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Kinesiology

Biomechanics

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Ulnar Collateral Ligament Reconstruction With Traditional Docking Compared To Novel Surgical Techniques, Kayley D. Guy, Brendon P. Mcdermott, Kaitlin Gallagher, Tyrone Washington Dec 2019

Ulnar Collateral Ligament Reconstruction With Traditional Docking Compared To Novel Surgical Techniques, Kayley D. Guy, Brendon P. Mcdermott, Kaitlin Gallagher, Tyrone Washington

Health, Human Performance and Recreation Undergraduate Honors Theses

Background: Ulnar Collateral Ligament Reconstruction (UCLR) is a surgical procedure on one of the main ligaments that provides normal stability for the elbow joint against excessive valgus stress. Damage to this ligament is common in athletes performing overhead throwing activities, primarily baseball players, due to excessive valgus stress during the throwing motion. The most common form of treatment for this type of injury is reconstructive surgery of the ligament, especially if athletes wish to return to sport participation. This type of surgery is extremely invasive and requires extensive post-operative rehabilitation in order to facilitate return to play. To date, many ...


Quantitative Analysis Of The Kinematics Of The Foot During Gait With Respect To Barefoot Running Shoes Using A Multi-Segment Foot Model, Lisa Y. Oikawa Jul 2019

Quantitative Analysis Of The Kinematics Of The Foot During Gait With Respect To Barefoot Running Shoes Using A Multi-Segment Foot Model, Lisa Y. Oikawa

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Kinematics of the foot during static and dynamic tasks are technically challenging to accurately measure, making it difficult to evaluate their contribution to running-related injuries. Motion capture can detect changes in running mechanics, such as with differing footwear. Habitual barefoot runners and/habitual minimalist shoe runners underwent a biomechanical evaluation of their foot movement during running using reflective markers and optical motion capture. A five-segment foot model was used to compare motions between the different parts of the foot while running barefoot and wearing Vibram Five Fingers™ (VFF) barefoot mimicking shoes. Supination/pronation in the forefoot was larger but not ...


Metabolic Cost And Stability Of Locomotion In People With Lower Limb Amputation, Ryan Wedge Jul 2019

Metabolic Cost And Stability Of Locomotion In People With Lower Limb Amputation, Ryan Wedge

Doctoral Dissertations

It is generally accepted that metabolic energy expenditure and gait stability are key factors that influence the selection of able-bodied locomotor patterns. It is unclear how energy expenditure and gait stability are prioritized during walking in people with lower limb amputation. People with lower limb amputation generally have greater metabolic energy expenditure during walking and increased incidence of falls. People with unilateral lower limb amputation spend more time on the intact limb compared with the prosthetic limb, while able-bodied individuals generally walk with symmetrical timing between limbs. Restoring symmetry is often a goal of rehabilitation and assistive devices, yet the ...


Improved Orthopaedic Repairs Through Mechanically Optimized, Adhesive Biomaterials, Stephen Wheeler Linderman May 2019

Improved Orthopaedic Repairs Through Mechanically Optimized, Adhesive Biomaterials, Stephen Wheeler Linderman

Engineering and Applied Science Theses & Dissertations

Despite countless surgical advances over the last several decades refining surgical approaches, repair techniques, and tools to treat tendon and tendon-to-bone injuries, we are still left with repair solutions that rely on fairly crude underlying mechanical principles. Musculoskeletal soft tissues have evolved to transfer high loads by optimizing stress distribution profiles across the tissue at each length scale. However, instead of mimicking these natural load transfer mechanisms, conventional suture approaches are limited by high load transfer across only a small number of anchor points within tissue. This leads to stress concentrations at anchor points that often cause repair failure as ...


An Investigation Of The Biomechanics Of Kinesiology Tape, Jessa Ward Apr 2019

An Investigation Of The Biomechanics Of Kinesiology Tape, Jessa Ward

Graduate Theses - Biology & Biomedical Engineering

Kinesiology tape has grown in popularity since its widespread use at the 2012 and 2016 Olympic Games. Manufacturers of these colorful tapes have advertised biomechanical benefits for athletes, including pain relief and muscle support, without much quantitative evidence to support these claims. The purpose of this research study was to evaluate the biomechanical aspects of kinesiology tape and how it affects subjects’ muscle activity. This research study evaluated the muscle activity of subjects’ low back before and after tape application during targeted, bodyweight exercises. Each subject’s muscle activity, measured through electromyography (EMG), was normalized and assessed using nonparametric statistical ...


