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Theses/Dissertations

Kinesiology

2011

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Full-Text Articles in Life Sciences

Psychometric Evaluation Of The Timeline Followback For Exercise Among Young Adults, Gregory A. Panza Dec 2011

Psychometric Evaluation Of The Timeline Followback For Exercise Among Young Adults, Gregory A. Panza

Master's Theses

Objectives: Two separate studies assessed psychometric properties of a retrospective behavioral measure adapted for exercise called the Timeline Followback for Exercise (TLFB-E). Study one examined criterion, convergent, and predictive validity. Study two examined test-retest reliability. Methods: Study one participants (N = 66) were college students 20.0 ± 1.4yr. Validity of frequency, intensity, time, and type of exercise as assessed on the TLFB-E was examined using Pearson r correlations with accelerometers, weekly exercise contracts between participants and researchers, College Alumni Questionnaire, and a health-related physical fitness battery. Study two participants were a separate sample (N = 40) of college students 18.63 ...


Pedometers Accelerometers And Observational Methods: A Comparison Of Measurements Of Physical Activity In Fourth-Grade Students., Amanda E. Greene Dec 2011

Pedometers Accelerometers And Observational Methods: A Comparison Of Measurements Of Physical Activity In Fourth-Grade Students., Amanda E. Greene

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

In recent years physical inactivity among students has become a matter of great concern. Nearly 65% of students do not meet the daily recommended level of physical activity, which is 60 minutes or more of moderate to vigorous physical activity each day, with 50% of that time being spent in moderate to vigorous levels of activity (CDC, 2010b). As a result, the 21st century has shown to be a time of many health problems such as, obesity, diabetes, and heart disease. In fact, nearly one third of all children are considered obese or overweight (Slawta & DeNeui, 2009). Researchers ...


Use Of Isometric Mid-Thigh Pull To Determine Asymmetrical Strength Differences In Ncaa D-I Athletes., Ethan Monroe Owens Dec 2011

Use Of Isometric Mid-Thigh Pull To Determine Asymmetrical Strength Differences In Ncaa D-I Athletes., Ethan Monroe Owens

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

The purpose of this study is to investigate the use of isometric mid-thigh pulls to determine lower-limb asymmetrical strength differences in NCAA D-I athletes. Sixty-six subjects (40 males and 26 females) performed 2 maximal effort isometric pulls over two force plates sampling at 1000 Hz each. Peak force was scaled for body weight, and rate of force development was examined from 0-200ms. Results of the study show subjects' produced significantly greater scaled force with the left leg as compared to the right leg; however, no significant differences existed for rate of force development (RFD). Men exhibited significant differences between both ...


The Effect Of N-Acetylcysteine Supplementation On Recovery Of Strength Following Eccentric Muscle Injury, Ryan C. Luke Dec 2011

The Effect Of N-Acetylcysteine Supplementation On Recovery Of Strength Following Eccentric Muscle Injury, Ryan C. Luke

Kinesiology Dissertations

This study determined the effect of N-acetylcysteine (NAC) supplementation on recovery of strength following eccentric muscle injury. Female subjects (n = 21, age = 20.7 ± .10 yr, weight = 68.05 ± 10.3 kg, height = 1.69 ± .07 m) performed one bout of eccentric exercise involving the forearm flexor muscles. Subjects were given a placebo (food-grade cellulose; n = 10) or NAC supplement (10 mg·kg-1 bw·d-1; n = 11) for 7D prior to and 14D following the exercise bout. Maximal Voluntary Contraction (MVC) torque, muscle soreness, range of motion (ROM), and arm circumference were measured at pre-exercise, immediately post-exercise, and ...


The Effects Of Whole Body Vibration On Dorsiflexion In Chronic Ankle Instability, Lesley Abigail Thalman Dec 2011

The Effects Of Whole Body Vibration On Dorsiflexion In Chronic Ankle Instability, Lesley Abigail Thalman

Theses and Dissertations

BACKGROUND: Whole body vibration (WBV) platforms are currently used as adjunctive training devices for exercise programs, and have been shown to facilitate flexibility. One of the biggest contributing factors to chronic ankle instability (CAI) is the lack of dorsiflexion after lateral ankle sprains and WBV may be an effective way to increase range of motion in this population. PURPOSE: Determine if WBV done concurrently with static stretching (SS) is more effective then SS alone in improving dorsiflexion ROM in subjects with CAI. METHODS: Subjects were divided into 3 groups (control, static stretch, and static stretch and vibrate). Subjects stretched 4 ...


