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Does Acute Preprandial Exercise Modify Postprandial Inflammation After A High Fat Meal In Young And Older Adults?, William Wisseman Aug 2019

Does Acute Preprandial Exercise Modify Postprandial Inflammation After A High Fat Meal In Young And Older Adults?, William Wisseman

Masters Theses

A single high-fat meal (HFM) can increase systemic inflammation (postprandial inflammation; PPI) and may be attenuated by recent exercise. However, the effect of preprandial exercise on PPI in older adults (OA) is not clear. Purpose: To determine if preprandial exercise attenuates PPI in YA and OA. Methods: 12 YA (23.3±3.9 years n= 5 M/7 F) and 12 OA (67.7±6 years, n= 8 M/4 F) completed two HFM challenges in a randomized order. During HFM alone, participants abstained from exercise 48 hours prior to the HFM session (except for the exercise session) and adhered ...


Replacing Sedentary Behavior With A Light Intensity Physical Activity In The Homes Of Older Adults, Nicholas Louis Lerma Aug 2018

Replacing Sedentary Behavior With A Light Intensity Physical Activity In The Homes Of Older Adults, Nicholas Louis Lerma

Theses and Dissertations

Aging is positively correlated with time spent in sedentary behavior (SB), which has been found to be linked to premature mortality, cardiovascular disease risk, and functional limitations. Moderate-to-vigorous-intensity physical activity (MVPA) is a potent stimulus for preventing and improving functional limitations in older adults, but less than 17% of the older adult population meets the recommended PA guidelines. While increased time spent in SB is detrimental to health in all, the impact among those that are physically inactive appear to be most pronounced. Recent evidence suggests increasing light-intensity physical activity (LPA) in these populations may provide health benefits and could ...


Body Composition, Muscular Performance, And Free Testosterone Following 12-Weeks Of Protein Supplementation And Resistance Training In Men Aged 35-55, Matthew Steven Stone Aug 2018

Body Composition, Muscular Performance, And Free Testosterone Following 12-Weeks Of Protein Supplementation And Resistance Training In Men Aged 35-55, Matthew Steven Stone

Theses and Dissertations

PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of 12 weeks of protein supplementation and Autoregulatory Progressive Resistance Exercise (APRE) training on measures of body composition, muscular performance, and free testosterone in middle-aged men. METHODS: Untrained males (n = 35; 43.3 ± 6.6 years) participated in this study. Lean mass (LM) and fat mass (FM) were measured via Dual Energy X-ray Absorptiometry (DEXA), while strength was measured utilizing one repetition maximum (1RM), endurance measured using maximum repetitions completed (REPS) at 75% 1RM for the bench and leg press, and free testosterone was measured using changes in serum ...


Physical Activity And Sarcopenia In Older Adults, Nathan Frederick Meier Jan 2018

Physical Activity And Sarcopenia In Older Adults, Nathan Frederick Meier

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

The aging process is typically associated with loss of muscle mass, strength, and function. At a certain threshold, low levels of muscle mass, strength, and function are considered a disease called sarcopenia, which is associated with increased risk of falls, loss of independence, mobility issues, and mortality. Evidence suggests some of the risk factors for sarcopenia, such as sedentary lifestyle, low physical activity, bedrest, chronic disease, certain drug treatments, malnutrition, anabolic resistance, intermuscular adipose tissue infiltration, and decreased neuromuscular activation, are modifiable. Also, both the prevention and treatment of sarcopenia call for prescription of physical activity. Therefore, the overall interest ...


Development And Utilization Of Ultrasound Imaging Techniques To Evaluate The Role Of Vascularity In Adult And Aged Rat Achilles Tendon Healing, Corinne Nicole Riggin Jan 2018

Development And Utilization Of Ultrasound Imaging Techniques To Evaluate The Role Of Vascularity In Adult And Aged Rat Achilles Tendon Healing, Corinne Nicole Riggin

Publicly Accessible Penn Dissertations

Tendons are hypovascular tissues, undergoing angiogenesis only during development, wound healing, and pathogenesis. Injured tendons exhibit a healing response with vascular ingrowth during the proliferative phase and vascular regression during remodeling. Despite this normal healing response, tendons never fully regain their original structure or composition. Additionally, aging further increases tendon risk of rupture and impairs healing response. Since the optimal vascularization level and timing during tendon healing is currently unknown, modulating the vascular response during healing could elucidate the role of angiogenesis in tendon injury and ultimately improve the tendon healing outcome. Furthermore, new ultrasound technologies allow for the evaluation ...


