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Optimization Of Motor Performance, Lee-Kuen Chua Aug 2019

Optimization Of Motor Performance, Lee-Kuen Chua

UNLV Theses, Dissertations, Professional Papers, and Capstones

According to the OPTIMAL (Optimizing Performance Through Intrinsic Motivation and Attention of Learning) theory of motor learning, enhanced expectancies (EE), autonomy support (AS), and external focus (EF) augment the coupling of a person’s actions to intended movement goals. This goal-action coupling is postulated to boost a person’s focus on goal-related aspects of the motor task while reducing the person’s self-related thoughts, resulting in enhanced performance of skilled movements as well as in improving the acquisition outcomes for the learning of motor skills. The three studies in this compilation report were aimed at providing empirical evidence for the ...


Triglyceride Metabolism Following Oral Fat Tolerance Tests Of Varying Fat Content In Adults, Nathaniel Glen Bodell May 2019

Triglyceride Metabolism Following Oral Fat Tolerance Tests Of Varying Fat Content In Adults, Nathaniel Glen Bodell

UNLV Theses, Dissertations, Professional Papers, and Capstones

Introduction: Investigations of lipid metabolism commonly utilize an oral fat tolerance test (OFTT) to elicit a dramatic increase in serum triglycerides (TG). Although this is common practice there does not currently exist an agreed upon formula for an OFTT. Nor has there been in investigation as to the reliability among commonly used OFTT. Furthermore, the effects of sex and activity level are mixed among the literature. The purpose of this investigation is to discover an ideal OFTT for research and clinical purposes, evaluate the effects of activity and sex on TG metabolism, and to test each OFTT concentration for reliability ...


Optimizing Back Squat Performance, Arthur Hockwald May 2019

Optimizing Back Squat Performance, Arthur Hockwald

UNLV Theses, Dissertations, Professional Papers, and Capstones

The back squat is a task commonly used to train and test performance levels in competitive sports and strength based performance events. The purpose of this study was to analyze the potential performance benefits for a 1-repetition max (1RM) back squat under conditions in which the three key factors of OPTIMAL theory of motor learning (Wulf & Lewthwaite, 2016) are present: Enhanced expectancies (EE), autonomy support (AS), and an external focus (EF) of attention. Participants (N = 23) were assigned to either an optimized condition, which included EE AS, and EF, or a control condition. They were asked to perform a 1RM ...


Workload Position Evaluation To Determine Efficient Training Load For Optimal Competition Performance Of Female Collegiate Soccer Players, Michaela Kelsey May 2019

Workload Position Evaluation To Determine Efficient Training Load For Optimal Competition Performance Of Female Collegiate Soccer Players, Michaela Kelsey

UNLV Theses, Dissertations, Professional Papers, and Capstones

Introduction. The purpose of this study was to describe player workload between competition and training of female collegiate soccer players; as well as to determine workload between positions to better our understanding of the mechanical and physical demands of a full soccer match of collegiate female soccer players. Methods. The study sample was comprised of 20 female Division 1 Collegiate soccer players in 7 positions: goalkeeper (n = 1), Attacking Midfielders (n = 2), Defensive Midfielders (n = 3), Center Backs (n = 3), Outside Backs (n = 4), Strikers (n = 2), and Wingers (n = 5). 19 training sessions and 11 competitive games were used ...


Wearable Technology Devices: Heart Rate And Step Count Analysis, Jeffrey Montes May 2019

Wearable Technology Devices: Heart Rate And Step Count Analysis, Jeffrey Montes

UNLV Theses, Dissertations, Professional Papers, and Capstones

The overarching purpose of this dissertation was to evaluate and analyze heart rate and/or step count measurements for six popular wearable technology devices: the Samsung Gear 2, FitBit Surge, Polar A360, Garmin Vivosmart HR+, Leaf Health Tracker, and the Scosche Rhythm+ in four separate conditions: free motion walking, free motion jogging, treadmill walking, and treadmill jogging. The four studies presented here utilized one test design and data collection protocol in which many measurements could be addressed simultaneously. Currently, there is no accepted standardized protocol to evaluate wearable technology devices. The test design utilized for this research series was introduced ...


