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Full-Text Articles in Life Sciences

A Biomechanical Analysis Of Male And Female Intermediate Hurdlers And Steeplechasers, Laurence R. Bollschweiler Dec 2007

A Biomechanical Analysis Of Male And Female Intermediate Hurdlers And Steeplechasers, Laurence R. Bollschweiler

Theses and Dissertations

In the sport of track and field, proper hurdling technique is a complicated combination of various running and jumping kinematics. With most research having been done on sprint hurdling, there is a growing need for research on hurdling events of different lengths. The intermediate hurdles (IH) and the steeplechase (SC) are two events where there are a number of differences in hurdling technique. This study compared the differences in hurdling technique between events (IH and SC) as well as the differences in technique between genders. Subjects for this study consisted of 20 elite intermediate hurdlers (10 male, 10 female) and ...


Exercise Induced Hypervolemia: Role Of Exercise Mode, William Bradley Nelson Nov 2007

Exercise Induced Hypervolemia: Role Of Exercise Mode, William Bradley Nelson

Theses and Dissertations

The supine posture has been shown to limit exercise-induced plasma volume expansion. Differences in hydrostatic pressure gradients between the standing and seated position indicate that treadmill exercise might promote a greater plasma volume expansion than cycle ergometer exercise. To test this hypothesis ten subjects performed intermittent high intensity exercise (4 min at 85% VO2max, 5 min at 40% VO2max repeated 8 times) on separate days on the treadmill and cycle ergometer. Changes in plasma volume expansion were calculated from changes in hematocrit and hemoglobin. Stroke volume (SV), trans-thoracic impedance (Z0), HR, and arterial blood pressure (non-invasive arm cuff, SBP & DBP ...


Plasma Volume And Albumin Mrna Expression In Exercise Trained Rats, Nathan Alex Bexfield Aug 2007

Plasma Volume And Albumin Mrna Expression In Exercise Trained Rats, Nathan Alex Bexfield

Theses and Dissertations

Introduction- Exercise-induced plasma volume (PV) expansion is typically associated with an increase in plasma albumin content. Increased hepatic albumin synthesis, a transcriptionally regulated process, is thought to contribute to the increase in albumin content. Objective- We tested the hypothesis that exercise training induces an increase in albumin gene expression in relationship to the increase in PV. Methods and Results- 40 adult male Sprague-Dawley rats weighing between 245-350 grams were randomly assigned to one of four groups: cage control (CC); sham exercise 10 min/day at 48% VO2max (NE); continuous exercise training, 60 min /day at 72% VO2max (LI); and high ...


The Effects Of Movement On Literacy., Kathy S. Luppe Aug 2007

The Effects Of Movement On Literacy., Kathy S. Luppe

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

The purpose of this study was to extend the knowledge of the relationship between movement and cognition by examining the impact of a sensory-motor program on the literacy skills of first grade learners from one elementary school in East Tennessee.

Literacy skills were evaluated using five subtests of the Dynamic Indicators of Basic Early Literacy Skills (DIBELS) assessment.

A 2 x 2 x 2 mixed factorial MANOVA was used to analyze group, gender, and test time effects on multiple dependent variables. The analysis yielded a statistically significant result (p < .05) in gains for the movement group and a significant interaction ...


Junior High Students' Perceptions Of The Fitnessgram Fitness Test, Emily Mcomber Welch Jul 2007

Junior High Students' Perceptions Of The Fitnessgram Fitness Test, Emily Mcomber Welch

Theses and Dissertations

The Fitnessgram is a battery of fitness tests designed for children and adolescents. These tests include aerobic capacity, body composition, muscle strength and endurance, and flexibility. Students are not compared to each other, rather to health fitness standards, specific to age and gender, which indicate good health. The purpose of this study was to identify student perceptions of the Fitnessgram fitness test. This study used surveys (N=82), and follow-up focus-group interviews (N=16) to identify student perceptions of the Fitnessgram fitness test. Results using the constant comparative method revealed three major categories: (1) students' perceptions of the purpose of ...


