Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

Life Sciences Commons

Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

Articles 1 - 30 of 30

Full-Text Articles in Life Sciences

Technique And Performance Level Comparisons Of Male And Female Hammer Throwers, Suzanne M. Konz Dec 2006

Technique And Performance Level Comparisons Of Male And Female Hammer Throwers, Suzanne M. Konz

Theses and Dissertations

The aim of this study was two-fold: 1) what the hammer throwing technique differences between sexes are and 2) what technique parameters help determine throw distance. The performances of the top 16 male and female throwers at the 2003 World Athletic Final and the top 13 male and female throwers from the 2003 USA Track and Field Nationals were examined. Video was captured using three Canon 60 Hz cameras. The best throws of each athlete were digitized and analyzed using the Peak Motus 8.2 motion analysis system. T-tests revealed that athlete mass, athlete height, velocity at release, timing components ...


Effects Of Telephone Weight Loss Coaching On Body Composition In Adults: A Randomized Controlled Study, Amy Jensen Cook Dec 2006

Effects Of Telephone Weight Loss Coaching On Body Composition In Adults: A Randomized Controlled Study, Amy Jensen Cook

Theses and Dissertations

Objective: To determine the extent to which coaching over the telephone is an effective method in promoting the loss of body weight and body fat percentage. Research Methods and Procedures: Over a period of four months, in a randomized, double blind, placebo-controlled study, 120 overweight and obese (BMI 25-35 kg/m²) adults either received telephone coaching or no coaching. In addition, each participant was randomly assigned to take a supplement or placebo daily. Body weight and body fat percentage were measured at baseline, two months, and four months. Body weight was measured on an electronic scale and body fat percentage ...


The Effects Of Wearing A Cooling Vest During The Warm-Up On Long Distance Interval Training, Andrew Robert Tegeder Aug 2006

The Effects Of Wearing A Cooling Vest During The Warm-Up On Long Distance Interval Training, Andrew Robert Tegeder

Theses and Dissertations

Purpose: Reducing body temperature before exercise is called precooling. Past research suggests that reducing body core temperature (Tc) slightly can result in improved running performance. This study evaluated the effects that warming up, while wearing a cooling vest prior to an interval workout, had on Tc, and interval time in long-distance runners. Methods: Nineteen healthy male collegiate cross-country runners were recruited for this study. Each subject warmed up and exercised under two different conditions: (a) an experimental condition in which subjects wore a Nike PreCool® ice vest during warm-up and (b) a control condition. Subjects performed a warm-up followed by ...


Contributions Of Muscle Fatigue To A Neuromuscular Neck Injury In Female Standard Ballroom Dancers, Teri Riding Aug 2006

Contributions Of Muscle Fatigue To A Neuromuscular Neck Injury In Female Standard Ballroom Dancers, Teri Riding

Theses and Dissertations

Objective: To investigate the potential etiology of a loss of neck control injury in female standard ballroom dancers. The median frequency (MF) as measured by electromyography (EMG) of the left upper trapezius (UT), left splenius capitius (SPL), and right sternocleidomastoid (SCM) of injured dancers was compared to non-injured dancers. This comparison was performed to identify whether dancers with a history of loss of neck control have a greater amount of fatigue than those with no history of this particular injury. Design and Setting: A 2 x 6 factorial design was used for this investigation. The independent variables were group (injured ...


The Effects Of Hiking Poles On Performance And Physiological Variables During Mountain Climbing, Rachel Louise Duckham Aug 2006

The Effects Of Hiking Poles On Performance And Physiological Variables During Mountain Climbing, Rachel Louise Duckham

Masters Theses

The primary purpose of this study was to compare performance when hiking with and without poles during a maximal effort mountain ascent. In addition, the study determined if there were differences in physiological responses, such as heart rate, estimated energy expenditure, and blood lactate accumulation. 15 physically active men and women (mean age 29±6) hiked with and without walking poles up a 4-km trail ( 426-meter elevation gain). Performance was determined by the time taken to reach the top of the mountain. In addition, differences in physiological variables including heart rate (HR), estimated energy expenditure (EE), and blood lactate accumulation ...