Optimizing Cycle Exercise Performance During Normobaric Hypoxia Exposure, Cierra Brittany Ugale May 2019

Optimizing Cycle Exercise Performance During Normobaric Hypoxia Exposure, Cierra Brittany Ugale

UNLV Theses, Dissertations, Professional Papers, and Capstones

Introduction: The purpose of the present study was to examine whether implementing factors of OPTIMAL Theory: Enhanced Expectancies (EE), Autonomy Support (AS), and External Focus (EF) during a cycle exercise bout at a simulated altitude of 21,000 feet elevation had an effect on exercise performance and EPOC response in comparison to a control condition.

Methods: Sixteen participants (n = 8 women, n = 8 men) completed resting oxygen measurements (resting metabolic rate) between 6:00 A.M. and 8:00 A.M. Cycle exercise to fatigue at a constant workload was performed (100 W) while breathing air with reduced oxygen content ...


Comparison Of Cervical Angle During Different Equipment Removal Techniques Used In Ice Hockey For Suspected Cervical Injuries, Kendell Sarah Galor Dec 2018

Comparison Of Cervical Angle During Different Equipment Removal Techniques Used In Ice Hockey For Suspected Cervical Injuries, Kendell Sarah Galor

UNLV Theses, Dissertations, Professional Papers, and Capstones

The purpose of the study was to compare cervical movement between two different methods of removal of the helmet and shoulder pads. Seven college age male subjects (height: 172.54 ± 7.98 cm; weight: 85.70 ± 15.75 kg) with hockey experience volunteered to participate in the study. Each subject agreed to and signed the institutional review board approved informed consent before articipation. Subjects used their own game fit hockey helmet and were fitted with a pair of shoulder pads (CCM Tacks 1052 Sr Shoulder Pads). Cervical spine motion was measured using 3D kinematics (Vicon Motion Systems Ltd., UK). Reflective ...


Handgrip Fatigue And Forearm Girth In Intermediate Sport Rock Climbers, Grace Antoinette Macdonald Aug 2018

Handgrip Fatigue And Forearm Girth In Intermediate Sport Rock Climbers, Grace Antoinette Macdonald

UNLV Theses, Dissertations, Professional Papers, and Capstones

Background: Rock climbing has been increasing in popularity both recreationally and competitively. Indoor sport rock climbing is a type of climbing where the climber ascends a wall using artificial rocks (hand and foot holds) and is attached to a safety rope. Despite this increase in popularity of the sport, the physiological responses to sport climbing as an exercise to specific muscle groups are not well defined in literature. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to quantify the change in handgrip strength over a 30-minute bout of continuous climbing, specifically in intermediate sport climbers. An additional aim of this study ...


Biomechanical Analysis Of Jumping: The Influence Of External Load And Countermovement Depth On Deceleration Strategies And Performance, Leland Adam Barker May 2018

Biomechanical Analysis Of Jumping: The Influence Of External Load And Countermovement Depth On Deceleration Strategies And Performance, Leland Adam Barker

UNLV Theses, Dissertations, Professional Papers, and Capstones

Jumping performance has traditionally been measured by jump height alone. In recent years, the reactive strength index (RSI = Jump height / jump time)) has been used as another measure of jump performance. According to RSI, which was developed to assess eccentric force production, jump performance can improve by increasing jump height, decreasing jump time, or both simultaneously. However, it is not clear how force production correlates to RSI variables. If RSI is meant to be a practical measure of eccentric force production, it should correlate strongly to eccentric and amortization force production during jumping. Thus, the purpose of the first study ...


Money Matters: Exploring The Financial Resources For Sports Medicine Programs In Public And Private Secondary Schools--A Qualitative Study, Natalie Mercedes Aviles Flores May 2018

Money Matters: Exploring The Financial Resources For Sports Medicine Programs In Public And Private Secondary Schools--A Qualitative Study, Natalie Mercedes Aviles Flores

UNLV Theses, Dissertations, Professional Papers, and Capstones

Context: Institutional funding and strained school budgets are a barrier to placing certified athletic trainers (ATCs) in secondary schools. The size and location of a school appear to be coinciding limitations (Mazerolle et al, 2015), but what is lacking in the literature is an

evaluation of how schools manage to provide adequate medical coverage. Resources are available, but there is question as to whether these schools consider or even utilize them.

Objective: The aim of this qualitative study is to explore the funding techniques and budget sources of high school athletic training clinics from the perspective of both private and ...