The Influence Of Performance Level And Setting On Collegiate Athletes' Motivational Profiles, Shareen Brooke Smith Jul 2007

The Influence Of Performance Level And Setting On Collegiate Athletes' Motivational Profiles, Shareen Brooke Smith

Theses and Dissertations

The purpose of this study was to determine if motivational profiles of individual collegiate team sport athletes differ across ability levels (High, Middle, and Low) and settings (Team Practice, Competition, and Personal Practice). The athletes task and ego disposition, autonomy, and contextual motivation, were assessed using the Perception of Success Questionnaire (POSQ), Sport Climate Questionnaire (SCQ), and Sport Motivational Scale (SMS), pre and postseason. Their anxiety levels and situational motivation were measured using the Sport Anxiety Scale (SAS) and the Situational Motivational Scale (SIMS) during the season. The General Causality Orientations Scale (GCOS) was used pre and postseason to assess ...


Development Of A Notational Analysis System To Evaluate Setting Performance In Volleyball, Nina Puikkonen Mortensen Jun 2007

Development Of A Notational Analysis System To Evaluate Setting Performance In Volleyball, Nina Puikkonen Mortensen

Theses and Dissertations

The purposes of this study were to develop a notational analysis system to evaluate volleyball setting performance independent of the actions of the hitter and to use the data to develop a Markovian transitional matrix that would make known the probabilities of specific outcomes from each setting scenario. Setting performance was analyzed based on the sets distance from the net, height of the set, and position of the set in relation to the hitter as viewed from 13 filmed competitions of a Division I intercollegiate women's volleyball team. Data from the notation of 1353 sets were used to develop ...


Dietary Fiber Intake And Body Fat Gain: A Prospective Cohort Study Of Middle-Aged Women, Kathryn Suzanne Thomas Jun 2007

Dietary Fiber Intake And Body Fat Gain: A Prospective Cohort Study Of Middle-Aged Women, Kathryn Suzanne Thomas

Theses and Dissertations

This study was conducted to determine the extent to which changes in dietary fiber consumption affect weight and body fat percentage (BF%) over time. An auxiliary objective was to examine the influence of age, total caloric intake, and physical activity (PA) on the relationship between changes in fiber intake and changes in body composition over time. Design/ Subjects: Prospective cohort design with baseline and follow-up assessments 20 months apart and 252 middle-aged women (40.1±3.0 y). Diet, particularly caloric and fiber intake, was measured using 7-day weighed food records. Body fat was assessed via the Bod Pod, and ...


The Effects Of The Front Squat And Back Squat On Vertical Jump And Lower Body Power Index Of Division 1 Male Volleyball Players, Manu Hoani Peeni Jun 2007

The Effects Of The Front Squat And Back Squat On Vertical Jump And Lower Body Power Index Of Division 1 Male Volleyball Players, Manu Hoani Peeni

Theses and Dissertations

The purpose of this study was to compare effects of the front squat and back squat on vertical jump and lower body power index of division 1 male volleyball players. Eighteen NCAA Division 1 male volleyball players volunteered for this study and were assigned either to a back squat or a front squat training program group. Subjects followed the training program for 8 weeks. Counter-movement vertical jump (CMVJ) height and lower body power index were measured at 0, 4 and 8 weeks of the study. A 2x3 factorial ANOVA revealed no significant difference in CMVJ height and power index between ...


C-Reactive Protein Levels According To Physical Activity And Body Weight For Participants In The Coronary Health Improvement Project, Michael T. Massey Jun 2007

C-Reactive Protein Levels According To Physical Activity And Body Weight For Participants In The Coronary Health Improvement Project, Michael T. Massey

Theses and Dissertations

Objectives. Evaluate C-reactive protein (CRP) levels according to weight and physical activity. The study explored how changes in CRP were associated with baseline CRP, weight, and physical activity and changes in these variables.

Methods. A randomized controlled study design assigned 348 individuals to the intervention or control group with measurements taken at baseline, 6 weeks, and 6 months of body weight, physical activity, and serum CRP levels. Participants attended an intensive 40-hour educational course delivered over a four-week period.

Results. At baseline, CRP was negatively associated with total steps/week, and positively associated with weight, BMI, percent fat, and saturated ...


