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Theses/Dissertations

Kinesiology

2012

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Full-Text Articles in Life Sciences

Mtor Pathway Activation Following Sciatic Stimulation In Wild-Type And Desmin Knockout Mice, Daniel S. Nelson Dec 2012

Mtor Pathway Activation Following Sciatic Stimulation In Wild-Type And Desmin Knockout Mice, Daniel S. Nelson

Theses and Dissertations

The 52 kDa intermediate filament protein desmin plays an important role in force transmission in skeletal muscle by connecting myofibrils at Z-lines and to the sarcolemma. Desmin content in muscle adapts to contractile activity and may be involved in cellular signaling mechanisms responsible for muscle growth. Purpose: To compare signaling responses of the mTOR pathway in wild type (WT) vs desmin knock out (KO) mice. Methods: WT (n=12) and KO (n=12) mice were exposed to high frequency electric stimulation of the left hindlimb to elicit an acute response of the mTOR pathway. Non-stimulated right hindlimbs were used as ...


The Pre-Application Of Hydrocortisone Cream And Its Effect On Transdermal Drug Delivery By Phonophoresis, Patrick Thomas Webb Dec 2012

The Pre-Application Of Hydrocortisone Cream And Its Effect On Transdermal Drug Delivery By Phonophoresis, Patrick Thomas Webb

Theses and Dissertations

Context: Transdermal delivery of hydrocortisone by phonophoresis is used for the treatment of musculoskeletal conditions. Research shows hydrocortisone and other white or opaque topical preparations transmit ultrasound energy poorly. Effective transmission of ultrasound is important in phonophoresis. Main Outcome measured: Samples of subcutaneous interstitial fluid were collected during and for 20 minutes following phonophoresis treatment. Cortisol concentrations were analyzed by an enzyme linked immune-assay (ELISA) test. Objective: Determine the subcutaneous cortisol concentration after two different phonophoresis treatments using a 2.5% hydrocortisone preparation. Design: Randomized design in which 22 healthy participants were assigned to receive a phonophoresis treatment where: 1 ...


Reliability And Validity Of Knee Moments: 3d Gait Analysis In Subjects With And Without Knee Osteoarthritis, Sara E. Richardson Dec 2012

Reliability And Validity Of Knee Moments: 3d Gait Analysis In Subjects With And Without Knee Osteoarthritis, Sara E. Richardson

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Quantifying the reliability and validity of gait data in patients with knee osteoarthritis is required to more confidently evaluate effects of interventions and identify potential responders. 109 patients after high tibial osteotomy underwent 3-dimensional gait analysis consisting of four walking trials to calculate the external knee moments in three anatomical planes. The first two trials were compared to the second two trials to evaluate within-session test re-test reliability. 61 patients were matched to 61 healthy controls of similar age, sex and body mass index. Intraclass correlation coefficients were very high, ranging from 0.93 for peak knee adduction moment to ...


Psychological Well-Being And Dietary Quality Of College Women: Examining The Confounding Influence Of Sleep And Physical Activity, Whitney Ann Hebbert Dec 2012

Psychological Well-Being And Dietary Quality Of College Women: Examining The Confounding Influence Of Sleep And Physical Activity, Whitney Ann Hebbert

Theses and Dissertations

Objective. To determine the relationship between overall psychological well-being and stress on diet quality among young adult women and to examine the potential confounding influence of season, physical activity and sleep on these relationships. Design/Participants. The study used a cross-sectional design. Three hundred and fifty-one women were recruited to participate in the study. All participants were university students (20.2 ± 1.6 y). Overall psychological well-being was assessed using the General Well-being Schedule (GWB) and the Perceived Stress Scale (PSS). Diet intake was measured using three 24-hour recalls over a seven day period. The Healthy Eating Index (HEI) was ...


Neuromuscular Function Following Lengthening Contractions, Geoffrey A. Power Dec 2012

Neuromuscular Function Following Lengthening Contractions, Geoffrey A. Power

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Unaccustomed lengthening contractions have been shown to impair muscle function - however little is known regarding this impairment on muscle power - specifically, the velocity component of power during voluntary contractions in humans. The four studies presented in my thesis investigated power-loss following lengthening contractions in healthy young and old women and young men.