Investigation Of Neural Mechanisms Of Grip Relaxation, Binal Motawar May 2016

Investigation Of Neural Mechanisms Of Grip Relaxation, Binal Motawar

Theses and Dissertations

Neural mechanisms for grip relaxation are relatively unknown and understudied, as compared to mechanisms for grip initiation. Yet, termination of motor activity is as important as initiation in daily function. This knowledge gap presents incomplete understanding of neural control of hand function and its impairment with aging and neurologic disorders. The purpose of this dissertation was to identify and examine neural mechanisms of grip relaxation in healthy young adults, with aging, and in chronic stroke survivors. A series of experiments in healthy young adults showed that the relaxation from a maximum power grip was mediated by increase in the short-interval ...


The Effect Of A Combined Multiple-Modality Exercise Intervention On Sensorimotor Function In Community Dwelling Older Adults, With A Subjective Cognitive Complaint: The M4 Study (Multi-Modal; Mind Motor), Sam Titheridge Oct 2015

The Effect Of A Combined Multiple-Modality Exercise Intervention On Sensorimotor Function In Community Dwelling Older Adults, With A Subjective Cognitive Complaint: The M4 Study (Multi-Modal; Mind Motor), Sam Titheridge

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Aging is associated with the increased onset of diseases such as cognitive impairment, and ultimately dementia. Participants, 55+ years, with a self-reported cognitive complaint completed a 6-month exercise intervention. They were randomized to either a multiple modality exercise program (M2), consisting of aerobic, stretching and balancing exercises or a multiple modality plus mind motor program (M4), whereby a square stepping exercise was incorporated. Participants were assessed for reaction time (RT), movement time (MT) and % errors at baseline and at 6-months using an eye tracking 1000 system. Participants performed prosaccades and antisaccades (AS). AS RT was significantly quicker from baseline – 6-months ...


Individual, Occupational And Biomechanical Factors That Affect Slip And Fall Risk From Fixed Ladders, Erika Mae Pliner Aug 2015

Individual, Occupational And Biomechanical Factors That Affect Slip And Fall Risk From Fixed Ladders, Erika Mae Pliner

Theses and Dissertations

Injuries from ladder falls are prevalent and severe. Previous research has examined certain elements of ladder falls such as the ladder base slipping, but few studies have examined the factors that contribute to climbers falling from the ladder, particularly for permanent/fixed ladders. In addition, the biomechanical response to a ladder slip/misstep during ladder climbing and the factors that affect a fall from a ladder are not well understood. This thesis is a two part study that simulated ladder slips and missteps in order to find factors 1) associated with ladder slip risk and 2) that decrease fall severity ...


The Effects Of A Multiple-Modality Mind-Motor Program On Vascular Outcomes In Community-Dwelling Older Adults With Subjective Cognitive Complaints, Amanda M. Deosaran Jul 2015

The Effects Of A Multiple-Modality Mind-Motor Program On Vascular Outcomes In Community-Dwelling Older Adults With Subjective Cognitive Complaints, Amanda M. Deosaran

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Studies have found a link between cardiovascular risk factors (CVRFs) and Alzheimer’s disease however; the mechanism by which CVRFs increase the risk of cognitive decline is not fully understood. The current study attempts to improve CVRFs in order to enhance cognition in older adults. Primary outcomes include ambulatory and clinical resting systolic and diastolic blood pressure (SBP; DBP). In total, 89 community-dwelling older adults with subjective cognitive complaints were randomized to either a multiple-modality mind-motor (M4) exercise or a multiple-modality (M2) exercise only. Significance was found in nighttime peak SBP (6.55 mmHg, p=.04) between groups, with a ...