Presence Of Burnout In Undergraduate Athletic Training Students, Tamra Sparks Riter Jul 2006

Presence Of Burnout In Undergraduate Athletic Training Students, Tamra Sparks Riter

Theses and Dissertations

Objective: To determine if undergraduate athletic training students enrolled in an athletic training education program (ATEP) and participating in a clinical assignment have burnout and if so, the possible causes.

Design and Setting: All undergraduate athletic training students enrolled in a clinical education course were surveyed twice in an eight week period. The surveys were given during the fourth week and the twelfth week of the winter 2006 semester. As part of the survey, each participant also answered eight demographic/status questions for correlation purposes.

Subjects: Fifty-one undergraduate athletic training students in a western United States university's accredited ATEP ...


Development Of A Notational Analysis System For Selected Soccer Skills Of A Women's College Team, Camille Thomas Jul 2006

Development Of A Notational Analysis System For Selected Soccer Skills Of A Women's College Team, Camille Thomas

Theses and Dissertations

The purposes of this study were to develop a notational system to evaluate passing, dribbling, first touch, and individual defensive skills as they relate to success during women's soccer games and to develop a statistical model to weight the importance of each skill on creating scoring opportunities. Sequences of skills in 10 Division I intercollegiate women's soccer games were coded using well defined performance scores and outcomes. The notational analysis system was highly reliable as demonstrated by high test-retest Spearman's correlations (>0.98) between the first and second notation of 3 games for all four skills. The ...


Physical Activity And Weather: The Association Of Physical Activity With Weather-Related Factors Measured On The Knoxville Third-Creek Greenway, Ryan Allen Burchfield May 2006

Physical Activity And Weather: The Association Of Physical Activity With Weather-Related Factors Measured On The Knoxville Third-Creek Greenway, Ryan Allen Burchfield

Masters Theses

The primary purpose of this study was to examine the association of outdoor physical activity (PA) with weather-related factors (temperature, humidity, heat index, and precipitation) when data was measured onsite (Knoxville Third-Creek Greenway). Secondary to this research question, this study explored whether the source of weather-related data (site-specific vs. public domain) influenced the strength of association with outdoor PA. PA, the dependent variable, was measured as trail counts by an infrared trail counter. Weather-related factors were obtained by an on-site weather station and through the National Oceanographic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), a public domain weather source. Hourly PA (trail counts ...


The Total And Specific Dimensions Of Self Concept Related To Female Participation In Collegiate Athletics, Dane Bradford Beary May 2006

The Total And Specific Dimensions Of Self Concept Related To Female Participation In Collegiate Athletics, Dane Bradford Beary

Dissertations

The purpose of this study was to determine if differences existed between female collegiate sport participation and non-participation, as well as female collegiate individual and team sport participation on the total, the specific dimensions of self-concept and supplementary scores as rendered by the Tennessee Self-Concept Scale Second Edition TSCS:2 (Fitts & Warren, 1996). A subject pool of N=190 participants were used. All subjects included in data analysis were female undergraduate students. A multivariate analysis of variance (M ANOVA) was utilized to evaluate effects of sports participation versus non-participation and individual versus team sports participation on self-concept. On sports participation ...


Physical Activity And C-Reactive Protein Levels: The Confounding Role Of Body Fat Percentage, Kenric Lloyd Russell Mar 2006

Physical Activity And C-Reactive Protein Levels: The Confounding Role Of Body Fat Percentage, Kenric Lloyd Russell

Theses and Dissertations

The purpose of the present study was to examine the cross-sectional relationship between physical activity and C-reactive protein (CRP) in 211 middle-aged women (43.1 + 3.0 years). A secondary objective was to determine the extent to which body fat percentage operated as a confounder in the association between physical activity and CRP. Physical activity was objectively measured using MTI accelerometers, which the subjects wore for seven continuous days. Fasting blood samples were taken, from which CRP was measured using a solid phase ELISA. Body fat percentage was assessed using the Bod Pod. Results showed that physical activity was significantly ...