The purpose of Study 1 was to determine reliability of velocity-dependent power of the dorsiflexors using the isotonic mode of the Biodex Dynamometer. I determined the isotonic mode is reliable and can be used to track changes in velocity and power following fatigue and lengthening contractions.

The purpose ...


Validation Of Hand-Held Bioelectrical Impedance Analysis For The Assessment Of Body Fat In Young And Old Adults, Lynn A. Wheeler Dec 2012

Validation Of Hand-Held Bioelectrical Impedance Analysis For The Assessment Of Body Fat In Young And Old Adults, Lynn A. Wheeler

Theses and Dissertations

Because of health concerns surrounding overweight and obesity, many individuals, health clubs, and physicians have begun using portable measures of body fat (BF) that are inexpensive and easy-to-use. Based on measures from these devices, health-related decisions are made and progress during fitness and/or dietary programs is tracked. However, accuracy of portable BF devices can be questionable, especially in free-living settings. Purpose: The purpose of this study is to evaluate the validity and reliability of a commercially-available, hand-held bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) device as a measure of BF during a controlled laboratory condition and a free-living condition. Methods: A total ...


An Examination Of Finish Time Variation For Collegiate Cross Country National Championships By Gender, Kevin Riley Peters Dec 2012

An Examination Of Finish Time Variation For Collegiate Cross Country National Championships By Gender, Kevin Riley Peters

Boise State University Theses and Dissertations

In cross country, women compete over shorter distances than men with little justification for these differences. The purpose of this study was to assess gender differences for the spread of finishing times and examine the appropriateness of shorter competition distances for females. Forty-six cross country national championship data sets (nmales = 10,788; nfemales = 10,884) from the NCAA (1999-2011) and NAIA (2005-2011) were utilized for analyses. Several measures of variation were computed to assess spread of finishing times data (i.e., Coefficient of Variation [CV]; Interpercentile Ranges [IR], and Rates of Separation [RS; IR divided by the distance ...


Shock Attenuation In Landing, Bryon Christopher Applequist Dec 2012

Shock Attenuation In Landing, Bryon Christopher Applequist

UNLV Theses, Dissertations, Professional Papers, and Capstones

Shock attenuation (SA) has been well studied in activities such as walking and running (Chu, et al. 2004; Derrick, et al. 2004; Mercer, et al. 2003); however, there is a lack of research regarding SA during landing. Furthermore, there is lack of information regarding which structures attenuate shock. The purpose of this study was to examine SA among the leg-hip, hip-head, and leg-head segments during landing. Each subject (n=10, Age 26.3 ± 2.71 years, Height 1.68 ± 0.08 m, Mass 70.49 ± 16.03 kg) was instrumented with accelerometers at the leg, hip and forehead. Subjects then ...


Frictional Forces Of A Fixed, Esthetic Orthodontic Appliance System, Brady Michael Nance Dec 2012

Frictional Forces Of A Fixed, Esthetic Orthodontic Appliance System, Brady Michael Nance

UNLV Theses, Dissertations, Professional Papers, and Capstones

Purpose: The demands of an all esthetic fixed orthodontic appliance system are ever increasing in today's world. Frictional values of an esthetic, fixed orthodontic appliance system are needed to evaluate their clinical effectiveness for orthodontic treatment. The aim of this study is to evaluate the frictional values of various esthetic orthodontic archwires ligated to an esthetic orthodontic bracket.

Methods: Three types of stainless steel and nickel titanium alloy (niti) esthetic orthodontic archwires (epoxy, poly, plastic) in four sizes (.016, .018, .017 x .025, .019 x .025 inches) were ligated to both a stainless steel bracket system and a ceramic ...