Ground Reaction Force Differences Between Running Shoes, Racing Flats, And Distance Spikes In Runners, Suzanna Jean Logan Jun 2007

Ground Reaction Force Differences Between Running Shoes, Racing Flats, And Distance Spikes In Runners, Suzanna Jean Logan

Theses and Dissertations

To measure the differences in ground reaction forces between running shoes, racing flats, and distance spikes, twenty intercollegiate distance runners ran across a force plate at 6.7m/s (for males) and 5.74m/s (for females) in each of the three types of shoes. In order to control for differences in foot strike, only subjects who had a heel strike were included in the data analysis (N=16). Repeated-measures ANOVA and Tukey's post-hoc test (p<0.05) revealed loading rate and impact peak to be significantly increased in the flats and spikes compared to running shoes. Stiffness in spikes was significantly higher than in running shoes. Stance time in spikes and flats was decreased. These results can be used to better inform competitive runners, coaches, and trainers of the risks and performance benefits when determining the frequency and duration of the use of competitive footwear in training.


Emotional Health And Weight Gain: A Prospective Study Of Middle-Aged Women, Ann Bahr Jun 2007

Emotional Health And Weight Gain: A Prospective Study Of Middle-Aged Women, Ann Bahr

Theses and Dissertations

The objective of this study was to investigate the extent to which risk of gaining weight or body fat is affected by emotional health in women. A secondary objective was to determine the influence of age, baseline weight and body fat, physical activity (PA), energy intake, and changes in PA and energy intake, on the relationship between emotional health and gains in weight and body fat. The study was a prospective cohort investigation over 20 months of 256 healthy, non-obese females (age: 35-45 y, BMI < 30 kg/m2). All subjects were assessed for several variables using objective measurements at baseline and again at 20 months. Emotional health was assessed using the General Well-Being Schedule. Body fat percentage was indexed using the Bod Pod. PA was measured objectively using MTI (CSA) accelerometers, and energy intake was measured using weighed, 7-day food records. The results of the study demonstrated that risk of gains in weight and body fat were no greater in depressed women compared to their counterparts. However, 171 (66.8%) subjects demonstrated less than positive (LTP) emotional health at baseline, and 37.4% of these subjects gained weight during the 20-month study. Conversely, 85 (33.2%) subjects had positive emotional health at baseline, but only 23.5% gained weight over the investigational period. With no variables controlled, women with LTP emotional health had 59% greater risk of weight gain over the study period than women with positive emotional health (RR 1.59, 95% CI = 1.04-2.44). Women with LTP emotional health were at no greater risk of gains in body fat percentage than women with positive emotional health (RR 0.96, 95% CI = 0.70-1.33). After adjusting for each potential confounder individually, risk of gaining weight or body fat did not change. However, after adjusting for all of the potential confounders simultaneously, risk of weight gain was weakened (RR 1.43, 95% CI = 0.93-2.21). These results seem to demonstrate that middle-aged women with LTP emotional health may be at increased risk of gaining weight compared to women with positive emotional health.


Physiologic Changes Occurring During A 592-Mile Hike On The Appalachian Trail, Patricia Gayle Williams May 2007

Physiologic Changes Occurring During A 592-Mile Hike On The Appalachian Trail, Patricia Gayle Williams

Masters Theses

The purpose of this study was to assess physiologic changes during a 592-mile hike of the Appalachian Trail. The participants included 2 physically active nonsmoking male adults, 23 and 26 years of age. The participants were both experienced backpackers attempting a 592-mile northbound hike of the AT in the summer of 2006. Participants were tested before and after hiking. Participants underwent the following tests: resting BP, resting HR, height and weight, body fat, BMD, lactate threshold, VO2peak, maximal HR, curl-ups, push-ups, and sit-and-reach. Although the hike was ended prematurely after 474 miles, many changes were observed. Body mass, body ...