Fiber Type-Specific Desmin Content In Human Single Muscle Fibers, Heidi Ghent Mar 2006

Fiber Type-Specific Desmin Content In Human Single Muscle Fibers, Heidi Ghent

Theses and Dissertations

Contractile and cytoskeletal protein concentrations have been shown to differ on the basis of fiber type in whole muscle homogenates. The purpose of this study was to compare the content of the intermediate filament protein, desmin, between type I and type IIa single muscle fibers from a mixed muscle in human subjects. Biopsies were taken from the vastus lateralis of six recreationally active males. Approximately 150 single muscle fibers were dissected from each sample and analyzed using SDS-PAGE to determine myosin heavy chain (MHC) composition. Following identification, muscle fibers were pooled into two groups (MHC I and MHC IIa). Desmin ...


A Pilot Study To Examine A Therapeutic Exercise Intervention On Fibromyalgia Symptoms, Mara Hendricks Nelson Mar 2006

A Pilot Study To Examine A Therapeutic Exercise Intervention On Fibromyalgia Symptoms, Mara Hendricks Nelson

Theses and Dissertations

Objective. To examine the feasibility of a home-based, video therapeutic exercise program on pain, fatigue, self-efficacy, and health status in fibromyalgia patients. Methods. Nine individuals who were previously diagnosed with fibromyalgia completed the study (out of an initial pool of 31). Subjects were randomly assigned to one of two groups: a group who received a home-based therapeutic exercise video and a control group who continued to undergo their current standard of care or "treatment-as-usual." The video group was instructed to conduct the exercises as prescribed in the 42-minute video at least 3 times per week for 4 weeks. The treatment-as-usual ...


Heart Rate Measurements After Group Exercise, Dinesh John Jan 2006

Heart Rate Measurements After Group Exercise, Dinesh John

Ithaca College Theses

The purposes of this study were to measure the typical delay in obtaining palpated postexercise heart rate (HR) by participants in a group exercise class and to determine if actual exercise HR can be predicted from immediate HR recovery (HRR) measures by examining the linearity of HR decline postexercise,

[This is an excerpt from the abstract. For the complete abstract, please see the document.]


An Analysis Of Motor Coordination In Fit Versus Less Fit Young Adult Males, Joshua M. Mccaig Jan 2006

An Analysis Of Motor Coordination In Fit Versus Less Fit Young Adult Males, Joshua M. Mccaig

Ithaca College Theses

The purpose of this study was to compare the motor coordination components of movement between young adult males who are physically fit versus those who are less fit.


Effects Of The Menstrual Cycle On Strength And Power In Female Collegiate Athletes, Christine A. Nabinger Jan 2006

Effects Of The Menstrual Cycle On Strength And Power In Female Collegiate Athletes, Christine A. Nabinger

Ithaca College Theses

The purpose of this study was to explore the effects of the menstrual cycle on elements of power and strength as required in the aforementioned sports [soccer, field hockey, and lacrosse].


High-Intensity Interval Training In Well-Trained Cyclists : Consecutive Days Versus Alternating Days, Micah A. Gross Jan 2006

High-Intensity Interval Training In Well-Trained Cyclists : Consecutive Days Versus Alternating Days, Micah A. Gross

Ithaca College Theses

Purpose: This study compared the effects of 3 weeks of high-intensity interval training (HIT) on well-trained cyclists when three weekly HIT sessions were performed on either consecutive or non-consecutive days. Methods: Fifteen well-trained cyclists volunteered to participate in the study. They performed a 5-km time-trial (TT5k) and an incremental test to assess peak oxygen consumption (VO2peak) and peak aerobic power output (PPOa), and were divided into two matched-pair groups based on TT5k performance. For 3 weeks, one group (N=9) performed three HIT sessions per week on consecutive days, while the other group (N=6) did ...