Effects Of A Postural Restoration Focused Intervention On Muscle Activation During Deadlifts, Caleb Richardson Apr 2019

Effects Of A Postural Restoration Focused Intervention On Muscle Activation During Deadlifts, Caleb Richardson

Human Movement Sciences Theses & Dissertations

The purpose of this study was to determine the efficacy of implementing two Postural Restoration exercises and relating principles on deadlifts using a hexagonal barbell. Specifically, we aimed to examine the effects of the intervention on muscle activation and the location of the ground reaction force (GRF) center of pressure. Sixteen subjects (age 18-35 yrs.; male (n=14); female (n=2)), with at least 1 year of deadlifting experience, were randomly assigned into a control and intervention group (both n=8). Both groups performed two sets of three repetitions of deadlifts at 50% and at 80% of their estimated one ...


Ankle-Knee Initial Contact Angle And Latency Period To Maximum Angle Are Affected By Prolonged Run, Sydni Wilhoite Ms Jan 2019

Ankle-Knee Initial Contact Angle And Latency Period To Maximum Angle Are Affected By Prolonged Run, Sydni Wilhoite Ms

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

INTRODUCTION: The angle experienced at initial contact and midstance have been suggested to influence the risk of injury. Previous literature has not assessed these angles under the influence of novel footwear for a non-exhaustive prolonged run or the relationship between the angles. PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to assess the change of lower extremity kinematic parameters and the relationship between kinematic parameters at initial contact and midstance with prolonged running under the influence of different types of footwear. METHODS: The participants included 12 experienced, recreational runners (6 male; 6 female; 24.8 ± 8.4 years; 70.5 ± 9 ...


Performance Impact Of Different Lower-Limb Setup Positions In The Backstroke Swimming Start, Gordon E. Barkwell Aug 2018

Performance Impact Of Different Lower-Limb Setup Positions In The Backstroke Swimming Start, Gordon E. Barkwell

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

The performance impact of different knee extension angles in the setup position for a backstroke start was evaluated using an instrumented starting surface. Ten backstroke swimmers completed maximum-effort starts in each of two setup positions: one with the knees flexed, and one with the knees extended. The start handles and touchpad were instrumented with tri-axial force plates. Activity of major hip and knee extensors was measured using surface electromyography. Body position was recorded throughout the start using two high-speed cameras. There was no difference in time to 10 m between the two conditions, indicating there is likely no advantage in ...


Motor Variability In Rowing, Maude Potvin-Gilbert Aug 2018

Motor Variability In Rowing, Maude Potvin-Gilbert

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

The aim of the study was to analyze the impact of environment, intensity and distance rowed on temporal variability of strokes and on knee angle variability. 11 participants rowed 2,000 m at high and low intensities on an ergometer and at high intensity in a single on-water. Data were collected at the beginning and at the end of each exercise. All the factors influenced significantly the temporal variability (respectively beta=-0.013 and p .007=; beta= 0.007 and p=.021; beta=0.06 and p=.028). The difference of visual information and the need of the rower to ...


Does Restricting Anterior Movement Of The Knees During A Barbell Back Squat Alter Lower Extremity Biomechanics?, Lucy Hayward Koshewa Aug 2018

Does Restricting Anterior Movement Of The Knees During A Barbell Back Squat Alter Lower Extremity Biomechanics?, Lucy Hayward Koshewa

Theses and Dissertations

INTRODUCTION: The strength implications of the barbell back squat make it ideal for use in training programs, rehabilitation, and competition. Even though the back squat is an integral part of these programs, there are also concerns about injury risk due to improper biomechanics. Restricted squats (knees kept behind the toes) are noted to reduce joint loading at the knees but may not take into account added potential risks for the entire lower extremity. Unrestricted squats are more representative of natural movement patterns but may increase joint loading especially at the knees. Research has explored the biomechanics of back squats in ...