Digging Biomechanics In Geomyoid Rodents, Alexis Moore Crisp May 2018

Digging Biomechanics In Geomyoid Rodents, Alexis Moore Crisp

UNLV Theses, Dissertations, Professional Papers, and Capstones

Subterranean digging behaviors provide opportunities for protection, access to prey, and predator avoidance for a diverse array of vertebrates, yet studies of the biomechanics of burrowing have been limited by the technical challenges of measuring kinetics and kinematics of animals moving within a substrate. Prior studies of burrowing have recorded a single axis of x-ray video and/or force. However, empirical observations show that burrowing is not restricted to a single axis or plane. I describe a new system called a ‘tunnel-tube’ for measuring 3D reaction force during burrowing. This tunnel-tube has two separate tubes, one ‘entry tube’ that has ...


Movement Efficiency Through Autonomy Support, Takehiro Iwatsuki May 2018

Movement Efficiency Through Autonomy Support, Takehiro Iwatsuki

UNLV Theses, Dissertations, Professional Papers, and Capstones

Supporting performer autonomy has been consistently been shown to enhance motor learning (for reviews, see Sanli, Patterson, Bray, & Lee, 2013; Wulf, 2007; Wulf & Lewthwaite, 2016). Autonomy-supportive situations are those in which learners are given control over aspects of the practice conditions or are provided with other choices, including small and incidental choices that are not necessarily related to the task at hand. Providing autonomy support also benefits immediate motor performance, as demonstrated by enhanced punching velocity and impact forces in a study involving skilled kick boxers (Halperin, Chapman, Martin, Lewthwaite, & Wulf, 2016). Autonomy support is a key factor in the OPTIMAL theory ...


The Acute Effects Of Cupping Therapy On Hamstring Range Of Motion Compared To Sham, Matthew Schafer May 2018

The Acute Effects Of Cupping Therapy On Hamstring Range Of Motion Compared To Sham, Matthew Schafer

UNLV Theses, Dissertations, Professional Papers, and Capstones

Context: Flexibility is an important aspect of physical performance and when deficient can result in an increased opportunity for injury. Cupping therapy is an ancient technique that has recently seen a growth in popularity in Western Orthopedic medicine as a soft tissue mobilization technique. Most cupping therapy research explores the use of cupping therapy for treating headache, herpes zoster, asthma, cough, and other non-orthopedic pathologies. Cupping therapy has had positive results on an injured population for increasing flexibility. Objective: To identify if cupping therapy applied passively for 10 minutes results in an increase in flexibility, and to identify if there ...


Does Distance Climbed In A 30-S Maximal Effort Test On A Simulated Climbing Machine Correlate With Wingate Variables?, Kayla Wright May 2018

Does Distance Climbed In A 30-S Maximal Effort Test On A Simulated Climbing Machine Correlate With Wingate Variables?, Kayla Wright

UNLV Theses, Dissertations, Professional Papers, and Capstones

Introduction: The Wingate Anaerobic Test (WAnT) is used to assess anaerobic capacity by measuring total work. In addition to total work, the WAnT measures peak power, mean power, relative peak power, and fatigue. There are lower-, upper-, and full-body alternatives to the WAnT that can be used to measure anaerobic capacity, but there is little data on these alternatives. It may be beneficial to have a full-body assessment of anaerobic capacity, as many sporting events have full-body anaerobic demands. Simulated climbing machines are becoming popular modes of exercise. They have been compared to treadmill running and cycling in terms of ...


Changes In Igf-1 Levels Post Deer Antler Velvet Supplementation, Nicole Alexandra Marmillo May 2018

Changes In Igf-1 Levels Post Deer Antler Velvet Supplementation, Nicole Alexandra Marmillo

UNLV Theses, Dissertations, Professional Papers, and Capstones

Context: Deer antler velvet has been used in traditional Chinese medicine for thousands of years but has recently gained popularity in Western medicine as an ergogenic aid. According to Oriental medicine deer antler velvet can be attributed to enhancing immune system function, improving athletic performance, increasing muscle recovery, enhancing sexual function, improving disease recovery, and enhancing cardiovascular function. Deer antler velvet is orally taken in pill, powder or spray form. Although a number of health and human performance effects have been attributed to deer antler velvet the scientific rationale behind these beliefs is ambiguous Objective: The purpose of this study ...