Physical Activity Behavior Of University Students: An Ecological Approach, Lisa Gaye Johnson Jan 2006

Physical Activity Behavior Of University Students: An Ecological Approach, Lisa Gaye Johnson

LSU Doctoral Dissertations

Despite the health benefits associated with active lifestyles, a majority of adults do not engage in sufficient levels of physical activity (PA). Few individual-focused interventions have produced sustained changes in PA behavior. Therefore, public health officials are promoting the use of ecological approaches to examine the multidimensional factors that influence choices about PA and other health behaviors. National statistics are mirrored in college populations, with one-half of students in the US failing to meet current PA recommendations and one-third classified as either overweight or obese. In light of this, increasing PA and obesity prevention have been identified as the top ...


Understanding Parents' Decisions About Serving Vegetables To Their Children, Alissa Villarrubia Jan 2006

Understanding Parents' Decisions About Serving Vegetables To Their Children, Alissa Villarrubia

LSU Master's Theses

With the increasing rate of childhood obesity it is important to examine obesity prevention programs and strategies. The theory of planned behavior (TPB) has been identified as a successful framework to examine and understand human behavior and obesity prevention research. However, there is limited support for the TPB regarding its use and efficacy for understanding parents’ influence on the health behavior of their children. The purpose of this study was to: (a) describe the most common behavioral, normative, and control beliefs of parents’ serving vegetables to their children; (b) examine the social cognitive correlates of parents’ intentions to serve vegetables ...


Self-Determination In Injury Rehabilitation: Designing A Climate For Promoting Adherence, Ryan Mark Green Jan 2006

Self-Determination In Injury Rehabilitation: Designing A Climate For Promoting Adherence, Ryan Mark Green

LSU Doctoral Dissertations

The purpose of this dissertation was to use self-determination as a theoretical framework to investigate factors that influence college athletes’ adherence to injury rehabilitation programs. A two-part study, quantitative and qualitative approaches were used to gain insight into athletes’ motivation and decisions that they make regarding their engagement in injury rehabilitation. The focus of the quantitative study was to investigate the relationships between personal autonomy, levels of self-determination, perceived autonomy support, and perceived competence in injury rehabilitation. Participants (N=193 college athletes) completed surveys in a retrospective design. Autonomy orientations were positively related to higher levels of self-determination and the ...


Examination Of Blood Flow Using Vasoconstrictor And Vasodilator Stimuli: Stability And Reproducibility, Robert B. Lestage Jan 2006

Examination Of Blood Flow Using Vasoconstrictor And Vasodilator Stimuli: Stability And Reproducibility, Robert B. Lestage

LSU Master's Theses

Blood flow distribution relies on the vasculature’s ability to vasodilate and vasoconstrict throughout the body. Most previous research has focused on only one of these abilities, either vasodilation or vasoconstriction. For example, Thijssen et al. (2005) focused their research on vasodilation by studying reactive hyperemia, while Kinuyoshi et al. (2003) studied the possible vasoconstriction effect with increasing muscle sympathetic nerve activity. The purpose of this study was to assess vascular function using a variety of stimuli to potentially learn more about overall vascular health, while determining the stability and reliability of blood flow measurements using strain gauge plethysmography. Measures ...


Self-Regulation In Physical Activity: Understanding Decisions That Older Adults Make, Janene Marie Grodesky Jan 2006

Self-Regulation In Physical Activity: Understanding Decisions That Older Adults Make, Janene Marie Grodesky

LSU Doctoral Dissertations

Physical activity and exercise have been shown to strongly contribute to an extended quality of life. Half of all physical declines in aging can be prevented by engaging in adequate levels of daily physical activity. Only one in four older adults over the age of 65 participates in regular physical activity. There are various factors that have been identified in this population that influence physical activity behaviors including gender, ethnicity, education, and socioeconomic status. Though important for providing baseline data on older adults, these descriptions do not fully explain why or why not this population engages in physical activity; or ...