Digging Biomechanics In Geomyoid Rodents, Alexis Moore Crisp May 2018

Digging Biomechanics In Geomyoid Rodents, Alexis Moore Crisp

UNLV Theses, Dissertations, Professional Papers, and Capstones

Subterranean digging behaviors provide opportunities for protection, access to prey, and predator avoidance for a diverse array of vertebrates, yet studies of the biomechanics of burrowing have been limited by the technical challenges of measuring kinetics and kinematics of animals moving within a substrate. Prior studies of burrowing have recorded a single axis of x-ray video and/or force. However, empirical observations show that burrowing is not restricted to a single axis or plane. I describe a new system called a ‘tunnel-tube’ for measuring 3D reaction force during burrowing. This tunnel-tube has two separate tubes, one ‘entry tube’ that has ...


The Impact Of Upc Placement On The Biomechanical Injury Risk Factors Associated With Cashier Work, Marcus Payne May 2018

The Impact Of Upc Placement On The Biomechanical Injury Risk Factors Associated With Cashier Work, Marcus Payne

Theses and Dissertations

The purpose of this study was to investigate the impact of UPC placement on upper-body kinematics and muscle activity associated with cashier work. Seventeen female participants who had worked at least 1000 hours as a cashier and did not meet any exclusion criteria were recruited. Multi-sided UPC items, which included extra and/or larger barcodes, were compared to items with a traditional UPC placement. Two mock carts of eighteen items were scanned for each UPC type. Electromyography was applied bilaterally to the biceps brachii, middle deltoid, flexor digitorum superficialis, and upper trapezius muscles. Cumulative and peak muscle activity were calculated ...


The Effects Of Running Speed, Form, And Fatigue On Intervertebral Disc Pressures At L5/S1: A Developmental Musculoskeletal And Finite Element Modeling Approach, Jeffrey Ray Mcclellan Jan 2018

The Effects Of Running Speed, Form, And Fatigue On Intervertebral Disc Pressures At L5/S1: A Developmental Musculoskeletal And Finite Element Modeling Approach, Jeffrey Ray Mcclellan

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

The occurrence of low back pain in society is a widespread and costly problem, while running is an accessible and common form of physical exercise. The intervertebral disc is a commonly studied location of interest within the low back, however limited research has been performed attempting to assess the risks or benefits associated with running on the health of the intervertebral disc, with zero research which estimates in-vivo loading on the intervertebral disc during running. Meanwhile, the available literature is not in agreement on whether running poses more of a risk or a benefit to intervertebral disc health, with some ...


Muscle Activation Analysis With Kinematic Comparison Between Wind-Up And Stretch Pitching With Respect To The Upper And Lower Extremities, Megan M. Smidebush Jan 2018

Muscle Activation Analysis With Kinematic Comparison Between Wind-Up And Stretch Pitching With Respect To The Upper And Lower Extremities, Megan M. Smidebush

Theses and Dissertations--Kinesiology and Health Promotion

Introduction: Baseball pitching is considered one of the most intense aspects within the game of baseball, as well as the most complicated dynamic throwing task in all of sports. The biomechanics of pitching have been heavily investigated in an attempt to identify optimal pitching mechanics in terms of pitching performance. Previous quantified upper body kinetics research has concluded that improved muscle strength is needed in attempting to achieve adequate upper body kinetics and efficient pitching performances. Therefore, it is the purpose of this research study to compare the lower extremity muscle and upper extremity muscle activation patterns and kinematic variables ...


Biomechanical Analysis Of Bovine Lamina, Ray Jeffrey Lee Jan 2018

Biomechanical Analysis Of Bovine Lamina, Ray Jeffrey Lee

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Bovine lameness is an economic drain on producers and is a welfare issue. There are many causes of lameness; however, most causes involve the hoof. One of the supporting structures of the hoof is the interface between the hard epidermal layer and the sensitive dermal layer and is referred to as the lamina. Lamina consist of leaflets of tissue that interdigitate with one another to allow for constant renewal and remodeling of these hoof attachments. Systemic or traumatic insults can compromise the integrity of the lamina and may result in reduced ambulatory capabilities of the animal, pain, and a myriad ...