The Longitudinal Effects Of Beta-Alanine Supplementation On Isometric Strength, Time To Exhaustion, And Lower-Body Isometric Torque In Female Masters Athlete Cyclists, Jordan Mckenzie Glenn Jul 2015

The Longitudinal Effects Of Beta-Alanine Supplementation On Isometric Strength, Time To Exhaustion, And Lower-Body Isometric Torque In Female Masters Athlete Cyclists, Jordan Mckenzie Glenn

Theses and Dissertations

Within the population of aging individuals exists a subset of competitive seniors or masters athletes (MA). As masters-level competition increases in popularity, MA must find methods to enhance individual athletic performance. Beta-alanine (BA) is an amino acid used to enhance physical capability based on ability increase intramuscular carnosine concentrations. Older adults and females have naturally lower carnosine levels compared to age- and gender-matched counterparts and may experience enhanced benefits from BA supplementation. Purpose: Therefore, the purpose of this investigation was to examine the longitudinal effects of BA supplementation on isometric handgrip strength (HG), time to exhaustion (TTE), total work completed ...


The Effects Of 12 Weeks Of Instructor-Led Yoga Classes On Balance In Older Adults, Patricia C. Hart Apr 2015

The Effects Of 12 Weeks Of Instructor-Led Yoga Classes On Balance In Older Adults, Patricia C. Hart

Evidence-Based Practice Project Reports

Participation in a regular exercise program is an effective way to reduce and/or prevent a number of functional declines associated with aging (Chodzko-Zajo et al., 2009). Older adults are advised to participate in regular aerobic activity and practice muscle strengthening activities and exercise that maintains or improves balance (U.S. Department of Health and Human Service, [USDHHS], 2012). Less than one third of older adults engage in 30 minutes of low to moderate intense physical activity at least five days a week as recommended in current guidelines (USDHHS, 2012), and these guidelines fail to address losses in strength and ...


Age-Associated Adaptations In Lower Limb Motor Patterns During Walking And Cycling, Harsh Harish Buddhadev Jan 2015

Age-Associated Adaptations In Lower Limb Motor Patterns During Walking And Cycling, Harsh Harish Buddhadev

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Muscular strength and power generating ability decline with advancing age. Older adults adapt their lower limb motor patterns to cope with these declines in muscle function. When mechanical demands approach limits of lower limb muscular capacity, motor patterns must be adapted to produce a desired movement. The term “motor pattern” is used to broadly represent the kinematic and kinetic profile of a person accomplishing a given task. Generally, these adaptations involve higher reliance on stronger proximal muscles to compensate for limitations or weakness of distal muscles. Three studies were conducted to examine factors affecting differences between older and young adults ...


Decreased Peak Muscle Power Is Associated With Motor Unit Loss In The Lower Limb Of Older Adults, Neal B. Mckinnon Aug 2014

Decreased Peak Muscle Power Is Associated With Motor Unit Loss In The Lower Limb Of Older Adults, Neal B. Mckinnon

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

This study investigated the relationship between motor unit (MU) properties and the strength and power of two lower limb muscles in healthy young and old adults. Twelve older adults (mean age, 77 ± 5 yrs) and twelve young adults (mean age, 24 ± 3 yrs) were studied. MU properties of the tibialis anterior (TA) and vastus medialis (VM) muscles were determined using decomposition-enhanced spike-triggered averaging (DE-STA). Motor unit number estimates (MUNE) of the TA were significantly reduced (p>0.05) in older adults (102 ± 76) compared to young adults (234 ± 109), primarily as a result of significantly larger surface-detected motor unit potentials ...


The Effects Of Exercise Training On Cognitive Reserve And Cognitive Function In Healthy Older Women, Katie Marie Becofsky Aug 2014

The Effects Of Exercise Training On Cognitive Reserve And Cognitive Function In Healthy Older Women, Katie Marie Becofsky

Theses and Dissertations

Cognitive reserve theory suggests that physical activity may protect individuals from cognitive decline. At the brain level, greater cognitive reserve may manifest as greater neural network efficiency. Our purpose was to investigate 1) whether participation in a 16-week walking program increased brain efficiency, and 2) whether increased brain efficiency correlated with change in fitness and task performance. Our secondary purpose was to investigate whether exercise training improved performance on a battery of cognitive tasks, particularly executive functioning performance. Seventeen healthy but sedentary women aged 60-75 years participated in a supervised walking program; eighteen women served as a non-randomized control group ...