Validity Of The Crouter 2-Regression Model For Predicting Energy Expenditure: Transitions From Rest To Activity, Erin E. Kuffel May 2007

Validity Of The Crouter 2-Regression Model For Predicting Energy Expenditure: Transitions From Rest To Activity, Erin E. Kuffel

Masters Theses

The Crouter 2-regression model (15) is a new approach for predicting MET values. However, the Crouter 2-regression model may misclassify walking/jogging during transition periods (i.e. during the first and last minute of the activity) due to the high coefficient of variation resulting in an overestimation of MET values. Purpose: The purpose was to examine the Crouter 2-regression model for predicting MET values during transitions from rest to activity and back to rest. It was hypothesized that starting a walking bout partway through a minute will lead to a misclassification, due to the high coefficient of variation, and therefore ...


The Effects Of Sex Hormones On Physical Characteristics Of The Medial Collateral Ligament In Prepubescent Female Rats, Eileen Brennan Apr 2007

The Effects Of Sex Hormones On Physical Characteristics Of The Medial Collateral Ligament In Prepubescent Female Rats, Eileen Brennan

Life and Environmental Sciences Undergraduate Theses

About 100,000 injuries to anterior cruciate ligaments (ACL) occur annually in the United States, with females reporting an ACL injury rate two to eight times higher than their male counterparts. Many intrinsic and extrinsic factors have been cited to explain the disparity between rates of injury between males and females, such as anatomical differences, joint laxity, training technique, and sex hormones, the focus of the present research. Estrogen has been shown to decrease collagen content within ligament tissue whereas progesterone has been shown to inhibit estrogen and in some cases promote the production of collagen. Testosterone has been linked ...


The Effect Of Three Foot Orthoses On Plantar Pressure Under The First Metatarsophalangeal Joint Of Pes Planus Foot Type During Standing And Slow Running, Lacey Ann Nordsiden Apr 2007

The Effect Of Three Foot Orthoses On Plantar Pressure Under The First Metatarsophalangeal Joint Of Pes Planus Foot Type During Standing And Slow Running, Lacey Ann Nordsiden

Human Movement Sciences Theses & Dissertations

The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of three different foot orthoses on plantar pressure under the first metatarsophalangeal joint during standing and slow running. Twenty physically active participants, 12 males (19.7±1.3 years, 181.5±6.3cm, 83.6±12.3kg) and 8 females (20.8±1.5 years, 172.7±11.2cm, 69.9±14.2kg) with navicular drop greater than 10mm, no history of surgery to the lower extremity, and no history of pain or injury to the 1st metatarsophalangeal joint in the past six months volunteered for the study. Each subject ...


Whole-Body Vibration Compared To Traditional Physical Therapy In Individuals With Total Knee Arthroplasty, Aaron W. Johnson Mar 2007

Whole-Body Vibration Compared To Traditional Physical Therapy In Individuals With Total Knee Arthroplasty, Aaron W. Johnson

Theses and Dissertations

The purpose of the present study was to compare total knee arthroplasty (TKA) rehabilitation with and without whole-body vibration (WBV) to 1) understand if WBV is a useful treatment during TKA rehabilitation to increase quadriceps strength and function, and 2) to investigate the effect of WBV on quadriceps voluntary muscle activation. Subject and Methods. Individuals post TKA (WBV n=8, control n=8) received physical therapy with and without WBV for four weeks. Quadriceps strength and muscle activation, function, perceived pain, and knee range of motion were measured. Results. No adverse side effects were reported in either group. There was ...


The Relationship Between Maternal Employment And Children's Physical Activity, Michael Scott Parker Mar 2007

The Relationship Between Maternal Employment And Children's Physical Activity, Michael Scott Parker

Theses and Dissertations

The purpose of this study was to determine children's and parents' activity levels, examine the relationship between mothers' and children's mean step counts, and fathers' and children's mean step counts, and determine if there are differences in physical activity levels among children with mothers who work full time, work part time, or are not employed. Fifty-eight families participated in this 12-day study. Each family member wore a Walk4Life LS 2525 or a Walk4Life LS 2505 pedometer to measure daily step counts. Additionally, all participants completed the pedometer step count logs each night, and parents completed a short ...


The Effect Of Respiratory Muscle Training On 20km Cycling Time Trial Performance, Chad Butts Jan 2007

The Effect Of Respiratory Muscle Training On 20km Cycling Time Trial Performance, Chad Butts

Ithaca College Theses

The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of concurrent inspiratory and expiratory muscle training (CRMT) on maximal and sub-maximal exercise performance. [This is an excerpt from the abstract. For the complete abstract, please see the document.]