Effects Of Obesity On Thermoregulation And Cardiovascular Function During Exercise In Females, Jon David Adams Dec 2012

Effects Of Obesity On Thermoregulation And Cardiovascular Function During Exercise In Females, Jon David Adams

Theses and Dissertations

Previous research has shown that obese individuals are at greater risk for heat illnesses because of impaired thermoregulation. However, laboratory studies investigating cardiovascular and thermoregulatory function in obese individuals are difficult to interpret because of low sample sizes and methodological concerns. The purpose of this study was to determine if there are differences in thermoregulatory and cardiovascular function between obese and non-obese females. Twenty-four females, 13 obese (43.3 ± 4 .3 % fat, 77.2 ± 13.7 kg) and 11 non-obese (27.8 ± 6.0 % fat, 55.7±6.7 kg), cycled for 60 min in a warm environment (~40°C ...


Neural Responses To Food Pictures And Their Association With Dietary Intake, Edward Christenson Dec 2012

Neural Responses To Food Pictures And Their Association With Dietary Intake, Edward Christenson

Theses and Dissertations

BACKGROUND: Food-related visual cues may affect eating behavior and energy intake. The purpose of this study was to determine the neural response to pictures of food and whether or not the neural responses were associated with energy intake. METHODS: Using a cross-sectional design, 60 adults participated in this study. Each participant reported to the laboratory in a fasted state, were fitted with a 128-electrode electroencephalogram (EEG) net, and were shown pictures grouped into three categories: high-calorie foods, low-calorie foods, and distractor pictures. These pictures were shown in random order. Furthermore, participants were shown these pictures in one passive condition and ...


Effect Of Body Size And Exercise On Mood State, Alexandra Lachance Dec 2012

Effect Of Body Size And Exercise On Mood State, Alexandra Lachance

Theses and Dissertations

Exercising in the presence of nature (i.e., "green exercise"), has been shown to heighten the physiological and mental benefits of traditional exercise on non-obese individuals. The effects of green exercise on obese individuals are unknown. It is hypothesized that green exercise is more beneficial for obese (greater positive improvements in mental health scores), compared to non-obese individuals. For example, the benefits of green exercise could help lower feelings of depression, improve mood and self-esteem to increase the propensity of obese individuals to meet exercise recommendations. Accordingly, this study investigated the physiological and psychological effects of green exercise on 12 ...


Healthy And Unhealthy Diet Intake And Carotid Intima Media Thickness In Older Adults, Kelsey Joelle Da Silva Oct 2012

Healthy And Unhealthy Diet Intake And Carotid Intima Media Thickness In Older Adults, Kelsey Joelle Da Silva

Theses and Dissertations

Background -- Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is a primary premature killer of adults and risk of CVD has been linked to modifiable risk factors including dietary intake. Many diet assessment tools are costly, time consuming, and complicated. This study investigated the relationship between diet quality and cardiovascular disease risk as indicated by carotid intima-media thickness (cIMT) using a validated, simple, self-administered rapid food screener. Methods -- Participants were 51 male and 33 female older adults with an average age of 67 years. Carotid intima-media thickness was assessed using B-mode high resolution diagnostic ultrasound. Unhealthy and healthy diet intake was assessed using a validated ...


Neuroprotective Effects Of Long-Term Endurance Training On The Cortical Autonomic Network In The Aging Brain, Torri A. Luchyshyn Oct 2012

Neuroprotective Effects Of Long-Term Endurance Training On The Cortical Autonomic Network In The Aging Brain, Torri A. Luchyshyn

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

This study tested whether long-term endurance training in older adults (ET; n = 15, 55 ± 4 years, relative VO2max = 50 ± 8 ml/kg/min) would alter cardiovagal control and preserve the cortical autonomic network compared to age-matched controls (CON; n = 15, 56 ± 4 years, relative VO2max = 37 ± 9 ml/kg/min). The hypothesis predicts 1) altered deactivation patterns of the ventral medial prefrontal cortex (vMPFC) in response to isometric hand grip (IHG) and 2) greater indices of cardiovagal control; a) increased baroreflex sensitivity at rest, b) greater heart rate change (ΔHR) and c) reductions in high frequency ...


Postures For Precision: An Ecological Approach To Marksmanship And The Issue Of Warfighter Load., Christopher Jay Palmer Sep 2012

Postures For Precision: An Ecological Approach To Marksmanship And The Issue Of Warfighter Load., Christopher Jay Palmer

Open Access Dissertations

The goal of this dissertation was to understand the issue of load in a more operationally realistic way, while examining underlying segmental relations and postural regulation related to functional capability. The ecological approach provides a foundation for this work, as its approach seeks understanding across nested relations and at the level of the Organism-Environment system. First, a landing task was used to examine transitions from movement to upright stance, evaluating the effects of load on changes relevant to prospective control of action. Greater negative head angles, reductions in the field of regard, and reduced variability in orienting coordination (trunk-head relations ...