The Effects Of Arthritis Foundation’S “Walk With Ease” Program On Cognitive Function, Ryan S. Falck Aug 2014

The Effects Of Arthritis Foundation’S “Walk With Ease” Program On Cognitive Function, Ryan S. Falck

Theses and Dissertations

Physical activity (PA) is believed to improve cognitive function, particularly executive function, in older adults. However, few interventions in community settings have been performed to improve executive function through PA. The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of a community-based walking program on executive function in older adults (60+ years). Older adults from senior centers throughout Lexington County, SC were recruited for participation in this intervention. Exclusion criteria included currently exercising >30 minutes and exercising ≥2x/week or scoring ≤25 on the Mini-Mental State Exam. The intervention consisted of an evidenced-based community walking program, the Arthritis Foundation ...


Quantifying The Effect Of Age And Contraction Mode On The Force-Velocity-Power Relationship In The Knee Extensors, Justin R. Paturel May 2014

Quantifying The Effect Of Age And Contraction Mode On The Force-Velocity-Power Relationship In The Knee Extensors, Justin R. Paturel

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

PURPOSE: To assess and compare the force-velocity-power relationship (F-V-P) using isotonic and isokinetic knee extensions in 11 younger (19-30y) and 11 older (69-81y) men. METHODS: The construction of the F-V-P curves were attained with each participant performing maximal, explosive knee extensions at 8 different loads (isotonic) and 8 different velocities (isokinetic) on a Cybex HUMAC NORM dynamometer. Maximal voluntary contraction (MVC or Po), maximal shortening velocity (Vmax), maximum power, optimal torque (Popt) and velocity (Vopt) were assessed and compared. RESULTS: The older men were 43% weaker, 18% slower and ~54% less powerful than the younger men ...


An Analysis Of Factors Related To Time-Dependent Vs. Acquired Aging In Males, Michael J. Potenza May 2014

An Analysis Of Factors Related To Time-Dependent Vs. Acquired Aging In Males, Michael J. Potenza

Kinesiology, Sport Studies, and Physical Education Synthesis Projects

The purpose of this synthesis was to determine which factors impact, slow down, or even halt certain aspects of the natural aging process in males. Initial review of the topic included an examination of the aging theories found in the literature. The subsequent focus of this synthesis was on a critical mass of data based literature relating to the signs and symptoms of the aging processes. Next, the critical mass was synthesized to determine the most prominent findings in the published research regarding the slowing of the aging process in both the physical and cognitive domains. This included studies about ...


The Effects Of Age And Long-Term Endurance Training On Vo2 Kinetics, Tyler M. Grey Apr 2014

The Effects Of Age And Long-Term Endurance Training On Vo2 Kinetics, Tyler M. Grey

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

The kinetics of the adjustment of pulmonary oxygen uptake (VO2) was examined during step transitions from 20 W to moderate-intensity cycling in young (Y), middle-aged (M), and older (O) endurance trained and untrained men. VO2p was measured breath-by-breath and changes in deoxygenated hemoglobin ([HHb]) were measured by near-infrared spectroscopy. VO2p and [HHb] were modeled with a monoexponential model. The kinetic time constant for VO2 (τVO2p) was not different across age-groups (P > 0.05) in the trained group (17 ± 8, 18 ± 5, and 20 ± 5 s, in Y, M, and O, respectively). For untrained, τVO2p ...


Laterality Across The Lifespan: The Effects Of Task Complexity, Nicole Williams Jan 2014

Laterality Across The Lifespan: The Effects Of Task Complexity, Nicole Williams

Theses and Dissertations (Comprehensive)

The current study aimed to build on the work of Gooderham & Bryden (2013) by comparing the effects of task complexity on hand selection across the lifespan. It was hypothesized that the increasing complexity of a task would override a biomechanically efficient movement such that participants would use only the preferred hand to complete the task. It was also hypothesized that older adults would perform similarly to young children with respect to switch points in space. Four age groups of participants (3-7 year olds, 8-12 year olds, 18-25 year olds and adults over 70 years) completed the newly designed Hand Selection ...


