under Free-Living Conditions Using Pattern-Recognition Monitors, Miguel Andres Calabro Jan 2011

Physical Activity Assessment Under Free-Living Conditions Using Pattern-Recognition Monitors, Miguel Andres Calabro

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Extensive literature has documented the health benefits of physical activity. Valid, reliable and feasible physical activity assessment tools are necessary to assess the complexity and multidimensionality of physical activity behavior. Pattern-recognition activity monitors that integrate information from multiple sensors appear to be the most promising approach for assessing physical activity under free-living conditions. Previous studies have provided support to the validity of pattern-recognition monitors for assessing the energy cost of activity under-free living conditions in young adults. However, children and older adults present unique measurement challenges for the assessment of physical activity under free-living conditions. The series of studies in ...


Development Of An Exercise Test To Predict Vo2max In Children And Adolescents, Nathan E. Black Apr 2009

Development Of An Exercise Test To Predict Vo2max In Children And Adolescents, Nathan E. Black

Theses and Dissertations

The purpose of this study was to evaluate the use of nonexercise (N-EX) data, specifically, the Perceived Functional Ability (PFA) and Physical Activity Rating (PA-R) questionnaires, with the treadmill walk-jog-run protocol to estimate VO2max in 12 to 17 year old boys and girls. Ninety-one participants (49 males and 42 females) took part in this study. Data were collected via PFA and PA-R questionnaires, a walk-jog-run submaximal treadmill test, and a maximal graded exercise test (GXT). Data collected included gender, age, height, weight, PFA and PA-R scores, heart rate (HR), treadmill speed, maximal treadmill grade, respiratory exchange ratio (RER), rating of ...


Validation Of The Soplay Direct Observation Tool With An Objective Accelerometry-Based Physical Activity Monitor, Pedro Frederico De Saint-Maurice Maduro Jan 2009

Validation Of The Soplay Direct Observation Tool With An Objective Accelerometry-Based Physical Activity Monitor, Pedro Frederico De Saint-Maurice Maduro

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

The System for Observing Play and Leisure Activities (SOPLAY) is a direct observation instrument designed to facilitate observation of groups and environmental contexts. To date, no field-based studies have been done to test validity of SOPLAY using objective criteria. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to test the validity of the SOPLAY with corresponding data from an accelerometry-based activity monitor (Biotrainer pro) in a sample of 9-12 years old children. Methods: Data was collected from 19 different physical activity sessions with a total of 160 children (mean age 10.5y0.8). The SOPLAY direct observation tool and activity monitors ...


Ground Reaction Forces For Children Running In Different Shoes, Dana Forrest Jan 2009

Ground Reaction Forces For Children Running In Different Shoes, Dana Forrest

UNLV Theses, Dissertations, Professional Papers, and Capstones

The purpose of this study was to determine whether certain ground reaction force parameters such as impact force (F1), second maximum force (F2), loading rate, stance time and average vertical ground reaction force (Fzavg) differ when 11-13 year old children run in a neutral shoe (Nike Air Pegasus+ 25) that is either a child or adult style.

Shoes were impact tested in an impact test instrument to determine any performance differences between the two shoes. Next, 10 healthy female subjects aged 12.03 ± 1.14 years with a height of 154.6 ± 4.90 cm and a mass of 46 ...


The Relationship Between Maternal Employment And Children's Physical Activity, Michael Scott Parker Mar 2007

The Relationship Between Maternal Employment And Children's Physical Activity, Michael Scott Parker

Theses and Dissertations

The purpose of this study was to determine children's and parents' activity levels, examine the relationship between mothers' and children's mean step counts, and fathers' and children's mean step counts, and determine if there are differences in physical activity levels among children with mothers who work full time, work part time, or are not employed. Fifty-eight families participated in this 12-day study. Each family member wore a Walk4Life LS 2525 or a Walk4Life LS 2505 pedometer to measure daily step counts. Additionally, all participants completed the pedometer step count logs each night, and parents completed a short ...


The Effect Of Leisure-Based Screen Time On Physical Activity, Mary Dawn Sperry Jul 2005

The Effect Of Leisure-Based Screen Time On Physical Activity, Mary Dawn Sperry

Theses and Dissertations

The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of leisure-based screen time on physical activity. Ninety-four families participated in this six-week study. Each family was randomly assigned to one of three screen time groups: (1) control group (2) 2-hour-limit group or (3) one-hour-limit group. Family members wore a Walk4Life LS 2505® pedometer to measure steps. Daily screen time logs were filled out each night and leisure-based screen time and steps were recorded. Analysis of variance (steps x group) was used to determine differences among the groups. Univariate tests showed there were no significant differences among any of the ...