Development And Utilization Of Ultrasound Imaging Techniques To Evaluate The Role Of Vascularity In Adult And Aged Rat Achilles Tendon Healing, Corinne Nicole Riggin Jan 2018

Development And Utilization Of Ultrasound Imaging Techniques To Evaluate The Role Of Vascularity In Adult And Aged Rat Achilles Tendon Healing, Corinne Nicole Riggin

Publicly Accessible Penn Dissertations

Tendons are hypovascular tissues, undergoing angiogenesis only during development, wound healing, and pathogenesis. Injured tendons exhibit a healing response with vascular ingrowth during the proliferative phase and vascular regression during remodeling. Despite this normal healing response, tendons never fully regain their original structure or composition. Additionally, aging further increases tendon risk of rupture and impairs healing response. Since the optimal vascularization level and timing during tendon healing is currently unknown, modulating the vascular response during healing could elucidate the role of angiogenesis in tendon injury and ultimately improve the tendon healing outcome. Furthermore, new ultrasound technologies allow for the evaluation ...


Predictive Modeling Of Hip Dislocation: Assessment Of Surgical And Patient Factors To Reduce The Occurrence Of Hip Instability And Adverse Clinical Outcomes, Daniel N. Huff Jan 2018

Predictive Modeling Of Hip Dislocation: Assessment Of Surgical And Patient Factors To Reduce The Occurrence Of Hip Instability And Adverse Clinical Outcomes, Daniel N. Huff

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Instability and dislocation remain leading indications for revision of primary Total Hip Arthroplasty (THA). Many studies have addressed the links between implant design and propensity for dislocation, however a comprehensive review of the ability of modern THA constructs to protect against joint instability is needed.

Accordingly, the objective of this study is to provide objective data about THA risks to be considered in the treatment algorithm to protect against adverse joint loading conditions and joint instability. Adverse loading conditions were assessed in a population of activities of daily living using data from telemetric hip implant representation in an FE simulation ...


Characterizing Anisotropy In Fibrous Soft Materials By Mr Elastography Of Slow And Fast Shear Waves, John Larson Schmidt Dec 2017

Characterizing Anisotropy In Fibrous Soft Materials By Mr Elastography Of Slow And Fast Shear Waves, John Larson Schmidt

Engineering and Applied Science Theses & Dissertations

The general objective of this work was to develop experimental methods based on magnetic resonance elastography (MRE) to characterize fibrous soft materials. Mathematical models of tissue biomechanics capable of predicting injury, such as traumatic brain injury (TBI), are of great interest and potential. However, the accuracy of predictions from such models depends on accuracy of the underlying material parameters. This dissertation describes work toward three aims. First, experimental methods were designed to characterize fibrous materials based on a transversely isotropic material model. Second, these methods are applied to characterize the anisotropic properties of white matter brain tissue ex vivo. Third ...


Rehabilitating Asymmetric Gait Using Asymmetry, Tyagi Ramakrishnan Nov 2017

Rehabilitating Asymmetric Gait Using Asymmetry, Tyagi Ramakrishnan

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Human gait is a complex process that involves the coordination of the central nervous and muscular systems. A disruption to the either system results in the impairment of a person’s ability to walk. Impairments can be caused by neurological disorders such as stroke and physical conditions like amputation. There is not a standardized method to quantitatively assess the gait asymmetry of affected subjects. The purpose of this research is to understand the fundamental aspects of asymmetrical effects on the human body and improve rehabilitation techniques and devices. This research takes an interdisciplinary approach to address the limitations with current ...


The Influence Of Crossfit Training On Running Mechanics, Sophia D. Bradley Aug 2017

The Influence Of Crossfit Training On Running Mechanics, Sophia D. Bradley

UNLV Theses, Dissertations, Professional Papers, and Capstones

Introduction

40 million Americans run regularly.1 Contrary to many runner’s beliefs, increased strength may be beneficial while not adding body mass. An increase in strength in specific muscles may improve running gait and performance. 9,6 Strength training may also play an important role in preventing common overuse injuries in running 11,12 Depending on the style of strength training, it may also have an enhanced benefit on running economy.4,16

Participation in CrossFit is also widely popular, with an increase in participation of 923% in the past ten years.2 CrossFit is a type of strength ...


The Development Of A Platform Interface With The Use Of Virtual Reality To Enhance Upper-Extremity Prosthetic Training And Rehabilitation, Ashley D. Knight Jun 2017

The Development Of A Platform Interface With The Use Of Virtual Reality To Enhance Upper-Extremity Prosthetic Training And Rehabilitation, Ashley D. Knight

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

This dissertation focuses on the investigation and development of an effective prosthetic training and rehabilitation platform with the use of virtual reality to facilitate an effective process to return amputees to the highest level of independence and functioning possible.