Exercise, Learning And Emotional Health: Interdisciplinary Approaches To Translational Action, Tessa L. Koschel Dec 2017

Exercise, Learning And Emotional Health: Interdisciplinary Approaches To Translational Action, Tessa L. Koschel

UNLV Theses, Dissertations, Professional Papers, and Capstones

Exercise positively effects physical, psychological and neurological wellbeing. Though the population at large is becoming increasingly aware of the multi-faceted benefits of exercise, the majority of people fail to meet daily exercise recommendations. Largely, demands of everyday life such as work, school and family take priority over fitness. The issue therefore becomes a matter of time. In a world of media multi-tasking and immediate gratification, the challenge to health professionals becomes incorporation and manipulation of these consistencies to improve exercise uptake and adherence. Focus must shift from the idea of making additional time for exercise, to adding exercise to time ...


Analysis Of Human Movement Patterns During Endurance Running, Joshua Paul Bailey Aug 2017

Analysis Of Human Movement Patterns During Endurance Running, Joshua Paul Bailey

UNLV Theses, Dissertations, Professional Papers, and Capstones

Endurance running and participation in racing events has flourished over the last decade. Recreational runners enter the training period for an upcoming race at differing levels of fitness and training. As individuals sign-up for the race, they typically follow the commitment with an increase in training load. The increases in training load are accomplished through a combination of increasing mileage, or duration of running, and running intensity through increase velocity. These increases are theoretically being applied in a progressive overload principle, where the musculoskeletal system has time to adapt to the breakdown provided from the previous training session. Progressive overload ...


Hip Adduction: Abduction Ratio Differences Between Collegiate Male And Female Soccer Players, Addie Lucci Aug 2017

Hip Adduction: Abduction Ratio Differences Between Collegiate Male And Female Soccer Players, Addie Lucci

UNLV Theses, Dissertations, Professional Papers, and Capstones

Context: Soccer is a high-intensity sport resulting in injuries. Strength ratios have been used to identify areas of weakness and help prevent further injuries. Objective: The purpose of this study was to determine if there was a difference in hip adduction: abduction ratios in collegiate male and female soccer players. The hypothesis was that males will have a lower ratio than females. Design: Cohort Study. Setting: Research Center. Participants: Five male and nine female NCAA Division 1 soccer players were recruited for this study. Intervention: Independent variable is gender. Biodex Isokinetic Dynamometer was used for data collection. The subjects performed ...


The Influence Of Crossfit Training On Running Mechanics, Sophia D. Bradley Aug 2017

The Influence Of Crossfit Training On Running Mechanics, Sophia D. Bradley

UNLV Theses, Dissertations, Professional Papers, and Capstones

Introduction

40 million Americans run regularly.1 Contrary to many runner’s beliefs, increased strength may be beneficial while not adding body mass. An increase in strength in specific muscles may improve running gait and performance. 9,6 Strength training may also play an important role in preventing common overuse injuries in running 11,12 Depending on the style of strength training, it may also have an enhanced benefit on running economy.4,16

Participation in CrossFit is also widely popular, with an increase in participation of 923% in the past ten years.2 CrossFit is a type of strength ...


Optimization Of Prosthetic Hands: Utilizing Modularity To Improve Grip Force, Grasp, And Versatility, Jordan William Harris Aug 2017

Optimization Of Prosthetic Hands: Utilizing Modularity To Improve Grip Force, Grasp, And Versatility, Jordan William Harris

UNLV Theses, Dissertations, Professional Papers, and Capstones

It has been demonstrated that although many varieties of upper limb prosthetics exist, commercially available prosthetics are outdated and unsatisfactory. Ineffectiveness and limitations have led to some prosthesis wearers having to own multiple devices, whereas others have given up on them entirely. Even though ample research has been conducted to design and test new hand designs, the industry appears to rest in an overall stagnated state.

It was proposed here, that one problem with prosthetic research is an excess of variables involved in testing, and therefore the improper application of the scientific method. It seems that each time a research ...