Neuromechanical Alterations Due To Induced Knee Pain And Effusion During Functional Movements, Jihong Park Dec 2011

Neuromechanical Alterations Due To Induced Knee Pain And Effusion During Functional Movements, Jihong Park

Theses and Dissertations

Purpose: Examine neuromechanical alterations due to isolated and/or combined knee pain and effusion in functional movements. Methods: A 4X3 randomised controlled laboratory study with repeated measures was used. Nineteen, healthy volunteers (age: 22.4 ± 2.4 years) underwent four different treatments (control, effusion, pain, and pain/effusion) with a week wash out period. Ten near-infrared cameras with 43 reflective markers, 12 surface EMG electrodes, and two ground-embedded force platforms were used to record neuromechanical changes during functional movements (walking and drop landing). To induce pain, 5% sodium chloride (1 ml) was injected into the infrapatellar fat pad. To induce ...


Skeletal Muscle Function, Morphology, And Biochemistry In Ts65dn Mice: A Model Of Down Syndrome, Patrick Michael Cowley Dec 2011

Skeletal Muscle Function, Morphology, And Biochemistry In Ts65dn Mice: A Model Of Down Syndrome, Patrick Michael Cowley

Exercise Science - Dissertations

A common clinical observation of persons with Down syndrome at all developmental stages is hypotonia and generalized muscle weakness. The cause of muscle weakness in Down syndrome is not known and there is an immediate need to establish an acceptable animal model to explore the muscle dysfunction that is widely reported in the human population. Using a combination of functional, histological, and biochemical analyses this dissertation provides the initial characterization of skeletal muscle from the Ts65Dn mouse, a model of Down syndrome. The experiments revealed that Ts65Dn muscle over-expresses SOD1 protein but this did not lead to oxidative stress. Ts65Dn ...


Effect Of A Work Site Exercise Program On Selected Fitness And Psychological Parameters, Kristen Ann Christiansen Dec 2011

Effect Of A Work Site Exercise Program On Selected Fitness And Psychological Parameters, Kristen Ann Christiansen

UNLV Theses, Dissertations, Professional Papers, and Capstones

The increasing rates of obesity continue to threaten the vitality of our nation. Health care costs are soaring and chronic diseases are reaching even the youngest populations. Physical activity is an integral component in reversing the obesity epidemic and improving the health of today's workforce. The present study sought to determine the effect of a work site exercise program on select fitness and psychological parameters. Five female employees participated in a six-week exercise program utilizing HealthBeat(TM) outdoor exercise equipment in a circuit fashion for 30 minutes, 2 days per week. Eighty percent of participants were categorized as sedentary ...


The Relationship Of Strength And Body Composition To Vertical Jump Ability In Division 1 Female Volleyball Players., Alyssa Shedlarski Dec 2011

The Relationship Of Strength And Body Composition To Vertical Jump Ability In Division 1 Female Volleyball Players., Alyssa Shedlarski

Undergraduate Honors Theses

Jump ability is important in volleyball; therefore analysis of factors that influence jump performance is necessary to ensure maximal jump ability. Purpose: To analyze how strength characteristics associated with jumping are affected by percent body fat, lean body mass and free fat mass. Methods: Data from eleven female NCAA DI volleyball players as part of an ongoing athlete monitoring program collected from 2007-2010 was analyzed. Data was separated into weakest and strongest based on isometric peak force allometrically scaled. In all cases the weakest data corresponded to testing during the athletes first year at ETSU. Body composition was measured using ...


Determining The Validity Of The Nintendo Wii Balance Board As An Assessment Tool For Balance, Sabrina Mae Deans Dec 2011

Determining The Validity Of The Nintendo Wii Balance Board As An Assessment Tool For Balance, Sabrina Mae Deans

UNLV Theses, Dissertations, Professional Papers, and Capstones

Context. Application of the Nintendo Wii-fit balance board and its games have been used in Physical Therapy clinics, showing success in individuals with neurological disorders, and has been recommended as a minimum baseline assessment of a symptoms checklist and standardized cognitive and balance assessments for concussion management by the NCAA. However, it still faces challenges of being considered a reliable and consistent tool for producing normative data in the allied healthcare. Because there is little to no evidence for the Wii-fit balance board as a valid balance assessment tool for clinical and/or research usage, the significance of this study ...