It has been reported that approximately 10 million people live with a limb loss worldwide, with around 30% being an upper-extremity amputee. The sudden loss of a hand or arm causes the loss of fine, coordinated movements, reduced joint range of motion (ROM), proprioceptive feedback and aesthetic appearance, all which can be improved with the use of a prosthesis and proper ...


Cognitive Contributions To Anterior Cruciate Ligament Injury Risk, Thomas Gus Almonroeder May 2017

Cognitive Contributions To Anterior Cruciate Ligament Injury Risk, Thomas Gus Almonroeder

Theses and Dissertations

The purpose of this dissertation was to explore how cognitive factors contribute to non-contact anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury risk in young females. We specifically wanted to develop a better understanding of how the movement patterns of females with varying cognitive attributes/abilities are influenced as the cognitive demands associated with a task progress (Chapter 2). We also wanted to explore how task-related cognitive demands influence movement. We altered the cognitive demands associated with a movement task by requiring participants to execute a maneuver while attending to a simulated teammate (Chapter 3) or to a ball overhead (Chapters 4 & 5 ...


Stride Leg Ground Reaction Forces Pre- And Post-Fatigue In Collegiate Baseball Pitchers, Courtney Alley May 2017

Stride Leg Ground Reaction Forces Pre- And Post-Fatigue In Collegiate Baseball Pitchers, Courtney Alley

UNLV Theses, Dissertations, Professional Papers, and Capstones

Context: Baseball pitching requires the coordination of the lower and upper extremities to effectively generate and transfer force to the ball. High-velocity pitchers have been found to have significantly greater stride leg force generation than low-velocity pitchers. The influence of stride leg fatigue on pitching has yet to be investigated. Objective: The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of stride leg fatigue on peak vertical ground reaction forces (vGRFs) and hand velocity. Design: Pretest-posttest. Setting: Biomechanics laboratory. Patients or Other Participants: A convenience sample of 11 collegiate baseball pitchers (19.27 ± 0.64 years old; 85.88 ...


Effects Of Synthetic Turf Systems With And Without A Shock Pad On Lower Extremity Biomechanics During A 90° Cutting Movement With Differing Approach Velocities, Thomas Kenneth Elvidge May 2017

Effects Of Synthetic Turf Systems With And Without A Shock Pad On Lower Extremity Biomechanics During A 90° Cutting Movement With Differing Approach Velocities, Thomas Kenneth Elvidge

Masters Theses

The purpose of this study was to examine differences in lower extremity kinematics and kinetics on two different synthetic turf systems (turf only and turf with a shock pad) for two approach velocities (3.0 and 4.0 m/s) during a 90° cutting movement. Twelve recreational male American football and soccer players were recruited to perform five trials for each of the four conditions. A three-dimensional motion analysis system synchronized to a force platform was used to collect marker coordinate and ground reaction force (GRF) data respectively. A 2 x 2 (surface x approach velocity) ANOVA was used to ...


Differences In The Muscle Activity For Baseball Hitters Of Varying Skill, Ethan M. Stewart Jan 2017

Differences In The Muscle Activity For Baseball Hitters Of Varying Skill, Ethan M. Stewart

Theses and Dissertations--Kinesiology and Health Promotion

INTRODUCTION: Muscle activity and timing of the swing phases may contribute to the differences we see in athletes at different skill levels. The purpose of this study is to analyze the differences between mean muscle activity, peak muscle active and time to peak muscle activity for select muscles in the lower extremity as well as the differences between start times for swing phases and bat velocity prior to impact for a skilled and recreational group. METHODS: Twelve healthy subjects were split into two groups based on competitive level and analyzed hitting off of a tee. RESULTS: No significant differences were ...


