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Full-Text Articles in Life Sciences

Association Of Dietary Behaviors, Macro-Nutrients And Energy Intake With Body Fat Percentage, Lean Mass, And Bone Mineral Density., Makayla Goggins May 2019

Association Of Dietary Behaviors, Macro-Nutrients And Energy Intake With Body Fat Percentage, Lean Mass, And Bone Mineral Density., Makayla Goggins

Health, Human Performance and Recreation Undergraduate Honors Theses

Background: Due to the obesity epidemic, many studies have compared nutrient intake to human body composition. However, previous studies have not used gold standard measures of body composition in a college population. Purpose: The purpose of this study is to examine how dietary behaviors, overall energy intake, and macronutrient intake are associated with the body composition factors measured in a dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) scan. We hypothesize higher body fat percentage will be associated with higher fat and carbohydrate intake, but not total energy intake. Methodology: This was a cross-sectional study done as part of Exercise is Medicine® On Campus ...


Fitness Vs Fatness And Cardiovascular Health In Adolescents, Ashley E. Hensley May 2019

Fitness Vs Fatness And Cardiovascular Health In Adolescents, Ashley E. Hensley

Health, Human Performance and Recreation Undergraduate Honors Theses

Background: Adolescent obesity has been on the rise with studies showing obesity tracks into adulthood. Obesity is an independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD); CVD is the leading cause of adult death in the U.S. Previous research shows a strong positive relationship between physical activity (PA) and cardiovascular (CV) health even in an obese adult population. Thus, the relationship between adolescent physical fitness and lifetime risk for CVD and all-cause mortality should be investigated. Purpose: The purpose of this study is to determine associations between PA and adiposity with cardiovascular health in obese and non-obese weight adolescents, with ...


Wearable Technology Devices: Heart Rate And Step Count Analysis, Jeffrey Montes May 2019

Wearable Technology Devices: Heart Rate And Step Count Analysis, Jeffrey Montes

UNLV Theses, Dissertations, Professional Papers, and Capstones

The overarching purpose of this dissertation was to evaluate and analyze heart rate and/or step count measurements for six popular wearable technology devices: the Samsung Gear 2, FitBit Surge, Polar A360, Garmin Vivosmart HR+, Leaf Health Tracker, and the Scosche Rhythm+ in four separate conditions: free motion walking, free motion jogging, treadmill walking, and treadmill jogging. The four studies presented here utilized one test design and data collection protocol in which many measurements could be addressed simultaneously. Currently, there is no accepted standardized protocol to evaluate wearable technology devices. The test design utilized for this research series was introduced ...


The Effects Of Different Exercise Regimens On Body Water Compartments In Younger And Older Adults, Lauren Maze Jan 2016

The Effects Of Different Exercise Regimens On Body Water Compartments In Younger And Older Adults, Lauren Maze

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Purpose: The purpose of this study was to analyze existing data and compare the effects of an 8-week intervention of either aerobic exercise, resistance exercise, or a combination of both on changes in total body water (TBW), intracellular (ICW) and extracellular (ECW) water volumes and body composition between groups and compared with a non-exercise control group in younger and older adults.

Methods: 69 pre- or stage-1 hypertensive, overweight or obese, and sedentary adults (age 58 ± 7 y) were randomized to one of three training programs: aerobic (AT), resistance (RT), or a combination of aerobic and resistance (COMB), or a non-exercise ...


A Randomized Controlled Trial To Study The Effects Of Breakfast On Energy Intake, Physical Activity, And Body Fat In Women, Gabrielle Marie Lecheminant Dec 2014

A Randomized Controlled Trial To Study The Effects Of Breakfast On Energy Intake, Physical Activity, And Body Fat In Women, Gabrielle Marie Lecheminant

Theses and Dissertations

PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of eating breakfast on energy intake, physical activity, body weight, and body fat in women who were nonhabitual breakfast eaters over a one-month period. METHODS: We tested 49 premenopausal, nonhabitual breakfast-eating women to compare the effects of eating breakfast versus not eating breakfast. Each participant was randomized to one of two conditions: breakfast or no breakfast. Breakfast eaters were required to eat within an hour and a half of awakening and had to be finished eating their breakfast meal by 8:30 A.M. Non-breakfast eaters were defined as ...


Relationship Of Dna Methylation With Cardiovascular Fitness And Body Composition, Mihaela A. Ciulei Nov 2014

Relationship Of Dna Methylation With Cardiovascular Fitness And Body Composition, Mihaela A. Ciulei

Theses

Global DNA Methylation (GDM), an epigenomic modification has been linked to the development of cardiovascular disease and its risk factors. Our focus was to identify potential relationships between epigenetic alterations and both cardiovascular fitness and body composition measures. Purpose: As increases in aerobic fitness have a beneficial effect on cardiovascular disease, one purpose was to determine if a relationship was evident between global DNA methylation and VO2max. A secondary purpose was to determine if the relationship extends to body composition measured via Dual X-ray Absorbtometry (DXA). Methods: Fifty-two (male n=25, female n=27) subjects provided a blood sample for ...