Computational Approaches To Understand Phenotypic Structure And Constitutive Mechanics Relationships Of Single Cells, Scott Wood Dec 2011

Computational Approaches To Understand Phenotypic Structure And Constitutive Mechanics Relationships Of Single Cells, Scott Wood

All Dissertations

The goal of this work is to better understand the relationship between the structure and function of biological cells by simulating their nonlinear mechanical behavior under static and dynamic loading using image structure-based finite element modeling (FEM). Vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) are chosen for this study due to the strong correlation of the geometric arrangement of their structural components on their mechanical behavior and the implications of that behavior on diseases such as atherosclerosis.
VSMCs are modeled here using a linear elastic material model together with truss elements, which simulate the cytoskeletal fiber network that provides the cells with ...


The Effect Of Six Weeks Of Oral Echinacea Supplementation On Erythropoiesis, Nitric Oxide Production, And Exercise Performance, Tyler David Martin Dec 2011

The Effect Of Six Weeks Of Oral Echinacea Supplementation On Erythropoiesis, Nitric Oxide Production, And Exercise Performance, Tyler David Martin

Dissertations

The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effect of six weeks of oral Echinacea supplementation on serum erythropoietin (EPO) and erythropoietic status, plasma nitric oxide [NO], submaximal endurance exercise performance, and maximal oxygen uptake (V˙O2max). Twenty-four males (mean ± SE): age = 25.2 ± 1.4 yr, height = 178.1 ± 1.4 cm, mass = 78.1 ± 1.6 kg, percent body fat = 12.7 ± 0.9 %, V˙Omax = 52.9 ± 0.9 mL·kg-1·min-1 were randomly grouped using a matched-pair, double-blind design and self-administered 8,000 mg·d-1(5 × 400 mg × 4 ...


Hospitality Students Perceptions About High Risk Behaviors In Relation To Destructive Behaviors And Decision Making, Boris A. Roslov Dec 2011

Hospitality Students Perceptions About High Risk Behaviors In Relation To Destructive Behaviors And Decision Making, Boris A. Roslov

Theses and Dissertations

This study investigated hospitality students' perceptions regarding alcohol consumption and personal actions related to high risk behaviors. Those behaviors included: sexual encounters and binge drinking, and their effect on academic tasks and performance. The study investigated whether the hospitality student who is employed full time consumes alcohol at a higher level than a hospitality student does that is not employed full time.


Dietary Fiber Consumption And Insulin Resistance: The Role Of Body Fat And Physical Activity, Charity B. Breneman Nov 2011

Dietary Fiber Consumption And Insulin Resistance: The Role Of Body Fat And Physical Activity, Charity B. Breneman

Theses and Dissertations

Background: This study was conducted to determine the association between fiber intake and insulin resistance in 264 women using a cross-sectional design. Methods: Insulin resistance was indexed using HOMA-IR (fasting insulin (μU/mL)×fasting glucose (mg/dL)/405). HOMA-IR values were log transformed. Fiber and energy consumption were assessed using 7-day weighed food records. Fiber was expressed as grams per 1000 kilocalories. Body fat percentage (BF%) was measured using the BOD POD and physical activity (PA) was ascertained using Actigraph accelerometers worn for 7 consecutive days. Results: (Mean±SD) age: 40.1±3.0 years, glucose: 86.7±5.9 ...


Effect Of Experimentally-Induced Anterior Knee Pain On Postural Control, Emily Elizabeth Falk Nov 2011

Effect Of Experimentally-Induced Anterior Knee Pain On Postural Control, Emily Elizabeth Falk

Theses and Dissertations

Context: Knee pain is experienced by many people. Because of this, authors have started researching the effects of pain on lower extremity mechanics and also on static and dynamic postural control. However, the effects of pain are difficult to study due to associated confounding variables. Objective: We asked: (1) Will experimentally-induced anterior knee pain alter perceived pain using the visual analogue scale? ; (2) will perceived pain affect postural control as measured by center-of-pressure during static and dynamic movement? Design: Crossover. Setting: Biomechanics laboratory. Participants: Fifteen healthy subjects. Intervention: Each subject participated in single leg quiet stance, landing, and walking trials ...


