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Kinesiology

2016

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Full-Text Articles in Life Sciences

Prevalent Stressors Found Among Collegiate And Elite Coaches, Kathryn Delaney Dec 2016

Prevalent Stressors Found Among Collegiate And Elite Coaches, Kathryn Delaney

Kinesiology, Sport Studies, and Physical Education Synthesis Projects

Recent studies have explored the stress that individuals experience in the coaching profession. Stress can have negative effects on an individual physically, mentally, and emotionally. The impact that stress has on a coach can directly influence the anxiety and performance of their athletes. The purpose of this study was to identify and prioritize stressors found in the literature. The prevalence of these stressors was then used to recommend coping techniques to help coaches reduce the impact that coaches experience. A total of 10 studies were analyzed for this synthesis. Results found seven prevalent stressors. The seven prevalent stressors found in ...


The Hemostatic Effects Of Acute Exposure To Colored Cornstarch Powder During A 5k Run, Robert C. Allsbrook Dec 2016

The Hemostatic Effects Of Acute Exposure To Colored Cornstarch Powder During A 5k Run, Robert C. Allsbrook

Senior Honors Projects, 2010-current

PURPOSE: To examine the acute hemostatic effects of particulate matter (PM) in the form of colored corn starch powder during a 5 kilometer race. METHODS: 10 recreationally active adults completed two 5k runs, one with color and one without color. 10 mL blood samples were taken 6 hours prior to the trial and immediately following the trial. PAI-1 activity, FVIII antigen, and tPA activity were measured using an ELISA. RESULTS: No significant main effects or interaction effects (P<0.05) were observed among any of the variables although a trend (P = 0.082) was observed for increased PAI-1 activity during exercise in the color condition. CONCLUSIONS: There is a trend towards increased PAI-1 activity levels during exercise during color runs that could be due to increased inflammation. Furthermore, the lack of increased FVIII:ag and tPA activity suggests that the intensity of the exercise may not have been adequate and further research should be conducted in this area.


Motor Control In Individuals With Multiple Sclerosis, David Arpin Dec 2016

Motor Control In Individuals With Multiple Sclerosis, David Arpin

Theses & Dissertations

This dissertation explored motor control in individuals with multiple sclerosis (MS) by quantifying the behavioral and neurophysiological deficits present in these individuals. We behaviorally quantified the precision of the ankle plantarflexor musculature of individuals with MS. Our results indicated that the individuals with MS had a greater amount of variability in the precision of the isometric ankle torques, and that this greater variability was related to decreased walking performance. To further explore whether these motor control deficits were due to aberrant cortical activity associated with planning motor actions, we used magnetoencephalography to assess the motor planning and execution stages of ...


Dancing As A Tool For Successful Transitioning To Adulthood For Individuals With Disabilities, Edith Mariely Pérez Rodríguez Dec 2016

Dancing As A Tool For Successful Transitioning To Adulthood For Individuals With Disabilities, Edith Mariely Pérez Rodríguez

Kinesiology, Sport Studies, and Physical Education Synthesis Projects

The purpose of this synthesis project was to identify the skills dancing can develop in individuals with disabilities that can help them have a successful transition into adulthood. This project aimed to identify information on the benefits of dance and match those benefits to important transitioning skills found in the literature. Life after school can be an area in which young individuals with disabilities can face many challenges. Challenges include socializing, physical inactivity, unemployment, and relationships, among others. Findings from this synthesis project show that dance has both major and minor benefits in the lives of individuals. Socialization and physical ...


Who Matters? The Perceived Motivational Climates Created By Coaches, Peers, And Team Captains And The Effect On Trait Self-Confidence And Enjoyment In High School & College Athletics, Bryan Urquhart Dec 2016

Who Matters? The Perceived Motivational Climates Created By Coaches, Peers, And Team Captains And The Effect On Trait Self-Confidence And Enjoyment In High School & College Athletics, Bryan Urquhart

Senior Honors Theses

Sport is a source of overall well-being in young individuals with regards to health, learning to cooperate, and having fun among other areas. However, the degree to which young athletes are motivated to perform varies greatly based on a number of factors. This study focused on the influence that significant others in the athletes’ lives had on their motivation levels while in sport. Specifically, the study looked at which motivational climate created, coaches, peers, or team captains, had the most significant influence on high school and collegiate athletes. The focus was on the motivational climate’s impact on enjoyment, self-confidence ...