Mechanics And Energetics Of Footfall Patterns In Running, Allison H. Gruber Sep 2012

Mechanics And Energetics Of Footfall Patterns In Running, Allison H. Gruber

Open Access Dissertations

The forefoot (FF) running pattern has been recently advocated to improve running economy and prevent overuse injuries compared to the rearfoot (RF) pattern. However, these claims have not been supported by empirical evidence. The purpose of this dissertation was to investigate the potential advantages of RF and FF patterns to improve running economy and reduce injury risk in 20 natural RF and 20 natural FF runners.

The first study found that the RF group was more economical when performing the RF pattern at a slow, medium, and fast speed vs. FF running. Only running at the fast speed resulted in ...


Refinement, Validation And Application Of A Machine Learning Method For Estimating Physical Activity And Sedentary Behavior In Free-Living People, Kate Lyden Sep 2012

Refinement, Validation And Application Of A Machine Learning Method For Estimating Physical Activity And Sedentary Behavior In Free-Living People, Kate Lyden

Open Access Dissertations

There is limited knowledge of the dose-response relationship between physical activity (PA), sedentary behavior (SB) and health. Poor measures of free-living PA and SB exposure are major contributing factors to these knowledge gaps. The overall objective of this dissertation was to address these issues by refining, validating and applying a machine-learning methodology for measuring PA and SB for use in free-living people. By combining neural networks and decision tree analyses we developed a method better suited for use in free-living people. Our new method is called the sojourn method and it estimates PA and SB from a single hip mounted ...


The Art And Science Of Somatics: Theory, History And Scientific Foundations, Kelly Mullan Aug 2012

The Art And Science Of Somatics: Theory, History And Scientific Foundations, Kelly Mullan

Master of Arts in Liberal Studies (MALS) Student Scholarship

What is somatics? Somatics is the name given to the field of western mind-body methods, encompassing ways of working with the body that are therapeutic, educational, artistic, and physically expressive. This study analyzes philosophies of somatic movement educational methods to observe what scientific principles and processes ground somatic work. An extensive literature review investigates five historical pioneers of somatics and explores influences on somatic theory from the fields of somatic psychology, neuroscience, the human potential movement, physiology and human anatomy, and psychoneuroimmunology. Qualitative analysis studies from mind-body medicine and the somatics field are compared. Using an interdisciplinary theoretical approach, I ...


Task-Dependent Properties Of The Human Anconeus Muscle, Brad Harwood Aug 2012

Task-Dependent Properties Of The Human Anconeus Muscle, Brad Harwood

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Recording motor unit (MU) action potentials during fast muscle contractions, specifically during movement, presents unique challenges that constrain the investigation of the upper limits of human MU performance. The anconeus muscle exhibits many advantageous characteristics that suggest it is an appealing model for the study of MU behaviour in challenging experiment paradigms. Thus, the purpose was to determine the MU recruitment and discharge properties associated with the generation of movement up to maximal angular velocities of elbow extension and to determine the effect of submaximal fatiguing movements on these MU properties. Due to the synergistic nature of the anconeus in ...


Overweight In Infants Increases The Chance Of Having A Gross Motor Developmental Delay At Six Months, Meredith Parkovnick Aug 2012

Overweight In Infants Increases The Chance Of Having A Gross Motor Developmental Delay At Six Months, Meredith Parkovnick

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

The objective of the present study was to explore the relationship between overweight infants and gross motor development at six months. A secondary purpose was to determine whether gross motor development varied according to sleep position. Eighteen mother-infant pairs participated. Motor development was assessed using the Alberta Infant Motor Scale (AIMS). Sleeping position was determined by maternal report based on the position in which the infant awoke. At six months, overweight infants scored lower (worse) on the AIMS test than normal weight infants, even after controlling for sleep position. Infants who slept in the supine position scored lower on the ...


