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Full-Text Articles in Life Sciences

Engineering Hyaluronic Acid Carbon Nanotube Nanofibers: A Peripheral Nerve Interface To Electrically Stimulate Regeneration, Elisabeth M. Steel Jan 2018

Engineering Hyaluronic Acid Carbon Nanotube Nanofibers: A Peripheral Nerve Interface To Electrically Stimulate Regeneration, Elisabeth M. Steel

Wayne State University Dissertations

Peripheral nerve injuries annually affect hundreds of thousands of people globally. Current treatments like the gold standard autograft and commercially available nerve guide conduits (NGC) are insufficient to repair long gap peripheral nerve injuries. NGCs can aid recovery but lack key microenvironment cues that promote nerve regeneration. We hypothesized that providing topographical, mechanical, and electrical guidance cues through a nanofibrous composite biopolymer would result in improved neuron growth metrics using an in vitro model. We embedded hydrophilic carbon nanotubes (CNT) within hyaluronic acid (HA) nanofibers by electrospinning. The aims of this study were (1) to define the topographical, nanomechanical, and ...


The Effect Of Treadmill Vs. Nustep Recumbent Cross Trainer On Gait And Lower Extremity Electromyography After Chronic Stroke, Nicholas Joseph Siekirk Jan 2018

The Effect Of Treadmill Vs. Nustep Recumbent Cross Trainer On Gait And Lower Extremity Electromyography After Chronic Stroke, Nicholas Joseph Siekirk

Wayne State University Dissertations

Pilot Part 1: The purpose was to investigate the effect of a perceived exertion based cadence on lower extremity muscle activation, as measured by surface electromyography (EMG) on a recumbent cross trainer. The purpose of this investigation was to study the EMG activity of 12 lower extremity muscles during five different stepping protocols; perceived exertion based self-selected (SS) cadence with level 1 resistance (SSL1), SS cadence with level 8 resistance (SSL8), +20% SS cadence (SS+20), -20% SS cadence (SS-20), and at a set 80 steps per minute at resistance level 1 (80L1). In order to determine SS cadence each ...


African-American Collegiate Women's Perception And Participation In Physical Activity, Lauren Courtney Scott Jan 2018

African-American Collegiate Women's Perception And Participation In Physical Activity, Lauren Courtney Scott

Wayne State University Dissertations

ABSTRACT

AA COLLEGE WOMEN’’S PERCEPTION AND

PARTICIPATION IN PHYSICAL ACTIVITY

by

LAUREN SCOTT

March 2018

Advisor: Dr. Bo Shen

Major: Kinesiology

Degree: Doctor of Philosophy

Overview: In the United States, adult engagement in physical inactivity has decreased since the implementation of the 2008 PA guidelines. In 2013, only 20% of Americans met the PA recommendations. In 2014, research showed that 23% of adults did not engage in any leisure PA in the United States (U.S Department of Health and Human Services, 2016). In general, females were found to be less active than males from youth through adulthood (Matthews ...


Identifying The Function Of The Calpain Small Subunit In The Mechanics Of Cell Migration, Bingqing Hao Jan 2017

Identifying The Function Of The Calpain Small Subunit In The Mechanics Of Cell Migration, Bingqing Hao

Wayne State University Dissertations

Cell migration plays a vital role in many physiological events including: morphogenesis, wound healing, and immune response. Dysfunctional cell migration results in multiple disease states including chronic inflammation, vascular disease, and tumor metastasis, to name a few. Progress in understanding the mechanism of cell migration had been slow until the turn of the century when rapid technological advances in microscopy and omics burst to the forefront. These advances led to the realization that physical factors (dimensions, fluid shear stress, hydrostatic pressure, compression stress, environmental stiffness, and topography) have profound effects on cell migration. This study of cell mechanics has expanded ...


Development Of A Finite Element Pelvis And Lower Extremity Model With Growth Plates For Pediatric Pedestrian Protection, Ming Shen Jan 2017

Development Of A Finite Element Pelvis And Lower Extremity Model With Growth Plates For Pediatric Pedestrian Protection, Ming Shen

Wayne State University Dissertations

Finite element (FE) model is a useful tool frequently used for investigating the injury mechanisms and designing protection countermeasures. At present, no 10 years old (YO) pedestrian FE model has been developed from appropriate anthropometries and validated against limitedly available impact response data. A 10 YO child FE pelvis and lower extremities (PLEX) model was established to fill the gap of lacking such models in this age group. The baseline model was validated against available pediatric postmortem human subjects (PMHS) test data and additional scaled adult data, then the PLEX model was integrated to build a whole-body FE model representing ...