Upper Extremity Muscle Activity During Simulated Dryland Swimming While Wearing Wetsuit, Ciro J. Agnelli May 2017

Upper Extremity Muscle Activity During Simulated Dryland Swimming While Wearing Wetsuit, Ciro J. Agnelli

UNLV Theses, Dissertations, Professional Papers, and Capstones

Triathletes typically wear a wetsuit during the swim portion of an event, but it is not clear if muscle activity is influenced by wearing a wetsuit. The purpose of this study was to investigate if shoulder muscle activity was influenced by wearing a full sleeved wetsuit vs. no wetsuit during simulated dryland swimming. Subjects (n=10 males; 179.07±13.18cm; 91.20±7.25 kg; 45.6±10.52 years) completed two dry land simulated swimming conditions (VASA Ergometer Trainer): No Wetsuit (NWS) and with Wetsuit (WS). Electromyography (EMG) of four upper extremity muscles was recorded (Noraxon telemetry EMG ...


Stride Leg Ground Reaction Forces Pre- And Post-Fatigue In Collegiate Baseball Pitchers, Courtney Alley May 2017

Stride Leg Ground Reaction Forces Pre- And Post-Fatigue In Collegiate Baseball Pitchers, Courtney Alley

UNLV Theses, Dissertations, Professional Papers, and Capstones

Context: Baseball pitching requires the coordination of the lower and upper extremities to effectively generate and transfer force to the ball. High-velocity pitchers have been found to have significantly greater stride leg force generation than low-velocity pitchers. The influence of stride leg fatigue on pitching has yet to be investigated. Objective: The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of stride leg fatigue on peak vertical ground reaction forces (vGRFs) and hand velocity. Design: Pretest-posttest. Setting: Biomechanics laboratory. Patients or Other Participants: A convenience sample of 11 collegiate baseball pitchers (19.27 ± 0.64 years old; 85.88 ...


Concussion Prevention Strategies: A Survey Of Division I And Division Ii Female Soccer Teams, Kori Kendall Jeffries May 2017

Concussion Prevention Strategies: A Survey Of Division I And Division Ii Female Soccer Teams, Kori Kendall Jeffries

UNLV Theses, Dissertations, Professional Papers, and Capstones

The purpose of this study is to evaluate concussion prevention strategies that are being used in NCAA Division I and Division II schools, perform an investigation of cervical strengthening programs and the concussion rates associated, and determine beliefs of Certified Athletic Trainers about equipment for concussion prevention. Participants included Certified Athletic Trainer’s (ATs) employed at NCAA Division I and Division II universities in the United States, and provide services to the universities’ female soccer team. Data was collected via questionnaire e-mailed to participants through Qualtrics survey software. A prompt was sent out two weeks and four weeks following the ...


The Effects Of An Acute Bout Of Exercise On Hunger Hormones In Individuals At Risk For Type 2 Diabetes, Sydney Spoon May 2017

The Effects Of An Acute Bout Of Exercise On Hunger Hormones In Individuals At Risk For Type 2 Diabetes, Sydney Spoon

UNLV Theses, Dissertations, Professional Papers, and Capstones

Background: Hunger hormone levels are typically dysregulated in obese and diabetic

populations, however; postprandial exercise has been shown to influence hunger hormone levels. Purpose: To determine if hunger hormones including acylated ghrelin and GLP-1 levels are altered in response to an acute bout (15 minutes) of walking in individuals at risk for type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM).

Methods: Ten subjects at risk for prediabetes (fasting blood glucose 100–125mg/dL) participated in this randomized crossover design trial. Subjects arrived at the laboratory following an overnight fast and underwent one of two conditions: 1) Test meal with no walking (CON) or ...


Prediction Of Cardiorespiratory Fitness From Maximal Anaerobic Capacity, Elizabeth Ann Tanner May 2017

Prediction Of Cardiorespiratory Fitness From Maximal Anaerobic Capacity, Elizabeth Ann Tanner

UNLV Theses, Dissertations, Professional Papers, and Capstones

Incremental treadmill VO2max protocols are often considered the superior method of assessing cardiorespiratory fitness. These exercise test protocols stress aerobic energy production pathways. However, at the point of VO2max attainment anaerobic energy systems are the predominant mechanisms of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) production. Likewise, the Wingate cycle test, a commonly accepted method of anaerobic capacity assessment stresses anaerobic energy pathways. Based on the utilization of energy production pathways at the point of VO2max and maximal anaerobic capacity attainment a relationship between VO2max and Wingate exercise test protocols may exist. This potential relationship may facilitate the prediction of cardiorespiratory fitness from maximal ...