The Effect Of Cycling Cadence On The Cycle-Run Transition In Triathletes, Sharon L. Fitzgerald Jan 2007

The Effect Of Cycling Cadence On The Cycle-Run Transition In Triathletes, Sharon L. Fitzgerald

Ithaca College Theses

This study investigated the effect of deviating from triathletes' preferred cycling cadence (PC) on triathlon cycle-run transition and 10 km run performance.

[This is an excerpt from the abstract. For the complete abstract, please see the document.]


Sex Differences In Central And Peripheral Factors Of Skeletal Muscle Fatigue, Sally A. Gore Jan 2007

Sex Differences In Central And Peripheral Factors Of Skeletal Muscle Fatigue, Sally A. Gore

Ithaca College Theses

The purpose of this study was to examine sex differences in muscle fatigue between male and female athletes matched for muscle mass.

[This is an excerpt from the abstract. For the complete abstract, please see the document.]


Oxygen Consumption Of Firefighters During Occupationally Specific Tasks, Kelly Brady Jan 2007

Oxygen Consumption Of Firefighters During Occupationally Specific Tasks, Kelly Brady

Ithaca College Theses

This study evaluated the physiological costs of specific occupational firefighter (FF) tasks. Subjects were 30 active FF's (>20 hours/month on duty) with a mean age of 34+8.69 years. Measurements including oxygen consumption and heart rate (HR) were recorded while a subject performed occupational tasks designed to simulate the challenges of firefighting. These tasks are typically components of a mandatory, pre-employment physical fitness assessment. Each subject completed two days of testing. Day one included a VO2max test on a treadmill. On day two, HR and oxygen consumption were measured during two FF tasks including a stair ...


Assessing Ethnorelative Pedagogical Preparedness In Pete Programs, Joe W. Burden Jan 2007

Assessing Ethnorelative Pedagogical Preparedness In Pete Programs, Joe W. Burden

LSU Doctoral Dissertations

Previously, multicultural education literature has highlighted the increase of ethnically diverse students' growth in American public K-12 schools (Articles & McClafferty, 1998; Ladson-Billings, 1994). On the other hand, the literature reveals that many teachers are failing to appropriately exhibit culturally relevant pedagogical competence to accommodate the growth of students of color in American schools (NCDTF, 2004). Oftentimes, this contributes to the development of pre-service teachers that lack culturally relevant pedagogical preparation to teach students of color in American K-12 schools (Burden, Hodge, O'Bryant & Harrison, 2004; Ambrosio, Seguin, & Hogan, 2001). Thus, this study sought out to better understand how PETE teacher educators and pre-service students ...


Predictors Of Adl Disability In Culturally Diverse Older Adults, Fernanda Holton Jan 2007

Predictors Of Adl Disability In Culturally Diverse Older Adults, Fernanda Holton

LSU Master's Theses

Almost 42% of adults over 65 years of age live with at least one disability. Further, people of lower socioeconomic status and Blacks have greater risks for disability than Whites and individuals at higher socioeconomic status. The consequences of disability include loss of independence, decreased quality of life, increased chances of depression, consumption of health care services, and institutionalization. The purpose of this study was to utilize the disablement process framework to examine the contribution of physical function, dyspnea, and pain to disability in activities-of-daily-living (ADL) in culturally diverse older adults (i.e., diverse according to race, income, and education ...


Assessing Physical Function In Bilateral And Unilateral Total Knee Arthroplasty Patients., Tiina Tuulia Garrison Jan 2007

Assessing Physical Function In Bilateral And Unilateral Total Knee Arthroplasty Patients., Tiina Tuulia Garrison

LSU Doctoral Dissertations

The general objective of this dissertation was to investigate physical function in osteoarthritis (OA) and total knee replacement (TKA) patients. First, a validation study was performed to evaluate the validity of the Continuous Scale Physical Functional Performance (CS-PFP10) test in knee OA awaiting TKA. The CS-PFP10 scores were compared to the Western Ontario and McMaster Universities OA Index (WOMAC), The Knee Society’s Clinical Rating System (KSS), and the Short Form 36-item health survey (SF-36) physical function scores. It was hypothesized that at least moderate associations between the CS-PFP10 test scores and the WOMAC, KSS, and SF-36 scores in TKA ...