Psychosocial Predictors Of College Student Athlete Burnout And Engagement, Brigid Byrd Jan 2017

Psychosocial Predictors Of College Student Athlete Burnout And Engagement, Brigid Byrd

Wayne State University Dissertations

Purpose: The purpose of this study was to assess salient psychosocial predictors of both academic and athletic burnout and engagement in college student athletes. Method: One-hundred and seventy-nine male and female college student athletes were recruited from a Midwestern University to complete a questionnaire at one time point. Results: The prediction model for athlete burnout was statistically significant, F (4,174) = 16.41, p<.001, and accounted for approximately 27% of the variance. The prediction model for athlete engagement was also statistically significant, F (4,174) = 9.25, p ≤ .001, and accounted for approximately 18% of the variance. The prediction model for student burnout was statistically significant, F (6,172) = 3.79, p<.005, and accounted for approximately 10% of the variance. The prediction model for student engagement was not statistically significant. Conclusions: Athletes who felt misunderstood by their coach, felt their coach did not provide options and choices, and who felt their coach was not confident in their sport ability experienced symptoms of athlete burnout while athletes who felt understood by their coach, felt their coach provided options and choices, and who felt their coach had confidence in their sport ability, believed in their ability to accomplish their sport goals, felt engaged in their sport. Also, athletes who felt their coach was less friendly and supportive if they were not training and competing well, felt intimidated by their coach, and who felt their coach tried to control their free time and who also felt their teammates did not encourage them to study or did not make sure they got to class had high student burnout. Application: Coaches should aim to create an autonomy supportive coaching climate in which athletes feelings of autonomy are enhanced. Exploratory findings also suggest decreasing controlling coaching behaviors and increasing teammate academic social support may be important in thwarting feelings of student burnout in student athletes.


Biomechanics Of Concussion: The Importance Of Neck Tension, Ron Jadischke Jan 2017

Biomechanics Of Concussion: The Importance Of Neck Tension, Ron Jadischke

Wayne State University Dissertations

Linear and angular velocity and acceleration of the head are typically correlated to concussion. Despite improvements in helmet performance to reduce accelerations, a corresponding reduction in the incidence of concussion has not occurred (National Football League [NFL] 1996 – present).

There is compelling research that forces on and deformation to the brain stem are related to concussion. The brain stem is the center of control for respiration, blood pressure and heart rate and is the root of most cranial nerves. Injury to the brain stem is consistent with most symptoms of concussion reported in the National Football League and the National ...


Biofidelity Assessment Of 6-Year-Old Anthropometric Test Devices (Atds) And Scaling Laws In Lateral Impact, Jennifer Yaek Jan 2017

Biofidelity Assessment Of 6-Year-Old Anthropometric Test Devices (Atds) And Scaling Laws In Lateral Impact, Jennifer Yaek

Wayne State University Dissertations

There is a clear need to further develop the design and biofidelity of the 6-Year-Old ATDs for future child safety research and child occupant protection in side impacts. Due to the scarcity of pediatric PMHS impact testing, specifically in the lateral direction, alternative means of obtaining relevant data for pediatric models need to be considered.

In this first portion of this study, assessment of the mechanical behavior and biofidelity of existing 6-Year-Old ATDs in lateral impact were performed. None of the three 6-year-old ATDs (HIII, Q6, and Q6s) tested were found to be considered good tools for assessing side impact ...


An Investigation Of The Mechanism Of Traumatic Brain Injury Caused By Blast In The Open Field, Ke Feng Jan 2017

An Investigation Of The Mechanism Of Traumatic Brain Injury Caused By Blast In The Open Field, Ke Feng

Wayne State University Dissertations

Blast-induced traumatic brain injury (bTBI) is a signature wound of modern warfare. The current incomplete understanding of its injury mechanism impedes the development of strategies for effective protection of bTBI. Despite a considerable amount of experimental animal studies focused on the evaluation of brain neurotrauma caused by blast exposure, there is very limited knowledge on the biomechanical responses of the gyrenecephalic brain subjected to primary free-field blast waves imposed in vivo, and the correlation analysis between the biomechanical responses and its injury outcomes. Such information is crucial to the development of injury criteria of bTBI.

This study aims to evaluate ...


Development Of An Elderly Female Torso Finite Element Model For Restraint System Research And Development Applications, Anil Kalra Kalra Jan 2016

Development Of An Elderly Female Torso Finite Element Model For Restraint System Research And Development Applications, Anil Kalra Kalra

Wayne State University Dissertations

Elderly females are found to be one of the most vulnerable segments of population during motor vehicle crashes and their population is increasing in the coming decades. Current design of restraint systems as well as other passive safety measures are designed based on anthropomorphic details of younger population. Developing another dummy representing elderly female population is a costly effort, while a finite element (FE) model of elderly female with similar anthropomorphic details and age- and gender-specific material properties can be a better alternative solution. The current research focuses on the development of a FE model of an elderly female torso ...