The Relationship Among Ankle Function, Functional Capacity, And Body Composition To Balance In Geriatric Populations, Joseph Robert Chaney Aug 2013

The Relationship Among Ankle Function, Functional Capacity, And Body Composition To Balance In Geriatric Populations, Joseph Robert Chaney

Theses and Dissertations

The primary purpose of this research study was to identify significant relationships among measures of ankle strength, ankle range of motion, body composition, and functional capacity to balance ability in geriatric populations which may potentially assist in identifying older individuals with increased risk of falling. A battery of five test (ankle strength assessments, ankle range of motion , DXA, functional fitness, and balance) were administered to 20 participants (6 males, 14 females, mean age 69.78 ± 3.98) that had indicated to be at least 65 years of age or older and no history of falls within the previous 12 months ...


Relationship Between Total Body Mass, Fat-Free Mass, Fat Mass, And Bone Mineral Density Of The Hip In Middle-Age Women: The Roles Of Diet, Physical Activity, And Menopause, Elizabeth Reid Fosson Jul 2012

Relationship Between Total Body Mass, Fat-Free Mass, Fat Mass, And Bone Mineral Density Of The Hip In Middle-Age Women: The Roles Of Diet, Physical Activity, And Menopause, Elizabeth Reid Fosson

Theses and Dissertations

Objective: This study was conducted to investigate the relationship between hip bone mineral density (BMD), fat free mass (FFM), fat mass (FM), and total body mass (TBM) and the extent to which these relationships were modified by various confounding factors. The cross-sectional analysis included 262 healthy females (mean age 41.6±3.0 years). Methods: BMD of the hip and body composition were assessed by the Hologic 4500W dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) system. Total and intensity of physical activity (PA) were objectively measured using an Actigraph accelerometer. Dietary calcium and vitamin D from food and beverages, as well as ...


Reliability And Validity Of The Body Caliper To Evaluate Body Composition, Gregory L. Stalker May 2012

Reliability And Validity Of The Body Caliper To Evaluate Body Composition, Gregory L. Stalker

UNLV Theses, Dissertations, Professional Papers, and Capstones

The Body Caliper is a relatively new model of skin–fold caliper (approximately 13 years old) whose reliability and validity has yet to be investigated on an adult population. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to investigate the reliability and validity of the Body Caliper as an instrument and method for evaluating body composition in adults. One hundred adults (62 men, 38 women) aged 18 to 60 years participated in this cross–sectional study. Skin–fold measurements were taken with the Body Caliper using the YMCA protocol, and body density was calculated by the Jackson & Pollock sum–of–3 ...


Intensity Of Physical Activity And Body Composition: A Cross-Sectional Analysis Of Young Adult Women, Pamela Ruth Borup Mar 2012

Intensity Of Physical Activity And Body Composition: A Cross-Sectional Analysis Of Young Adult Women, Pamela Ruth Borup

Theses and Dissertations

Purpose: The purpose of this study was to assess the relationship between intensity of physical activity and body composition in 239 young adult women.

Methods: This study was cross-sectional. Participants were recruited from October 2009 to December 2011 and included women from 36 different states and 6 different countries. Physical activity was objectively measured using accelerometers worn for seven days. Body composition was measured using the BOD POD. Height, weight, and circumferences were assessed.

Results: Participant's mean age was 20.6±1.6 years. Their mean BMI was 22.6±3.0 kg/m2 and mean body fat percentage ...


Measurement Agreement Of Fitnessgram Aerobic Capacity And Body Composition Standards, Katelin Margaret Blasingame Jan 2012

Measurement Agreement Of Fitnessgram Aerobic Capacity And Body Composition Standards, Katelin Margaret Blasingame

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Introduction: FITNESSGRAM is a fitness testing program developed by The Cooper Institute. The FITNESSGRAM program provides two different tests for assessing aerobic capacity (VO2 max), the PACER and the one-mile run. The FITNESSGRAM program also provides two major options for assessing body composition, body fat using skinfold measurements or bioelectrical impedance analyzers (BIA) and body mass index (BMI). Criterion-referenced standards are used in FITNESSGRAM to determine the child's level of fitness compared to the level of fitness needed for good health. New standards were recently developed that classify student's fitness level into 3 zones based on potential risk ...