Examination Of The Constructs Of The Transtheoretical Model In Patients With Heart Failure: A Focus On Physical Activity Readiness, Tracie Rena Parish Jan 2006

Examination Of The Constructs Of The Transtheoretical Model In Patients With Heart Failure: A Focus On Physical Activity Readiness, Tracie Rena Parish

LSU Doctoral Dissertations

The goal of this research was to gain greater understanding about the management of heart failure patients. A particular focus was to evaluate exercise tolerance and behavior. The major findings of the first study included: (1) evidence that few heart failure patients receive adequate information regarding physical activity; (2) performance on a six-minute walk test were ~42% lower, and SF-36 scores were also lower in heart failure patients compared to controls; (3) stability in hemodynamic measures and distance walked on the 6-minute walk test were adequate, and (4) home exercise resulted in 19% improvement in maximum walking distance and 30 ...


Interrelationships Between Mitochondrial Function, Maximal Oxygen Consumption, Running Economy, And Diet In Elite Male And Female Runners, Ryan Peyton Mcmillan Jan 2006

Interrelationships Between Mitochondrial Function, Maximal Oxygen Consumption, Running Economy, And Diet In Elite Male And Female Runners, Ryan Peyton Mcmillan

LSU Master's Theses

The relationships between maximal oxygen consumption (VO2max), mitochondrial function and running economy were investigated in a population of twenty-one endurance trained males and females (range=18-54 yrs). The purposes of this study were: 1) to determine whether mitochondrial oxidative capacity, as defined by the maximal activities of citrate synthase (CS), cytochrome c oxidase (COX), and beta-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase (BHAD), is a significant determinant of maximal oxygen consumption in endurance trained men and women, and 2) to observe the relationship between maximal oxygen uptake and running economy in the same population. Muscle biopsy samples were taken from the vastus lateralis prior to ...


Validity Of The Yale Physical Activity Survey For Older Adults, Angela Nickole Solomito Pugh Jan 2006

Validity Of The Yale Physical Activity Survey For Older Adults, Angela Nickole Solomito Pugh

LSU Master's Theses

The purpose of this study is to determine the validity of the Yale Physical Activity Survey (YPAS) in a population of oldest-old adults residing in Southeastern Louisiana. Methods: Participants were older adults (n=273) in two distinct age groups; 60-81 years of age (YOUNG-OLD) AND 29-103 years of age (OLDEST-OLD). YPAS estimates of physical activity will be compared to physical function as measured by the continuous scale physical function performance test. Results: The OLDEST-OLD demonstrated lower physical function scores and reported less physical activity (and more time sitting) in comparison to the YOUNG-OLD. The correlation between Total Time Summary Index ...


Biomechanical Characteristics Of Low Back Tissues During Trunk Flexion-Extension, Michael William Olson Jan 2006

Biomechanical Characteristics Of Low Back Tissues During Trunk Flexion-Extension, Michael William Olson

LSU Doctoral Dissertations

Analysis of the mechanical and neural regulatory mechanisms of the flexion-relaxation phenomenon (FRP), observed in deep trunk flexion, was performed since it is believed these mechanisms provide insight into the causes of low back injury and pain. Three methods were used to analyze the behavior of the lumbar tissues during trunk flexion-extension exercises: 1) active continuous cyclic movement, 2) acute cyclic movement at different orientations, and 3) passive continuous cyclic movement. All activities were performed at a rate of 0.1 Hz (6 cycles•min-1) while monitoring the surface electromyography (EMG) of the lumbar paraspinal muscles. Abdominal, hamstring, and quadriceps ...