The Effect Of An Acute Bout Of Exercise On Food Motivation, Energy Intake, And Total Physical Activity In Normal-Weight And Obese Woman: An Event-Related Potential Study, Nonie Erin Bliss Hanlon Nov 2011

The Effect Of An Acute Bout Of Exercise On Food Motivation, Energy Intake, And Total Physical Activity In Normal-Weight And Obese Woman: An Event-Related Potential Study, Nonie Erin Bliss Hanlon

Theses and Dissertations

This study examined the effect of acute exercise on food motivation, energy intake, and total physical activity in normal-weight and obese women. Participants of both groups were matched (except for Body Mass Index) and conditions (exercise vs. non-exercise) were randomized and counter-balanced. Eighteen normal-weight and 17 obese women completed an exercise and non-exercise day, each performed on the same day of the week. Exercise was performed on a motor-driven treadmill at 3.8 mph and 0% grade for 45 continuous minutes. To test for food motivation, participants were shown a continuous stream of pictures of food and flowers (control) while ...


Cellular And Molecular Changes Following Skeletal Muscle Damage: A Role For Nf-Kb And Muscle Resident Pericytes, Robert H. Hyldahl Sep 2011

Cellular And Molecular Changes Following Skeletal Muscle Damage: A Role For Nf-Kb And Muscle Resident Pericytes, Robert H. Hyldahl

Open Access Dissertations

Skeletal muscle is dynamic and actively regenerates following damage or altered functional demand. Regeneration is essential for the maintenance of muscle mass and, when dysregulated as a result of disease or aging, can lead to losses in functional capacity and increased mortality. Limited data exist on the molecular mechanisms that govern skeletal muscle regeneration in humans. Therefore, the overall objective of this dissertation was to characterize early molecular alterations in human skeletal muscle to strenuous exercise known to induce a muscle regenerative response. Thirty-five subjects completed 100 eccentric (muscle lengthening) contractions (EC) of the knee extensors with one leg and ...


Variability Of Vertical Ground Reaction Forces In Patients With Chronic Low Back Pain, Before And After Chiropractic Care., Brent S. Russell, Mark D. Geil, Jianhua Wu, Kathryn T. Hoiriis Aug 2011

Variability Of Vertical Ground Reaction Forces In Patients With Chronic Low Back Pain, Before And After Chiropractic Care., Brent S. Russell, Mark D. Geil, Jianhua Wu, Kathryn T. Hoiriis

Kinesiology Theses

Introduction

Many chiropractic articles and textbooks discuss gait, but there actually has been little research into the effects of chiropractic adjustment on gait. This pilot study used a quantitative method of gait evaluation before and after a series of chiropractic visits. Hypotheses: (1) adults with chronic low back pain (CLBP) would show increased variability in vertical ground reaction forces (VGRF) while walking, as compared to healthy control subjects, and (2) that, following chiropractic care, will show decreased variability.

Methods

VGRF data were collected for 6 controls and compared to 9 CLBP participants, who were also evaluated before and after the ...


Effects Of Exercise Training On Fat Oxidation In Untrained Overweight And Obese Females, Kelly Manning Aug 2011

Effects Of Exercise Training On Fat Oxidation In Untrained Overweight And Obese Females, Kelly Manning

Kinesiology Dissertations

This study examined whether a high-intensity interval (IT) or a continuous steady-state (CT) exercise training program had the greatest effect on fat oxidation rates and fat mass loss in a population of untrained overweight and obese females. Thirteen female subjects (VO2peak 30.6 ± 1.29 ml.kg.min-1, BMI 29 ± 0.79, fat mass [FM] 33.3 ± 2.09 kg) were randomly assigned to either a CT (exercise at the relative intensity that elicits the maximal fat oxidation rate [FATmax] ) or an IT (intervals alternating 5 minutes at 40% and 85% VO2peak) training group that exercised ...