The Effects Of A 12-Week Custom Foot Orthotic Intervention On The Intrinsic Muscles Of The Foot, And Dynamic Stability During Unexpected Gait Termination In Healthy Young Adults, Katrina Protopapas Jan 2017

The Effects Of A 12-Week Custom Foot Orthotic Intervention On The Intrinsic Muscles Of The Foot, And Dynamic Stability During Unexpected Gait Termination In Healthy Young Adults, Katrina Protopapas

Theses and Dissertations (Comprehensive)

Introduction: Custom-made foot orthotics (CFO’s) are a commonly prescribed intervention to help individuals that are suffering from foot pain and foot disorders. However, the mechanisms of CFO’s are still poorly understood and are not well known. With the plantar intrinsic muscles of the foot being in direct contact with the CFO, it puts these structures at risk for disuse muscle atrophy as a result of being offloaded. Therefore, the purpose of the current study was to determine the effect of a 12-week custom-made foot orthotic intervention on the intrinsic muscles of the foot and dynamic stability during unexpected ...


The Effect Of Delayed Onset Muscle Soreness On Jumping Mechanics And Performance, Ryan J. Engels Jan 2017

The Effect Of Delayed Onset Muscle Soreness On Jumping Mechanics And Performance, Ryan J. Engels

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Background: Delayed onset muscle soreness (DOMS) is an exercise-induced muscle soreness resulting from high-intensity eccentric muscular contractions. DOMS appears to be more prevalent in athletes at the beginning of an athletic season or when new movements or exercise are first introduced. The acute effect of DOMS on jumping mechanics is currently unknown. PURPOSE: The purpose of this study is to determine the effect of delayed onset muscle soreness on vertical jump performance and jumping mechanics. METHODS: Twenty college aged, recreationally active males participated in this study (age: 21.54 ± 2.61; height: 1.82 ± 0.067; mass: 81.36 ± 9 ...


An Investigation Of The Relationship Between Intervertebral Disc Puncture, Inflammation, And Tissue Mechanics Using A Rat-Tail Model., Brigitte Laird Jan 2017

An Investigation Of The Relationship Between Intervertebral Disc Puncture, Inflammation, And Tissue Mechanics Using A Rat-Tail Model., Brigitte Laird

Theses and Dissertations (Comprehensive)

Introduction: The intervertebral disc (IVD) is composed of the annulus fibrosus (AF), which surrounds and contains the nucleus pulposus (NP). It is hypothesized that when the IVD becomes injured, in the case of IVD herniation, a localized innate immune response is initiated. Although the presence of pro-inflammatory cytokines in injured IVDs has been well documented, the extent to which inflammation affects the mechanical properties of the IVD remains poorly understood. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of IVD damage (via puncture) and inflammation (via lipopolysaccharide (LPS) exposure) on the mechanical and structural properties of the IVD ...


Multiscale Mechanical, Structural, And Compositional Response Of Tendon To Static And Dynamic Loading During Healing, Benjamin Freedman Jan 2017

Multiscale Mechanical, Structural, And Compositional Response Of Tendon To Static And Dynamic Loading During Healing, Benjamin Freedman

Publicly Accessible Penn Dissertations

The extracellular matrix (ECM) is a major component of the biomechanical environment with which tendon cells (tenocytes) interact. Alterations to matrix structural and mechanical properties due to mechanical loading may promote normal tendon homeostasis or create pathological conditions. For example, fatigue loading of tendon elevates collagen fiber waviness (crimp), which correlates linearly with tissue laxity. The tendon ECM may also be altered following tendon injury. Aberrant tissue phenotypes caused by tendon ruptures are exemplified not only at transcript and protein levels, but also can extend to include disorganized collagen structure, inferior mechanical properties, and reduced in vivo limb function in ...


The Effects Of An Inclined And Declined Slope On Backward Locomotion: A Kinematic And Electromyographic Analysis Of Retrowalking, Song Dan Vo Dec 2016

The Effects Of An Inclined And Declined Slope On Backward Locomotion: A Kinematic And Electromyographic Analysis Of Retrowalking, Song Dan Vo

UNLV Theses, Dissertations, Professional Papers, and Capstones

The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of an inclined and declined slopeon kinematic properties and muscle activation magnitudes. This purpose was achieved by using a +10% grade for inclined backward walking (IBW) and -10% grade for declined backwardwalking (DBW) on a treadmill. Eleven participants (24.6 ± 4.1 yrs, 68.5 ± 14.6 kg, 1.7 ± 0.1 m) were recruited from the UNLV student body and were subject to a three day adaptation protocol to allow them to choose a preferred walking speed and to familiarize themselves with such a novel task. Two consecutive practice ...