Health-Related Physical Fitness Benefits Of Exercise Prescriptions For Individuals With Down Syndrome, Kimberly Wooten Dec 2016

Health-Related Physical Fitness Benefits Of Exercise Prescriptions For Individuals With Down Syndrome, Kimberly Wooten

Kinesiology, Sport Studies, and Physical Education Synthesis Projects

This literature review synthesizes the published articles that relate to adolescents and adults with Down syndrome and the benefits of exercise prescription on specific health-related fitness components. Individuals with Down syndrome typically have lower levels of health-related physical fitness in regard to most fitness components. Participating in regular exercise can improve each of these components. Depending on the desired outcome of the exercise regiment administered, variations in type, frequency, duration and intensity of exercise can be adjusted. The results found in the literature are similar to the guidelines provided by the American College of Sports Medicine with a few slight ...


Approaches To Overcoming Barriers To Physical Activity In Urban Areas, Chelsea D. Dimyan Dec 2016

Approaches To Overcoming Barriers To Physical Activity In Urban Areas, Chelsea D. Dimyan

Kinesiology, Sport Studies, and Physical Education Synthesis Projects

Students in urban areas face many unique challenges when it comes to achieving at least 60 minutes of moderate to vigorous-intensity physical activity daily. Students in urban areas face many unique obstacles that prevent them from meeting this guideline. In this literature review, the barriers to physical activity are identified and broken down into four sub-categories, which are safety concerns, personnel factors, environmental factors and programmatic concerns to help synthesis the approaches to overcome these barriers. Approaches to overcome these barriers include, providing education to professional staff, provide supervision in appropriate areas where physical activity is in session, and partner ...


The Impact Of Stability Ball Seating On Behavior And Academic Achievement Among Elementary School Students In Grades 1 Through 4., Sheila R. Borders Dec 2016

The Impact Of Stability Ball Seating On Behavior And Academic Achievement Among Elementary School Students In Grades 1 Through 4., Sheila R. Borders

Doctoral Dissertations

This study was designed to answer three questions: 1) What is the impact of stability ball seating on the behavior of students in grades 1 through 4? 2) What is the impact of stability ball seating on the mathematics scores of students in grades 1 through 4? and 3) What is the impact of stability ball seating on the reading scores of students in grades 1 through 4? Research has shown that stability ball seating is linked to behavior and academic achievement among students diagnosed with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and/or autism spectrum disorder (ASD). This study examines ...


Hashtagging Your Health: Using Psychosocial Variables And Social Media Use To Understand Impression Management And Exercise Behaviors In Women, Caitlyn Hauff Dec 2016

Hashtagging Your Health: Using Psychosocial Variables And Social Media Use To Understand Impression Management And Exercise Behaviors In Women, Caitlyn Hauff

Theses and Dissertations

Our society has become heavily reliant on social media, especially in the health and exercise domain. Social and environmental factors impact females’ body image perceptions and create body image disturbances, yet little research is dedicated to the exploration of how social media, and social comparisons through social media exposure, impact exercise behaviors and body image perceptions in females. Considering Perloff's (2014) theoretical model, the current study explored how the interaction between individual psychosocial variables and social media use predict exercise behaviors and engagement in impression management in women. Using a mixed methodological approach, the specific aims of this study ...


A Comparison Of Multipath And Conventional Neuromuscular Electrical Stimulation, Cody Brian Bremner Dec 2016

A Comparison Of Multipath And Conventional Neuromuscular Electrical Stimulation, Cody Brian Bremner

Dissertations

Neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES) is the use of an electrical current for the purpose of eliciting a muscular response, and these treatments are most often used clinically for the specific purpose of increasing quadriceps strength. It is commonly accepted that the effectiveness of NMES for this purpose is primarily determined by the NMES training intensity. However, spatially limited motor unit recruitment, fatigue and discomfort negatively impact NMES-induced torque, which subsequently reduces NMES training intensities. Due to the importance of NMES training intensity, a substantial amount of research has focused on strategies designed to increase NMES-induced torque production, as well as ...