The Control Of Amplitude And Direction In Bimanual Coordination, Zhujun Pan Jan 2014

The Control Of Amplitude And Direction In Bimanual Coordination, Zhujun Pan

LSU Doctoral Dissertations

Spatial coordination of bimanual movements is important when performing daily activities. Whereas, older adults and individuals with Parkinson’s disease (PD) commonly show difficulties in temporally coordinating the hands in bimanual coordination tasks, the effects of aging and Parkinson’s disease on the quality of spatial coordination between the hands are unclear. Thus, the present work investigated the impact of older age and PD on the spatial interference in a bimanual task in which 48 right hand-dominant participants (16 young adults, 16 older adults and 16 individuals with PD) drew simultaneously two lines with both hands with varied movement amplitudes ...


Electromechanical Delay Of The Dorsiflexors In Young And Old Women, In H. Choi Sep 2013

Electromechanical Delay Of The Dorsiflexors In Young And Old Women, In H. Choi

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

PURPOSE: The aim of the current study was to examine the effect on electromechanical delay (EMD) in the dorsiflexors of young and old women during maximal isometric voluntary and electrically evoked contractions, and after a bout of lengthening contractions. METHODS: Nine young (25.1±1.3 years) and nine old (68.3±6.1 years) women performed baseline isometric contractions with evoked twitches followed by a series of dynamic lengthening contractions using a Biodex multi-joint dynamometer. Maximal isometric voluntary and evoked contractions were measured to assess EMD. Time points were recorded at baseline, mid-point of the intervention, post-task termination, and ...


Recovery From Muscle Fatigue In Young And Older Adults: Implications For Physical Function, Stephen A. Foulis Sep 2013

Recovery From Muscle Fatigue In Young And Older Adults: Implications For Physical Function, Stephen A. Foulis

Open Access Dissertations

As adults age, skeletal muscles become smaller and weaker, which can ultimately lead to declines in physical function and disability. In general, older adults produce less isometric force and dynamic power than younger adults. The effects of this weakness are amplified following a series of muscle contractions that result in muscle fatigue. Since daily routines consist of repeated series of activity followed by rest, it is important to understand how muscle recovers from fatigue. In particular, muscle power has been shown to be related to physical function and balance. Thus, understanding the process of recovery from muscle fatigue will help ...


Neuromuscular Function Following Lengthening Contractions, Geoffrey A. Power Dec 2012

Neuromuscular Function Following Lengthening Contractions, Geoffrey A. Power

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Unaccustomed lengthening contractions have been shown to impair muscle function - however little is known regarding this impairment on muscle power - specifically, the velocity component of power during voluntary contractions in humans. The four studies presented in my thesis investigated power-loss following lengthening contractions in healthy young and old women and young men.

The purpose of Study 1 was to determine reliability of velocity-dependent power of the dorsiflexors using the isotonic mode of the Biodex Dynamometer. I determined the isotonic mode is reliable and can be used to track changes in velocity and power following fatigue and lengthening contractions.

The purpose ...


Neuroprotective Effects Of Long-Term Endurance Training On The Cortical Autonomic Network In The Aging Brain, Torri A. Luchyshyn Oct 2012

Neuroprotective Effects Of Long-Term Endurance Training On The Cortical Autonomic Network In The Aging Brain, Torri A. Luchyshyn

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

This study tested whether long-term endurance training in older adults (ET; n = 15, 55 ± 4 years, relative VO2max = 50 ± 8 ml/kg/min) would alter cardiovagal control and preserve the cortical autonomic network compared to age-matched controls (CON; n = 15, 56 ± 4 years, relative VO2max = 37 ± 9 ml/kg/min). The hypothesis predicts 1) altered deactivation patterns of the ventral medial prefrontal cortex (vMPFC) in response to isometric hand grip (IHG) and 2) greater indices of cardiovagal control; a) increased baroreflex sensitivity at rest, b) greater heart rate change (ΔHR) and c) reductions in high frequency ...


Influence Of A Short-Term, Multicomponent Intervention On Balance And Strength Among The Elderly, Pamela C. Webert Jun 2012

Influence Of A Short-Term, Multicomponent Intervention On Balance And Strength Among The Elderly, Pamela C. Webert

Master's Theses and Doctoral Dissertations

Background: Few studies have combined strength and balance training to assess improvement of activities of daily living among subjects over the age of 65. The purpose of this study was to demonstrate how an eight-week balance and strength training program can lead to improvements in activities of daily living among elderly individuals.