The Effects Of An Inclined And Declined Slope On Backward Locomotion: A Kinematic And Electromyographic Analysis Of Retrowalking, Song Dan Vo Dec 2016

The Effects Of An Inclined And Declined Slope On Backward Locomotion: A Kinematic And Electromyographic Analysis Of Retrowalking, Song Dan Vo

UNLV Theses, Dissertations, Professional Papers, and Capstones

The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of an inclined and declined slopeon kinematic properties and muscle activation magnitudes. This purpose was achieved by using a +10% grade for inclined backward walking (IBW) and -10% grade for declined backwardwalking (DBW) on a treadmill. Eleven participants (24.6 ± 4.1 yrs, 68.5 ± 14.6 kg, 1.7 ± 0.1 m) were recruited from the UNLV student body and were subject to a three day adaptation protocol to allow them to choose a preferred walking speed and to familiarize themselves with such a novel task. Two consecutive practice ...


An Investigation Of The Testing Effect On Motor Learning, Aaron Leonard Pauls Dec 2016

An Investigation Of The Testing Effect On Motor Learning, Aaron Leonard Pauls

UNLV Theses, Dissertations, Professional Papers, and Capstones

Optimization of learning processes is the goal many educators strive to achieve with their students. One of the potential methods used towards optimizing this process is what’s known as the testing effect. The testing effect is the improved performance on a retention test as a result of prior testing during some period of practice. Previously, the testing effect was investigated using mostly cognitive tasks such as the learning of a number of words. In this paper, we examine the impact the testing effect has on learning the motor skill of putting. The study used a 2 x 2 mixed ...


The Acute Effects Of Different Foam Rolling Timing Durations On Hamstring Flexibility, Chloe Marie Kipnis Aug 2016

The Acute Effects Of Different Foam Rolling Timing Durations On Hamstring Flexibility, Chloe Marie Kipnis

UNLV Theses, Dissertations, Professional Papers, and Capstones

The use of a foam roller is growing in popularity as a part of a warm-up in order to prepare for activity. The current research, however, lacks an accepted timing duration for how long an athlete should foam roll prior to activity in order to increase range of motion (ROM). In order to guide clinical practice, it is necessary to establish a standard for how long an athlete should foam roll a muscle group with the goal to increase ROM. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to compare hamstring flexibility changes following a single foam rolling bout, performed for ...


Examining The Effects Of Body Weight Support And Speed On Physiological Measures And Lower Leg Muscular Activity, Michael Thomas Soucy Aug 2016

Examining The Effects Of Body Weight Support And Speed On Physiological Measures And Lower Leg Muscular Activity, Michael Thomas Soucy

UNLV Theses, Dissertations, Professional Papers, and Capstones

The purpose of this study was to determine if body weight support or speed influences specific physiological and biomechanical parameters while running at a preferred pace, or variations of preferred pace. Nine participants (age: 28.56 ± 7.88 years, height: 1.68 ± 0.08 cm, mass: 65.70 ± 7.64 kg) who were running a minimum of 10 miles per week (14.67 ± 4.92 miles) were recruited for participation. Participants were asked to sign an institutionally approved informed consent form upon arrival to the lab. After determining preferred running speed at each body weight support condition (no support, 10 ...


The Effect Of Moderate Consumption Of Non-Nutritive Sweeteners On Glucose Tolerance And Body Composition In Rats, Ashley Power Tovar Aug 2016

The Effect Of Moderate Consumption Of Non-Nutritive Sweeteners On Glucose Tolerance And Body Composition In Rats, Ashley Power Tovar

UNLV Theses, Dissertations, Professional Papers, and Capstones

The Effect of Moderate Consumption Of Non-Nutritive Sweeteners On Glucose Tolerance And Body Composition In Rats

by Ashley Tovar

John C. Young, Ph.D., Examination Committee Chair Professor, Kinesiology and Nutrition Sciences University of Nevada, Las Vegas

Introduction: A comorbidity often seen with obesity is the development of impaired glucose tolerance. Abnormalities in the ability to metabolize glucose can lead to increased risk of developing pre-diabetes and if continued, diabetes mellitus type 2. To combat the effects of excess energy intake on obesity and glucose intolerance, low- energy and non-nutritive sweeteners have been introduced as a replacement for traditional sucrose ...