The Differences In Time To Stability, Foot Muscle Size, And Toe Flexor Strength Between Cheerleaders And Gymnasts, Kelsey Renee Garner Dec 2016

The Differences In Time To Stability, Foot Muscle Size, And Toe Flexor Strength Between Cheerleaders And Gymnasts, Kelsey Renee Garner

Theses and Dissertations

Context: There has been recent speculation that the intrinsic muscles of the foot may play a larger role in lower extremity control and injury than previously believed. Multiple studies have shown that certain intrinsic muscles increase in size and strength after transitioning to minimalist shoe running, theoretically decreasing injury risk. There are currently no studies that examine the effect that training barefoot has in other athletic populations. Objective: Our purpose was to compare the intrinsic and extrinsic foot muscle size and strength in gymnasts (who predominantly train barefoot) and cheerleaders (who predominantly train shod). Another purpose was to measure time ...


The Effects Of An Inclined And Declined Slope On Backward Locomotion: A Kinematic And Electromyographic Analysis Of Retrowalking, Song Dan Vo Dec 2016

The Effects Of An Inclined And Declined Slope On Backward Locomotion: A Kinematic And Electromyographic Analysis Of Retrowalking, Song Dan Vo

UNLV Theses, Dissertations, Professional Papers, and Capstones

The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of an inclined and declined slopeon kinematic properties and muscle activation magnitudes. This purpose was achieved by using a +10% grade for inclined backward walking (IBW) and -10% grade for declined backwardwalking (DBW) on a treadmill. Eleven participants (24.6 ± 4.1 yrs, 68.5 ± 14.6 kg, 1.7 ± 0.1 m) were recruited from the UNLV student body and were subject to a three day adaptation protocol to allow them to choose a preferred walking speed and to familiarize themselves with such a novel task. Two consecutive practice ...


Effects Of Synthetic Turf And Shockpads On Impact Attenuation Related Biomechanics During Drop Landing, Hang Qu Dec 2016

Effects Of Synthetic Turf And Shockpads On Impact Attenuation Related Biomechanics During Drop Landing, Hang Qu

Masters Theses

Synthetic turf has been widely utilized in sports since 1964. Discrepancies, however, in injury incidence on synthetic turf and natural grass have been reported throughout studies. Adding a shock pad under synthetic turf carpet is claimed to aid in energy absorption and decrease impact loading. Although some studies have conducted materials tests and compared mechanical characteristics of synthetic turf with different shock pads, no studies have examined biomechanical characteristics of impact related human movements on an infilled synthetic turf system with different underlying shock pads. The purpose of this research was to investigate effects of an infilled synthetic turf with ...


Effects Of Wider Step Width On Knee Biomechanics In Obese And Healthy-Weight Participants During Stair Ascent, Derek Scott Yocum Dec 2016

Effects Of Wider Step Width On Knee Biomechanics In Obese And Healthy-Weight Participants During Stair Ascent, Derek Scott Yocum

Masters Theses

An increased likelihood of developing obesity-related knee osteoarthritis may be associated with increased peak internal knee abduction moment. Increases in step width may act to reduce this moment. This study focused on how step width influenced the knee joint during stair ascent by healthy and obese participants. Participants ascended stairs while walking at their preferred speed and under one of two step width conditions – preferred and increased. Obese participants experienced greater mediolateral and vertical ground reaction forces (GRFs), as well as increased peak knee extensor moments and push-off peak internal knee adduction moments. The findings of this study indicate that ...


An Investigation Of The Testing Effect On Motor Learning, Aaron Leonard Pauls Dec 2016

An Investigation Of The Testing Effect On Motor Learning, Aaron Leonard Pauls

UNLV Theses, Dissertations, Professional Papers, and Capstones

Optimization of learning processes is the goal many educators strive to achieve with their students. One of the potential methods used towards optimizing this process is what’s known as the testing effect. The testing effect is the improved performance on a retention test as a result of prior testing during some period of practice. Previously, the testing effect was investigated using mostly cognitive tasks such as the learning of a number of words. In this paper, we examine the impact the testing effect has on learning the motor skill of putting. The study used a 2 x 2 mixed ...