Effects Of Foreperiod Regularity And Muscle Size On Fractionated Reaction Time, Ronald Joseph Benedict Ii Jan 2016

Effects Of Foreperiod Regularity And Muscle Size On Fractionated Reaction Time, Ronald Joseph Benedict Ii

Wayne State University Dissertations

Fractionating reaction time (FRT) chronometrically separates central (PMT) from peripheral (MT) processing, allowing for analysis of the variables that may have a timing effect on either. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of foreperiod regularity and muscle size on the components of FRT. Forty-four male (n = 21) and female (n = 23) healthy Wayne State University students responded to a visual stimulus in a simple reaction time task, either by alternating foreperiod by block (Exp1) or by alternating muscle size by block (Exp2). All participants completed six blocks of eight trials using their right-side, with five seconds ...


The Relationship Between Axonal Injury, Biomarker Expression And Mechanical Response In A Rodent Head Impact Acceleration Model, Yan Li Jan 2015

The Relationship Between Axonal Injury, Biomarker Expression And Mechanical Response In A Rodent Head Impact Acceleration Model, Yan Li

Wayne State University Dissertations

In the United States 1.4 million people sustain traumatic brain injury (TBI) each year, resulting in 235,000 hospitalizations and 50,000 fatalities annually. Traumatic axonal injury (TAI) is a serious outcome of TBI that accounts for 40-50% of hospitalizations due to head injury and one third of the mortality due to TBI, and it is difficult to diagnose and evaluate. The purpose of this dissertation is to determine mechanical injury predictors for TAI and identify potential biomarkers to evaluate TAI.

In this dissertation, a modified Marmarou impact acceleration injury model was developed to allow the monitoring of velocity ...


An Investigation Of The Relationship Between Axonal Injury, Biomarker Expression And Mechanical Response In A Rodent Head Impact Acceleration Model, Yan Li Jan 2015

An Investigation Of The Relationship Between Axonal Injury, Biomarker Expression And Mechanical Response In A Rodent Head Impact Acceleration Model, Yan Li

Wayne State University Dissertations

In the United States 1.4 million people sustain traumatic brain injury (TBI) each year, resulting in 235,000 hospitalizations and 50,000 fatalities annually. Traumatic axonal injury (TAI) is a serious outcome of TBI that accounts for 40-50% of hospitalizations due to head injury and one third of the mortality due to TBI, and it is difficult to diagnose and evaluate. The purpose of this dissertation is to determine mechanical injury predictors for TAI and identify potential biomarkers to evaluate TAI.

In this dissertation, a modified Marmarou impact acceleration injury model was developed to allow the monitoring of velocity ...


Pedestrian Head Protection During Car To Pedestrian Accidents: In The Event Of Primary Impact With Vehicle And Secondary Impact With Ground, Vishal Gupta Jan 2014

Pedestrian Head Protection During Car To Pedestrian Accidents: In The Event Of Primary Impact With Vehicle And Secondary Impact With Ground, Vishal Gupta

Wayne State University Dissertations

Current regulations for assessing pedestrian safety use a simplified test setup that ignores many real-world factors. In particular, the level of protection is assessed using a free-motion headform impacting the vehicle's hood at a fixed angle. As such, this test setup does not capture the effect due to the vehicle front-end profile, nor does it comprehend injury due to a possible secondary impact of the pedestrian's head with ground. This thesis aims to numerically simulate vehicle to pedestrian crashes to develop knowledge that may suggest ways to improve safety above and beyond the regulatory tests. Inputs to the ...


Biophysical And Biochemical Factors In The Cellular Microenvironment; Effects On Cell Migration And Invasion, Shalini Menon Jan 2012

Biophysical And Biochemical Factors In The Cellular Microenvironment; Effects On Cell Migration And Invasion, Shalini Menon

Wayne State University Dissertations

Cellular migration is a vital process central to many physiological events including development, immune surveillance and wound healing. However, migration and invasion are not unique to normal physiology, they are also key determinants in the progression of disease states such as cancer. Given the significance of migration it is important that we understand how the process is regulated intracellularly and the various stimuli that can promote it. Even though the role of biochemical factors in mediating migration has been studied extensively, the role of biophysical factors in modulating migration and invasion is less appreciation. The biochemical and biophysical components of ...


Finite Element Reconstruction Of Real World Aortic Injury In Near-Side Lateral Automotive Crashes With Conceptual Countermeasures, Aditya Neelakanta Belwadi Jan 2011

Finite Element Reconstruction Of Real World Aortic Injury In Near-Side Lateral Automotive Crashes With Conceptual Countermeasures, Aditya Neelakanta Belwadi

Wayne State University Dissertations

Traumatic rupture of the aorta (TRA) remains the second most common cause of death associated with motor vehicle crashes after brain injury. On an average, nearly 8,000 people die annually in the United States due to blunt injury to the aorta. It is observed that more than 80% of occupants who suffer an aortic injury die at the scene due to exsanguination into the chest. With the advent of more accurate and established human body finite element (FE) models, FE crash reconstruction methods may become a valuable tool when assessing crash scenarios and occupant injury mechanisms.