Methods: The subjects consisted of 14 elderly women and 3 elderly men who were all residents of an independent living community. There were 10 subjects in the intervention group and 7 subjects in the control group. The intervention group participated in a supervised balance and strength training program ...


Lower Extremities Muscle Strength Associated With Early Signs Of Mobility Dependence Among Older Adults Age 65 Years And Older, Moshe Marko May 2012

Lower Extremities Muscle Strength Associated With Early Signs Of Mobility Dependence Among Older Adults Age 65 Years And Older, Moshe Marko

Exercise Science - Dissertations

Background: Loss of muscle strength is evident even in apparently healthy older adults. functionally limited due to an increasing discrepancy between their own physiological capabilities (i.e. physiological impairments) and the challenges set forth by the environment. Functional limitations lead to clinical mobility disability. Clinical mobility disability is associated with physical dependence, poor quality of life, and mortality. Treatment of age-related clinical mobility disability should focus on the prevention of the condition rather than its consequences. Identifying opportunities for early screening and prevention of clinical mobility disability requires a better understanding of the functional loss prior to this medical condition ...


Optimal Control Of Human Running, Ross Herbert Miller May 2011

Optimal Control Of Human Running, Ross Herbert Miller

Open Access Dissertations

Humans generally use two modes of locomotion as adults. At slow speeds we walk, and at fast speeds we run. To perform either gait, we use our muscles. The central questions in this dissertation were: (1) Why do humans run the way they do, and (2) How do the mechanical properties of muscle influence running performance? Optimal control simulations of running were generated using a bipedal forward dynamics model of the human musculoskeletal system. Simulations of running and sprinting were posed as two-point boundary value problems where the muscle excitation signals were optimized to maximize an optimality criterion. In the ...


Age- And Speed-Related Differences In Walking Smoothness, Kristin Ann Lowry Jan 2010

Age- And Speed-Related Differences In Walking Smoothness, Kristin Ann Lowry

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Extensive literature documents age-related differences in spatiotemporal variables during gait. Recent efforts have focused on upper body control and balance during gait. Harmonic ratios, derived from trunk acceleration signals, measure smoothness of motion, and are an indication of dynamic balance during gait. Limited and conflicting information exists regarding the effect of walking speed on harmonic ratios, as well as age-related differences. This research extends previous literature by: 1) examining harmonic ratios across a range of self-selected speeds in young adults; 2) comparing harmonic ratios at preferred speed in young adults, healthy 60-year-olds, and healthy 80-year-olds; and 3) comparing harmonic ratios ...


Carotid Intima-Media Thickness And Physical And Cognitive Function In Elderly Men And Women: Role Of Physical Activity, John Brent Jr. Rhodes Jan 2009

Carotid Intima-Media Thickness And Physical And Cognitive Function In Elderly Men And Women: Role Of Physical Activity, John Brent Jr. Rhodes

LSU Master's Theses

The incidence of cognitive impairment in the aging population remains one of the most common morbidities in the elderly, often associated with a decrease in physical function, institutionalization, and death. Several different mechanisms have been proposed, including age-related changes to the vasculature. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between physical activity, carotid intima-media thickness and other vascular measures, and measures of cognitive and physical function in older adults. Measures of daily physical activity, vascular structure and function, and cognitive and physical function were examined in 109 participants [age=81±11 yrs]. Daily physical activity was assessed ...


Vascular Function, Physical Performance And Aging, Devon Dobrosielski Jan 2007

Vascular Function, Physical Performance And Aging, Devon Dobrosielski

LSU Doctoral Dissertations

This is a series of three experiments with brachial artery flow-mediated dilation (BAFMD) as the major outcome variable. The first study examined the temporal response of the brachial artery diameter following forearm occlusion in sixteen young (28±8 years) and fifteen older (85±8 years) men. Following release of the pressure cuff there is a significant reduction in brachial diameter compared to baseline, followed by a rapid increase to a PEAK. When comparing the magnitude of the decrease in diameter and the BAFMD between Young and Old, older subjects demonstrated a blunted response. A significant relation was noted between the ...