Daily Variability Of Body Weight And Hydration Markers In Free Living Men And Women, Lynndee Grace Summers Dec 2016

Daily Variability Of Body Weight And Hydration Markers In Free Living Men And Women, Lynndee Grace Summers

Theses and Dissertations

Body weight and hydration markers change greatly during strenuous exercise, especially in the heat. However, in a non-athletic population, changes in body weight and hydration markers may not be so obvious. It is important to classify the normal fluctuation of these measurements for future studies in order to delineate when an intervention results in a change outside of what can be expected during normal daily living. PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to describe the normal fluctuations in body weight and urine hydration markers over the course of 29 days. METHODS: One-hundred two male and female participants, ranging from ...


The Effects Of Experimental Anterior Knee Pain On Bilateral Ground Reaction Forces During Running, Emily Rachel Cronk Dec 2016

The Effects Of Experimental Anterior Knee Pain On Bilateral Ground Reaction Forces During Running, Emily Rachel Cronk

Theses and Dissertations

The purpose of this study was to examine the independent effects of anterior knee pain (AKP) on bilateral ground reaction force (GRF) during running, with a focus on GRF applied to the uninvolved leg, which, prior to this study, had never been evaluated. Twelve volunteers completed three data collection sessions, that corresponded to one of three conditions (control, sham, and pain), in a counterbalanced order. For each session, subjects ran for five minutes. For the pain and sham sessions, respectively, hypertonic and isotonic saline were infused into the infrapatellar fat pad of the right leg during the running, while no ...


The Barriers And Facilitators Of After-School Physical Activity Participation For Children With Autism Spectrum Disorders, Nicole Seaver Nov 2016

The Barriers And Facilitators Of After-School Physical Activity Participation For Children With Autism Spectrum Disorders, Nicole Seaver

Kinesiology, Sport Studies, and Physical Education Synthesis Projects

Children with disabilities are more likely to be sedentary in comparison to their typically developing peers. This especially occurs with children who are diagnosed with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) as many of these individuals show impairments in motor and physical functioning. Research has shown that children with ASD have been found to be less physically active in an after-school setting in comparison to their peers of typical development. There are several categories of barriers and facilitators impacting the after-school physical activity levels of children with ASD. Previous research separates these barriers and facilitators into four categories including: interpersonal, intrapersonal, physical ...


A Framework For Studying Meshfree Geometry And A Method For Explicit Boundary Determination, Joseph Bradley Alford Nov 2016

A Framework For Studying Meshfree Geometry And A Method For Explicit Boundary Determination, Joseph Bradley Alford

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Patient-specific biomechanical analysis is an important tool used to understand the complex processes that occur in the body due to physical stimulation. Patient-specific models are generated by processing medical images; once an object from the image is identified via segmentation, a point cloud representation of the object is extracted. Generating an analysis suitable representation from the point cloud has traditionally required generating a finite element mesh, which often requires a well defined surface to accomplish. Point clouds lack a well defined geometry, meaning that the surface definition is incomplete at best. Point clouds that have been generated from images have ...


The Consequences Of Speed: Studies Of Cavitation During The Mantis Shrimp Strike And The Control Of Rapid Deceleration During Toad Landing, Suzanne M. Cox Nov 2016

The Consequences Of Speed: Studies Of Cavitation During The Mantis Shrimp Strike And The Control Of Rapid Deceleration During Toad Landing, Suzanne M. Cox

Doctoral Dissertations

There are consequences of moving quickly in this world. Here we investigate how two very different species, mantis shrimp (Odontodactylus scyllarus) and cane toads (Bufo marinus), negotiate forces that result from moving rapidly in different environments. To study the mechanical principles and fluid dynamics of ultrafast power-amplified systems, we built Ninjabot, a physical model of the extremely fast mantis shrimp. While mantis shrimp produce damaging cavitation upon impact with their prey, they do not cavitate during the forward portion of their strike despite extreme speeds. In order to study cavitation onset in non-linear flows common during the mantis shrimp strike ...