Investigating The Effectiveness Of Physical Activity Interventions For Older Adults, Iina E. Antikainen Aug 2011

Investigating The Effectiveness Of Physical Activity Interventions For Older Adults, Iina E. Antikainen

Kinesiology Dissertations

Regular physical activity can help prevent chronic conditions and it is positively linked to health-related quality of life (United States Department of Health and Human Services [USDHHS], 2000). Unfortunately, many older adults do not engage in leisure time activity (USDHHS, 2000); making it important to design and test physical activity interventions for this population. The purpose of this dissertation was to review the external validity of theory-based physical activity interventions and to examine the efficacy of a mail-based physical activity intervention. The review included 54 theory-based interventions and overall the studies focused on internal rather than external validity. The hypotheses ...


Experiences Of Embodiment: Analysis Of Muslim Women's Participation In Physical Activity, Natalie V.K Szudy Aug 2011

Experiences Of Embodiment: Analysis Of Muslim Women's Participation In Physical Activity, Natalie V.K Szudy

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

This dissertation examines the relationship the „lived body‟ experiences of veiled Muslim females in sport and physical activity. When considering the relationship between religious requirements and participation in sport and physical activity, the discussion of the conflicts that have occurred with some veiled Muslim female athletes can support the examination of the articulation of sport and religion. In this dissertation, I will explore the application of logical and philosophical discussion as an analytic framework in the evaluation of social, cultural and religious discourse. The application of this framework will contribute to the evaluation of epistemological premises that have contributed to ...


The Effect Of Local Heating On The Concentration Of Interstitial Atp In Human Skin, Jayson R. Gifford Aug 2011

The Effect Of Local Heating On The Concentration Of Interstitial Atp In Human Skin, Jayson R. Gifford

Theses and Dissertations

Skin blood flow (SKBF) demonstrates a biphasic response to innocuous, local heating. Much about the mechanism of the first phase is unknown. A type of ion channel (TRPV3) sensitive to and increasingly activated by temperatures from ~33 to ~45°C may be involved. TRPV3 channels are abundantly located in the keratinocytes and are believed to elicit the release of ATP, a putative cutaneous vasodilator, upon activation. This study investigated the possibility that TRPV3 channels and ATP have a role in the first phase of the SBKF response to local heat. Fifteen young, healthy subjects participated in the study. Two microdialysis ...


Effect Of High-Speed Treadmill Training With A Body Weight Support System In A Sport Acceleration Program, Carie Suzanne Eastman Aug 2011

Effect Of High-Speed Treadmill Training With A Body Weight Support System In A Sport Acceleration Program, Carie Suzanne Eastman

Theses and Dissertations

Introduction: Maximum running acceleration essential components in many sports. The identification of specific training protocols to maximize sprint speed would be useful knowledge for soccer coaches and players.

Purpose: The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of a high-speed treadmill with the use of a body-weight support system in a 6-week sport acceleration program on: 40-yard sprint time, maximal isometric knee flexor and extensor strength.

Methods: 32 female soccer players (age 16 ± 1.19 yrs) participated in two treatment groups and one control group. Both treatment groups participated in a 12-session sport acceleration program. The first treatment ...


Kinematic Changes During A Marathon For Fast And Slow Runners, Maggie Man-Yee Chan-Roper Aug 2011

Kinematic Changes During A Marathon For Fast And Slow Runners, Maggie Man-Yee Chan-Roper

Theses and Dissertations

The purpose of this study was to describe kinematic changes that occur during an actual marathon. We hypothesized that (1) certain running kinematic measures would change between miles 5 and 25 of a marathon and (2) fast runners would demonstrate smaller changes than slow runners. Subjects (n = 179) were selected according to finish time (Range = 2:20:47 to 5:30:10). Two high-speed cameras were used to measure sagittal-plane kinematics at miles 5 and 25 of the marathon. The dependent variables were stride length, ground time, peak knee flexion during support and swing, and peak hip flexion and extension ...


Differences In The Mechanics Between The Dominant And Non-Dominant Plant Limb During Instep Soccer Kicking, Cassidy M. Berlin Aug 2011

Differences In The Mechanics Between The Dominant And Non-Dominant Plant Limb During Instep Soccer Kicking, Cassidy M. Berlin

Boise State University Theses and Dissertations

INTRODUCTION: Over the past 15 years, participation in women’s soccer has increased drastically and with that comes increased exposure to injury. When athletes perform deceleration tasks, such as planting the limb during a kick, there is an increased risk of anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury. Low knee flexion angles at contact, high posterior ground reaction force (GRF), increased lateral trunk lean, high knee abduction angle, and high knee external rotation of the knee have all been identified as potential mechanisms of ACL injury during deceleration tasks. At higher levels of competition, a soccer player becomes more valuable if they ...