College Student's Motivation For Physical Activity, Lori Lynn Delong Jan 2006

College Student's Motivation For Physical Activity, Lori Lynn Delong

LSU Doctoral Dissertations

The purpose of this study was to examine college students' motivations to be physically active by merging the perspectives of self-determination theory and the transtheoretical model. The secondary purpose was to examine the effects of a required physical activity course on college students' levels of physical activity. The premise is that both the theory and model can be used to help predict physical activity outcomes. Participants were 277 male and female students at a small private college. Motivation, self-determination, stage of change, self-efficacy, decisional balance, and leisure time activity levels were assessed using an online survey. Results revealed that activity ...


Self-Determination In Physical Education: Designing Class Environments To Promote Active Lifestyles, Charity Leigh Bryan Jan 2006

Self-Determination In Physical Education: Designing Class Environments To Promote Active Lifestyles, Charity Leigh Bryan

LSU Doctoral Dissertations

The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationships between self-determination, perceptions of the motivational climate, attitude, perceived ability, engagement in physical activity, and health-related fitness indicators. Two structural models related to engagement/intention to engage in physical activity and health-related fitness were tested. The premise of both models is that perceived competence predicts the outcome variables (engagement or health-related fitness), with self-determination, attitude, and motivational climate predicting perceived competence. Participants were 827 sixth, seventh, and eighth graders. Motivation, perceptions of the climate, attitude, perceived competence, and self-reported physical activity levels were assessed using surveys. Pedometers were used to ...


The Effect Of Beverage Composition On Exercise-Induced Voluntary Dehydration In Adolescents , Michaela Caroline Carlson Jan 2006

The Effect Of Beverage Composition On Exercise-Induced Voluntary Dehydration In Adolescents , Michaela Caroline Carlson

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

This study examined the effects of beverages containing various concentrations of sodium on fluid balance in children during exercise in a thermoneutral environment (22°C). Hypotheses were that the ingestion of chicken noodle soup prior to exercise would cause: (1) increases in ad libitum drinking throughout exercise, (2) increases in urine osmolalities, and (3) decreases in urine volumes. Forty-five minutes after 12 children ingested water (0 mmol/L Na+), a carbohydrate-electrolyte beverage (16 mmol/L Na+), condensed chicken noodle soup (167 mmol/L Na+), or dehydrated chicken noodle soup (148 mmol/L Na +) the subjects completed 4 bouts of cycling ...


Reliability Of The Senior Fitness Test In A Modified Environment , Tiffany Brooke Vangundy Jan 2006

Reliability Of The Senior Fitness Test In A Modified Environment , Tiffany Brooke Vangundy

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

The Senior Fitness Test (SFT) is validated for use with older adults in well-defined environments. The purpose of this study was to determine the reliability of the SFT when completed in a modified environment. Twenty-four participants completed the SFT four times (males, n = 12, 75 +/- 6 yrs; females, n = 12, 72 +/- 4 yrs). A practice SFT was performed first in a gym with a rectangular 6-Minute Walk layout. The next three trials were randomized. One session was identical to the first. Another was performed in a gym with a hallway 6-Minute Walk, and another was performed in participants' homes with ...


The Effectiveness Of A Home-Based, Patient-Specific, Functional Exercise Program On Patients With Inclusion Body Myositis (Ibm), Liam Johnson Jan 2006

The Effectiveness Of A Home-Based, Patient-Specific, Functional Exercise Program On Patients With Inclusion Body Myositis (Ibm), Liam Johnson

Theses : Honours

Previous research has shown exercise to be beneficial in the treatment of myositis-affected patients. However, the potential of functional exercises to improve muscle strength and function in the absence of disease progression markers in patient's with Inclusion Body Myositis (IBM) is not well understood. It is believed that the initial exercise dose and patient specificity is of paramount importance in the successful use of this modality in the routine management and long term treatment of such patients. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of a home-based, patient-specific functional exercise programme, including aerobic exercise and resistance ...