Impact Of Extremely Low-Frequency Magnetic Fields On Human Postural Control, Alicia N. Allen Nov 2016

Impact Of Extremely Low-Frequency Magnetic Fields On Human Postural Control, Alicia N. Allen

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

The general public and workers can be exposed to high-levels of power-line frequency magnetic fields (MFs - up to 10 mT). Although such time-varying MFs have the potential to modulate human postural control, no existing studies have explored MF exposure levels that possibly trigger acute sway responses. This work evaluates time-varying MF exposure (up to 100 mT) in the extremely low frequency range (ELF – up to 300 Hz) and its effects on human postural control. Twenty-two healthy participants were each exposed to randomized, 5-second MF and electric stimulations (0, 50 and 100 mT and 1.5 mA respectively) given at different ...


The Use Of P3b As An Indicator Of Neurophysiologic Change From Subconcussive Impacts In Football Players, Jeffrey S. Brooks Nov 2016

The Use Of P3b As An Indicator Of Neurophysiologic Change From Subconcussive Impacts In Football Players, Jeffrey S. Brooks

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

There is a growing appreciation in research that subconcussive impacts may affect cognitive functioning. Canadian University football players (n=45) were separated into three groups based on their position/skill (small skilled, big skilled and big unskilled). An impact measuring device (GForceTracker) was used to record the number of impacts that each player experienced in a season. Player groups were separated into two levels of impact exposure: low and high. Players completed baseline, midseason, postseason, and follow-up neurophysiological tests (four months later) to measure P3b amplitude in response to a visual oddball paradigm, and high versus low impact subgroups for ...


A Comparison Of The Immediate Effects Of Muscle Energy Technique And Joint Mobilizations On Posterior Shoulder Tightness In Youth Throwing Athletes, Maddox L. Reed Nov 2016

A Comparison Of The Immediate Effects Of Muscle Energy Technique And Joint Mobilizations On Posterior Shoulder Tightness In Youth Throwing Athletes, Maddox L. Reed

Theses and Dissertations

Background: Due to the extreme forces on the glenohumeral (GH) joint during the throwing motion, and the high number of repetitions that occur during overhead sports, alterations in range of motion are a common occurrence in overhead athletes, particularly baseball and softball players. The presence of limited GH motion that occurs as a result of posterior shoulder tightness can increase the risk of injury. Despite clinical evidence pointing to the use of joint mobilizations and muscle energy technique (MET) for the treatment of various pathologies, there currently is no data examining comparing the overall effectiveness of joint mobilizations and MET ...


Molybdenum Disulfide-Conducting Polymer Composite Structures For Electrochemical Biosensor Applications, Hongxiang Jia Nov 2016

Molybdenum Disulfide-Conducting Polymer Composite Structures For Electrochemical Biosensor Applications, Hongxiang Jia

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Lactic acid is widely existing in human bodies, animals and microorganisms. Recently, using biosensor to detect the concentration of lactic acid and diagnose disease have attracted great research and development interests. Nanocomposites is one of the best material used for biosensor because their wonderful conductivity, optical and electrochemical properties. In the study, MoS2 and polypyrrole (PPY) are used for the composite material electrode. To determine whether lactate oxidase (LOD) was helpful for the biosensor’s detective properties, both PPY-MoS2 film with LOD and PPY-MoS2 film without LOD are being tested. The fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and ...


The Effects Of Ice Hockey Goaltender Leg Pads On Safety And Performance, Ryan J. Frayne Oct 2016

The Effects Of Ice Hockey Goaltender Leg Pads On Safety And Performance, Ryan J. Frayne

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Ice hockey goaltenders have the highest percentage of cam-type femoroacetabular impingement (FAI). The exact cause of these injuries in goaltenders remains unknown; however, it has been suggested that common goaltender movements and a goaltender’s underlying hip pathology may be contributing factors. The butterfly save technique, commonly used by goaltenders, has been linked to FAI. Simply stopping these movements would likely be detrimental to goaltender performance. Therefore, changing other aspects of goaltending, such as altering the goaltender equipment, should be considered. The overall objective of this thesis was to understand how ice hockey goaltender leg pads influence both the safety ...