School-Based Physical Activity In Children: An Evaluation Of The Daily Physical Activity Program In Ontario Elementary Schools., Ian T. Patton Aug 2012

School-Based Physical Activity In Children: An Evaluation Of The Daily Physical Activity Program In Ontario Elementary Schools., Ian T. Patton

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Ontarioimplemented the Daily Physical Activity program in all elementary schools to counteract the recent decline in children’s physical activity levels. The program mandates that all students in kindergarten to grade 8 are provided with 20 minutes of physical activity every day. The purpose of this thesis was to evaluate the delivery of Daily Physical Activity as well as identify any supports or barriers to program delivery.

Study 1 consisted of a questionnaire investigating the perspectives of the teachers involved in the Daily Physical Activity program. Teachers were questioned about how they implement the DPA program, the supports and barriers ...


The Effects Of Sprint Interval Training On Endothelial Function In Young Men And Women, Stephanie M. Reid Aug 2012

The Effects Of Sprint Interval Training On Endothelial Function In Young Men And Women, Stephanie M. Reid

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

The benefits of exercise training on endothelial function in the healthy young population are unclear. This study was designed to assess the effects of sprint interval training (SIT; 4-7 x 30-45 s all out exercise efforts separated by 4 min of recovery, repeated 3-4 times/wk over 6 wk) on endothelial function of the superficial femoral artery (SFA) in young recreationally active men and women. Twenty-one men and twenty women arrived at the laboratory after >3 h fast and were assigned randomly to SIT or Control (no training) groups. SFA diameter and blood velocity (BV) were assessed using Doppler ultrasound ...


Effect Of Sledge Hockey Configuration On Sledge Hockey Performance, Cliff Worden-Rogers Aug 2012

Effect Of Sledge Hockey Configuration On Sledge Hockey Performance, Cliff Worden-Rogers

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

The purpose of this study was to evaluate the position of a sledge hockey player in their sledge using measurements of knee angle, seat height, and stability. Prior to this study, sledge hockey coaches and athletes used trivial methods to position a player in their seat. Proper positioning can enhance performance and function of the athlete. Nine different positions were evaluated using two on-ice sledge hockey specific tests. Four experienced male sledge hockey players from the London Blizzard who compete in the Ontario Sledge Hockey Association participated in this study. The results suggest a knee angle of 140º with a ...


Examining The Relationships Between Imagery, Sport Motivation, And Athletic Identity In Curling, Nicole Westlund Aug 2012

Examining The Relationships Between Imagery, Sport Motivation, And Athletic Identity In Curling, Nicole Westlund

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Imagery use, motivation, and athletic identity all have been investigated in sport; however, a study examining the relationships among these three constructs has yet to be conducted. The participants (N = 213) were club and competitive curlers (Mage = 49.0; SD = 15.39). Results showed that athletic identity was significantly correlated with all five imagery functions and six behavioural regulations (p < .01) except for external regulation and amotivation. Multiple regression analyses predicting imagery use from both the behavioural regulations and athletic identity were conducted for each imagery function in club and competitive curlers. Athletic identity, identified regulation, and integrated regulation emerged as significant predictors of imagery use (p < .05). These findings suggest that there is a link between imagery use, motivation, and athletic identity. Researchers and sport psychologists can use these findings to develop more effective psychological skills training programs to improve the performance of curlers.


Net Impulse And Net Impulse Characteristics In Vertical Jumping, Satoshi Mizuguchi Aug 2012

Net Impulse And Net Impulse Characteristics In Vertical Jumping, Satoshi Mizuguchi

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

The purpose of this dissertation was to explore the potential use of net impulse and its characteristics in vertical jumping to monitor athletes' performance status and responses/adaptations to interventions. Five variables were proposed as net impulse characteristics: net impulse height and width, rate of force development, shape factor, and net impulse proportion. The following were then examined: 1) test-retest reliability of a new approach to identify net impulse in a force-time curve and of net impulse characteristics and criterion validity of the new approach; 2) effective measures of net impulse characteristics; 3) relationships between training-induced changes in its characteristics ...