Vascular Function, Physical Performance And Aging, Devon Dobrosielski Jan 2007

Vascular Function, Physical Performance And Aging, Devon Dobrosielski

LSU Doctoral Dissertations

This is a series of three experiments with brachial artery flow-mediated dilation (BAFMD) as the major outcome variable. The first study examined the temporal response of the brachial artery diameter following forearm occlusion in sixteen young (28±8 years) and fifteen older (85±8 years) men. Following release of the pressure cuff there is a significant reduction in brachial diameter compared to baseline, followed by a rapid increase to a PEAK. When comparing the magnitude of the decrease in diameter and the BAFMD between Young and Old, older subjects demonstrated a blunted response. A significant relation was noted between the ...


Psychological Correlates Of Exercise Behavior Among Adolescents, Kevin C. Paul Jan 2007

Psychological Correlates Of Exercise Behavior Among Adolescents, Kevin C. Paul

LSU Master's Theses

According to the 2003 Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance Survey, 33% of youth in grades 9-12 participated in an insufficient amount of vigorous and moderate physical activity (PA), and 11% reported no vigorous and moderate PA. Although researchers have examined the psychological correlates of exercise behavior among youth, limited research investigating moderators of the theories of reasoned action (TRA; Ajzen & Fishbein, 1980) and planned behavior (TPB; Ajzen, 1985) in this population exists. Therefore, the main purpose of this study was to examine socioeconomic status (SES) as a moderator of the psychological correlates of exercise intention and behavior using the TRA/TPB in a youth population. The primary ...


Understanding Students' Motivation In Physical Education: Integration Of Expectancy-Value Model And Self-Efficacy Theory, Zan Gao Jan 2007

Understanding Students' Motivation In Physical Education: Integration Of Expectancy-Value Model And Self-Efficacy Theory, Zan Gao

LSU Doctoral Dissertations

The purpose of this dissertation was to integrate the expectancy-value model of achievement choice and self-efficacy theory among middle school students, with the goal of better understanding students’ motivational beliefs and the factors that influence these beliefs. Three quantitative studies were conducted to address this purpose. In study 1, the expectancy-value model constructs (expectancy-related beliefs and subjective task values) and self-efficacy theory constructs (self-efficacy and outcome expectancy) were measured in a sample of 225 students and were used to predict students’ in-class activity levels during a 2-week follow-up. Results of path analyses yielded that the hypothesized model fit the data ...


Quantification Of Muscle Fatigue In Cerebal Palsy And Its Relationship To Impairments And Function, Noelle G. Moreau Jan 2007

Quantification Of Muscle Fatigue In Cerebal Palsy And Its Relationship To Impairments And Function, Noelle G. Moreau

LSU Doctoral Dissertations

Three experiments were designed to explore the measurement of muscle fatigue in people with cerebral palsy (CP). The four aims were to 1) develop a feasible and reliable isokinetic protocol to assess muscle fatigue of the knee flexors and extensors in this population, 2) determine if muscle fatigue of the knee flexors and extensors in people with CP differs from subjects without a motor disorder, 3) determine whether muscle fatigue is related to functional measures of activity and participation, and 4) investigate possible contributing factors of muscle fatigue. Results show that muscle fatigue can be reliably assessed through an isokinetic ...


The Influence Of Controllability On College Women's Efficacy And Attributions In Physical Activity, Julie Franks Gill Jan 2007

The Influence Of Controllability On College Women's Efficacy And Attributions In Physical Activity, Julie Franks Gill

LSU Doctoral Dissertations

There is evidence that individuals’ attributional patterns are important determinants of behavior. Controllability had been identified as an influential dimension of causal attributions. When individuals believe their actions have an effect, or control, on the outcome of an event, they are more likely to engage in a behavior. Contingency of feedback can be used to manipulate perceptions of controllability. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of controllability on causal attributions, efficacy, and performance in an exercise setting, using a design that accounts for explanatory styles. It was hypothesized that non-contingent outcomes on an initial task would ...