Understanding Motivational Climate And Team Cohesion In Youth Sport, Annika M. Ewaldz Oct 2016

Understanding Motivational Climate And Team Cohesion In Youth Sport, Annika M. Ewaldz

Theses and Dissertations

The effects of both peer-created and coach-created motivational climate on team cohesion was studied in a sample of 136 youth athletes. Task-involving aspects of both peer-and coach-created motivational climates were found to be positively related to team cohesion. Coach-created ego-involving climate was negatively related to team cohesion, most significantly attraction to group-task (ATG-T) cohesion. Peer-created ego-involving motivational climate was significantly, negatively related to group integration-task (GI-T) cohesion. Peer-created motivational climate accounted for variance above and beyond the influence of coach-created motivational climate on team cohesion. The results of this study suggest that a peer-created motivational climate influences team cohesion above ...


Associations Between Physical Activity, Physical Fitness, And Falls Risk In Healthy Older Individuals, Christopher Deane Vaughan Oct 2016

Associations Between Physical Activity, Physical Fitness, And Falls Risk In Healthy Older Individuals, Christopher Deane Vaughan

Human Movement Sciences Theses & Dissertations

Objective: The purpose of this study was to assess relationships between objectively measured physical activity, physical fitness, and the risk of falling. Methods: A total of n=29 subjects completed the study, n=15 male and n=14 female age (mean±SD)= 70± 4 and 71±3 years, respectively. In a single testing session, subjects performed pre-post evaluations of falls risk (Short-from PPA) with a 6-minute walking intervention between the assessments. The falls risk assessment included tests of balance, knee extensor strength, proprioception, reaction time, and visual contrast. The sub-maximal effort 6-minute walking task served as an indirect assessment of ...


Effect Of Terminal Haptic Feedback On The Sensorimotor Control Of Visually And Tactile-Guided Grasping, Shirin Davarpanah Jazi Sep 2016

Effect Of Terminal Haptic Feedback On The Sensorimotor Control Of Visually And Tactile-Guided Grasping, Shirin Davarpanah Jazi

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

When grasping a physical object, the sensorimotor system is able to specify grip aperture via absolute sensory information. In contrast, grasping to a location previously occupied by (no-target pantomime-grasp) or adjacent to (spatially dissociated pantomime-grasp) an object results in the specification of grip aperture via relative sensory information. It is important to recognize that grasping a physical object and pantomime-grasping differ not only in terms of their spatial properties but also with respect to the availability of haptic feedback. Thus, the objective of this dissertation was to investigate how terminal haptic feedback influences the underlying mechanisms that support goal-directed grasping ...


The Neuroprotective Effects Of Endurance Training On The Aging Brain, Katelyn Norton Aug 2016

The Neuroprotective Effects Of Endurance Training On The Aging Brain, Katelyn Norton

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Dysregulation of autonomic control often develops with advancing age, favoring a chronic state of heightened sympathetic outflow with parasympathetic withdrawal. However, the mechanisms of this age-related autonomic impairment are not known and may relate to alterations in brain structure (e.g. cortical atrophy) and/or altered neural function, particularly in regions related to the cortical autonomic network, namely, the medial prefrontal cortex (MPFC), insula cortex (IC), and hippocampus (HC). Exercise exerts beneficial effects on brain structure and, in the case of cognition, neurologic function; however, how exercise affects regions of the brain related to autonomic function are not known. This ...


Indicator Amino Acid Derived Estimates Of Dietary Protein Requirement In Exercise-Trained Individuals, Arash Bandegan Aug 2016

Indicator Amino Acid Derived Estimates Of Dietary Protein Requirement In Exercise-Trained Individuals, Arash Bandegan

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Despite a number of nitrogen balance (NB) studies indicating increased dietary protein needs in Endurance (ET) and strength (ST) trained athletes, the Institute of Medicine (2005) has concluded, based largely on methodological concerns, that “no additional dietary protein is suggested for healthy adults undertaking resistance or endurance exercise”. Indicator amino acid oxidation method (IAAO) has been recently used for determination of protein requirement in humans. This method is based on the concept that when one indispensable amino acid (AA) is deficient for protein synthesis, then all other AA, including the indicator, will be considered excess and oxidized. With increasing intakes ...