Multifidus Muscle Size And Atrophy Among Dancers With And Without Low Back Pain, Alyssa Leann Smyres Aug 2012

Multifidus Muscle Size And Atrophy Among Dancers With And Without Low Back Pain, Alyssa Leann Smyres

Theses and Dissertations

Design: A single-blinded, cross-sectional observational study.

Objectives: Examine muscle cross-sectional area and symmetry of the lumbar multifidus muscle in elite ballroom dancers with and without low back pain (LBP).

Background: The incidence of LBP among elite ballroom dancers is high and at Brigham Young University is 57%. Previous research has linked lumbar multifidus muscle atrophy to low back pain; however this relationship has not been examined in ballroom dancers.

Methods and Measures: Lumbar multifidus cross-sectional area was assessed at rest on the right and left side at levels L1-L5. Thirty-seven subjects (age 24 ± 3.2 years; height, 172.8 ± 11 ...


Early Child Care And Adiposity At Kindergarten Entry, Jessica D. Mackle Aug 2012

Early Child Care And Adiposity At Kindergarten Entry, Jessica D. Mackle

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

The association between pre-school child care participation and markers of adiposity at kindergarten entry was examined using parent reported previous child care exposure and directly measured body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC) of kindergarten children (N=201; boys=106, girls=95). It was hypothesized that kindergarten children with previous exposure to full-time non-parent child care (FNPC; >20h/week) would have increased risk of overweight/obesity (BMI≥ 85th percentile) and high central adiposity (WC ≥80th percentile) compared to parent care (PC). The data suggest that there was no significant relationship between FNPC (n=112) and risk of ...


Development Of A Methodology For The Quantification Of Physiological Load For Soccer Players, Robert W. Wilson Aug 2012

Development Of A Methodology For The Quantification Of Physiological Load For Soccer Players, Robert W. Wilson

Theses and Dissertations

The overall aim of this research project was to devise valid mathematical models for quantifying the physiological load (PL) of practices and competitions for female and male NCAA Division I collegiate soccer players. Data from sub-maximal and maximal effort tests were used to construct these models. After development of the physiological load quantification (PLQ) models, the validity of them occurred by comparing them to the physiological gold standard of performed work, volume of oxygen consumed (V*O2). Last, comparisons of the scores from the PLQ models to the PL scores from the previous models occurred. In combination these three studies ...


Effects Of Physical Exertion And Alignment Alterations On Trans-Tibial Amputee Gait, And Concurrent Validity Of Prosthesis-Integrated Measurement Of Gait Kinetics, Goeran Fiedler Aug 2012

Effects Of Physical Exertion And Alignment Alterations On Trans-Tibial Amputee Gait, And Concurrent Validity Of Prosthesis-Integrated Measurement Of Gait Kinetics, Goeran Fiedler

Theses and Dissertations

This study investigated the effects of slight changes in the alignment of the artificial limb of trans-tibial amputees on the walking pattern on the level of forces and moments, particularly when physical exertion levels increase. Two alignment conditions were assessed in ten trans-tibial amputees while walking with low and with "strong" levels of exertion. Two separate data collection methods were utilized simultaneously: a conventional motion analysis, and continuous recordings from prosthesis-integrated force sensors. While the former was used to compare bilateral leg symmetry across conditions, the latter allowed analyzing unilateral step variability within subjects. This paper presents both analyses in ...


The Effects Of Plantar Fasciitis On Multi-Segment Foot Running Gait Kinematics, Robin Lee Bauer Aug 2012

The Effects Of Plantar Fasciitis On Multi-Segment Foot Running Gait Kinematics, Robin Lee Bauer

Theses and Dissertations

Plantar fasciitis is a common lower extremity injury caused by mechanical overload that affects 10% of all runners. Despite its commonality, research results investigating the etiology of the condition and the most efficacious treatment have been equivocal. A potential limitation of previous research assessing the mechanical changes associated with plantar fasciitis may be the modeling of the foot as a single segment. To date no study has investigated running kinematics in individuals with plantar fasciitis using a multi-segment foot model. Sonography has also reported plantar fascia thickening and degeneration associated with plantar fasciitis in non-athletic populations; however it has not ...