The current study ...


A Multi-Species Analysis Of Biomechanical Responses Of The Head To A Shock Wave, Richard Bolander Jan 2011

A Multi-Species Analysis Of Biomechanical Responses Of The Head To A Shock Wave, Richard Bolander

Wayne State University Dissertations

Shock wave induced brain injury remains a field of research that has great consequences for the rehabilitation of soldiers and civilians that are exposed to an explosion. As such, for the research to be successful in developing strategies to mitigate the effects of these injuries, appropriate research methods need to be developed. Animal models are currently employed to understand the brain's response to a shock wave exposure. Unfortunately no criteria have been established that indicates in what way the mechanical inputs that the cells in an animal's brain are subjected to are similar to a human. The purpose ...


Computational Simulation Of Skull Fracture Patterns In Pediatric Subjects Using A Porcine Model, Christina Devito Wagner Jan 2011

Computational Simulation Of Skull Fracture Patterns In Pediatric Subjects Using A Porcine Model, Christina Devito Wagner

Wayne State University Dissertations

In cases of suspected child abuse with skeletal trauma, it is often the role of the injury biomechanist, forensic pathologist, clinical radiologist, and forensic anthropologist to determine the mechanism of injury when the child victims cannot speak for themselves. This is a challenging task, especially for the head, as comprehensive biomechanical data on skull fracture in infants and children do not currently exist, and frequently the determination regarding cause of injury is based on anecdotal evidence from the medical literature and unsubstantiated eyewitness accounts. The current process may result in unreliable autopsy interpretation and miscarriages of justice due to a ...


Longissimus Muscle Fatigue And Injury Response Due To Electrical Stimulation With Varied Work/Rest Ratios, Peter Wawrow Jan 2011

Longissimus Muscle Fatigue And Injury Response Due To Electrical Stimulation With Varied Work/Rest Ratios, Peter Wawrow

Wayne State University Dissertations

LONGISSIMUS MUSCLE FATIGUE AND INJURY RESPONSE DUE TO ELECTRICAL STIMULATION WITH VARIED WORK/REST RATIOS

BY

PETER WAWROW

May 2011

Advisor: John Cavanaugh, MD

Major: Biomedical Engineering

Degree: Doctor of Philosophy

The estimated yearly cost of lost-time work injuries and illnesses is $140 billion. The average cost of musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) exceeds all other claims. These injuries persist in spite of ergonomic interventions addressing known risk factors. Work/rest ratios have not received a significant amount of attention, particularly in low back disorders, and it is hypothesized that the lack of adequate rest within a work cycle may contribute to ...


Secondary Physical Educators' Content Negotiations, Matthew Daniel Ferry Jan 2011

Secondary Physical Educators' Content Negotiations, Matthew Daniel Ferry

Wayne State University Dissertations

In light of growing concern over the relation between physical inactivity and a variety of biomedical and psychosocial conditions and the disjuncture between larger physical activity culture and secondary school physical education curriculum, the purpose of this study was to examine how middle school physical education teachers negotiated content and curricular decisions. A variety of theories guided this study, including Bourdieu's theories of habitus and field (1977), teacher socialization theory (Lawson, 1983; 1988), teacher ideology (Apple, 2004), teacher emotion (Hargreaves, 1998; McCaughtry, 2004), curriculum as a political text (Pinar, Reynolds, Slattery, & Taubman, 2004), and range of critical and post-structural social theories (Ingram & Simon-Ingram, 1991; Wilber, 2001). This qualitative study was grounded in ...


Development Of Lower Extremity Injury Criteria And Biomechanical Surrogate To Evaluate Military Vehicle Occupant Injury During An Explosive Blast Event, Brian J. Mckay Jan 2010

Development Of Lower Extremity Injury Criteria And Biomechanical Surrogate To Evaluate Military Vehicle Occupant Injury During An Explosive Blast Event, Brian J. Mckay

Wayne State University Dissertations

Anti-vehicular (AV) landmines and improvised explosive devices (IED) have accounted for more than half of the United States military hostile casualties and wounded in Operation Iraqi Freedom (OIF). The lower extremity is the predominantly injured body region following an AV mine or IED blast accounting for 26 percent of all combat injuries in OIF (Owens et al., 2007). Detonations occurring under the vehicle transmit high amplitude and short duration axial loads onto the foot-ankle-tibia region of the occupant causing injuries to the lower leg. The current effort was initiated to develop lower extremity injury criteria and biofidelic biomechanical surrogate to ...