An Exploratory Biomechanical Analysis Of The Side-To-Side Swing Patterns Of Three Skilled Switch Hitters, Francesca Marie Castellucci Aug 2011

An Exploratory Biomechanical Analysis Of The Side-To-Side Swing Patterns Of Three Skilled Switch Hitters, Francesca Marie Castellucci

Master's Theses and Project Reports

The ability to successfully switch hit, or hit a baseball from both sides of the plate, requires a great amount of practice and coordination bilaterally. This study used three-dimensional kinematic and kinetic data to examine the swing patterns of skilled switch hitters in baseball. Three male minor league and division I collegiate switch hitters participated. Subjects stood on force plates and hit baseballs off a tee while their swings were recorded with a three-dimensional optical motion capture system. Each subject performed twenty total swings, ten from the right and ten from the left. The swings were digitally analyzed and the ...


Effects Of Chainring Design On Performance In Competitive Cyclists, Christiane Rose O'Hara Aug 2011

Effects Of Chainring Design On Performance In Competitive Cyclists, Christiane Rose O'Hara

Master's Theses and Project Reports

The development of noncircular chainrings to improve cycling performance has been in progress since the 1980’s and continues apace. The aim of this study was to compare performance time and physiological responses in cycling using a standard circular chainring versus a noncircular chainring developed in 2005: the Rotor Q-Ring. Eight competitive male cyclists were pre-tested using the original circular chainrings and also on the initial week of testing. The intervention consisted of cycling with Rotor Q-Rings for four weeks. Post-testing occurred with the original chainrings for the final week of testing. Testing consisted of a maximal or submaximal graded ...


Foam Rolling As A Warm-Up: The Effect On Lower Extremity Flexibility Compared To Aerobic And Stretching Protocols, Jeremy Ray Bushong Aug 2011

Foam Rolling As A Warm-Up: The Effect On Lower Extremity Flexibility Compared To Aerobic And Stretching Protocols, Jeremy Ray Bushong

Theses and Dissertations

Foam rolling has recently become popular in the realms of athletic training, strength and conditioning, and fitness enthusiasts as a means to decrease stiffness, improve flexibility, and manage pain . However, little is known about the physiological effects of foam rolling or its role in improving flexibility pre- or post-exercise. The purpose of this project is to examine and compare the effects of foam rolling, aerobic cycling, and stretching on lower extremity flexibility. Nineteen participants (10 female, 9 male) volunteered to test sit-and-reach flexibility after performing four different warm-up protocols on different days. The warm-up protocols were: Foam Rolling for five ...


Effect Of Handedness On Gross Motor Skill Acquisition Among College Undergraduates, Anthony Paul Parish Aug 2011

Effect Of Handedness On Gross Motor Skill Acquisition Among College Undergraduates, Anthony Paul Parish

Theses and Dissertations

There is little applicable research investigating educational adaptation for handedness and even less research dealing with physical skill development. Given that PE teachers and students frequently rely on demonstrations to enhance learning, this study sought to determine if the congruence between teacher and student handedness is important? It was hypothesized that performance and form scores of left-handers that see a right-handed demonstration would be significantly higher than those of right-handers that see a left-handed demonstration.

A lacrosse shot was demonstrated to a group of 69 college-aged participants that were equally split in numbers between male and female and left and ...


Athletic Training Students' Ability To Identify Scapular Dyskinesis, Priscilla M. Dwelly Aug 2011

Athletic Training Students' Ability To Identify Scapular Dyskinesis, Priscilla M. Dwelly

Theses and Dissertations

Scapular dyskinesis refers to abnormal movement patterns of the scapula, which have been associated with injury. Previous investigations have validated the scapular dyskinesis test as a visual assessment method using physicians, physical therapists, and certified athletic trainers. Through educational programs, athletic training students should be taught what scapular dyskinesis is and how to identify it. Therefore, the purpose of this investigation was to (a) evaluate entry-level graduate athletic training students' ability to identify scapular dyskinesis, (b) assess their reliability, and (c) determine if they were able to correctly identify the muscles involved in rehabilitating an individual with scapular dyskinesis. Follow-up ...