Effects Of Exercise Training On Fat Oxidation In Untrained Overweight And Obese Females, Kelly Manning Aug 2011

Effects Of Exercise Training On Fat Oxidation In Untrained Overweight And Obese Females, Kelly Manning

Kinesiology Dissertations

This study examined whether a high-intensity interval (IT) or a continuous steady-state (CT) exercise training program had the greatest effect on fat oxidation rates and fat mass loss in a population of untrained overweight and obese females. Thirteen female subjects (VO2peak 30.6 ± 1.29 ml.kg.min-1, BMI 29 ± 0.79, fat mass [FM] 33.3 ± 2.09 kg) were randomly assigned to either a CT (exercise at the relative intensity that elicits the maximal fat oxidation rate [FATmax] ) or an IT (intervals alternating 5 minutes at 40% and 85% VO2peak) training group that exercised ...


The Relationship Between Source Of Self-Esteem And Body Composition In College Women, Breckann Faun Moncur Mar 2011

The Relationship Between Source Of Self-Esteem And Body Composition In College Women, Breckann Faun Moncur

Theses and Dissertations

Purpose: The purpose of the study was to determine the relationship between achievement self-esteem, self acceptance self-esteem and body composition in college women. Methods: One-hundred and fifty eight college women were recruited to participate in the study. Participants were healthy, between the age of 18 and 25 yrs, not taking medication that would alter metabolism, and able to participate in physical activity without restriction. As part of the study the participants filled out the Worth Index, which measured level of self-acceptance and achievement self-esteem. The questionnaire included four subscales: basic human worth, performance factor, personal security and appearance. Body composition ...


The Relationship Between Diet Quality And Body Composition In College Women: A Cross-Sectional Analysis, Annette Elisabeth Perkins Dec 2010

The Relationship Between Diet Quality And Body Composition In College Women: A Cross-Sectional Analysis, Annette Elisabeth Perkins

Theses and Dissertations

Objective. Determine the relationship between dietary quality and body weight/composition in college women. Specific emphasis was made regarding adherence to current MyPyramid guidelines, fruit, vegetable and junk food consumption.

Design/Participants. The study used a cross-sectional design. One hundred and sixty three women were recruited to participate in the study. All participants were university students (20.4 ± 1.6 y). Diet intake was measured using the Dietary History Questionnaire (DHQ) and the Healthy Eating Index (HEI) was calculated to assess diet quality. Body fat percentage was assessed using the Bod Pod and BMI was calculated using height and weight ...


Assessing Body Composition Of Children And Adolescents Using Dexa, Skinfolds, And Electrical Impedance, Angela Mooney Aug 2009

Assessing Body Composition Of Children And Adolescents Using Dexa, Skinfolds, And Electrical Impedance, Angela Mooney

Theses and Dissertations

The purpose of this study was to determine the validity and reliability of four methods of estimating body composition in 331 participants (177 boys, 154 girls) between 12-17 years of age. Percent body fat (%BF) was assessed once on one day using DEXA and twice using the sum of two skinfold (SF) and three bio-electrical impedance analysis (BIA) devices: OMRON hand-to-hand BIA, TANITA 521 foot-to-foot BIA, and TANITA 300A foot-to-foot BIA. The same assessments were repeated on 79 of the participants on a second day. DEXA was used as the criterion method of estimating %BF. The agreement between the estimates ...


Soft Drink Consumption And Changes In Body Composition In 170 Women: A 4-Year Prospective Study, Jared Michael Tucker Jul 2005

Soft Drink Consumption And Changes In Body Composition In 170 Women: A 4-Year Prospective Study, Jared Michael Tucker

Theses and Dissertations

Background: In recent history, there have been significant increases in both soft drink consumption and the prevalence of obesity throughout the developed world. To help curb the obesity epidemic, a better understanding of the behaviors contributing to weight and fat gain is vital.

Objective: To examine the extent to which soft drink consumption is predictive of changes in body composition in middle-aged women over a 4-year period, while statistically controlling for age, energy intake, physical activity, and menopause status.

Design: A prospective cohort design over 48 months with no intervention. Self-reported soft drink consumption was used to predict changes in ...


A Comparison Of The Effects Of Interval Training Vs. Continuous Training On Weight Loss And Body Composition In Obese Pre-Menopausal Women., Jeffrey Warren King May 2001

A Comparison Of The Effects Of Interval Training Vs. Continuous Training On Weight Loss And Body Composition In Obese Pre-Menopausal Women., Jeffrey Warren King

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

The purpose of this study was to investigate the role exercise intensity plays in reducing body weight and percent body fat in overweight women. Subjects were randomized to either a high intensity interval training group (IT) or a lower intensity steady state training group (ST). Each group exercised 3 times per week for 8 weeks and expended 300 kcal per exercise session. VO2max, body composition, and resting metabolic rate (RMR) were measured pre and post training. RMR was measured after exercise at week 2 to see if intensity levels affected RMR. VO2max and body composition improved ...