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The Nature Of Informal Roles In Interdependent Sport Teams, Jeemin Kim Jan 2020

The Nature Of Informal Roles In Interdependent Sport Teams, Jeemin Kim

Theses and Dissertations (Comprehensive)

The degree to which athletes understand and execute their formal role responsibilities (i.e., prescribed by coaches) is important for individual and group functioning (Eys, Schinke, Surya, & Benson, 2014). Recent literature suggested that informal roles can emerge within sport teams more naturally without coaches’ explicit assignments (e.g., team comedians, distracters), and have significant influences on team functioning (Cope, Eys, Beauchamp, Schinke, & Bosselut, 2011). This doctoral dissertation examined the nature of informal roles within interdependent sport teams, focusing on their antecedents and outcomes. Three separate projects were conducted. Project One examined athletes’ personality in the big five dimensions (McCrae & Costa ...


The Effects Of A 12-Week Custom Foot Orthotic Intervention On The Intrinsic Muscles Of The Foot, And Dynamic Stability During Unexpected Gait Termination In Healthy Young Adults, Katrina Protopapas Jan 2017

The Effects Of A 12-Week Custom Foot Orthotic Intervention On The Intrinsic Muscles Of The Foot, And Dynamic Stability During Unexpected Gait Termination In Healthy Young Adults, Katrina Protopapas

Theses and Dissertations (Comprehensive)

Introduction: Custom-made foot orthotics (CFO’s) are a commonly prescribed intervention to help individuals that are suffering from foot pain and foot disorders. However, the mechanisms of CFO’s are still poorly understood and are not well known. With the plantar intrinsic muscles of the foot being in direct contact with the CFO, it puts these structures at risk for disuse muscle atrophy as a result of being offloaded. Therefore, the purpose of the current study was to determine the effect of a 12-week custom-made foot orthotic intervention on the intrinsic muscles of the foot and dynamic stability during unexpected ...


Peripheral Visual Motion Sensitivity In Previously Concussed, Asymptomatic Individuals, Alyssa Prangley Jan 2017

Peripheral Visual Motion Sensitivity In Previously Concussed, Asymptomatic Individuals, Alyssa Prangley

Theses and Dissertations (Comprehensive)

Background: Individuals acquire information about self-motion from the environment which specifies actions necessary to be successful (Fajen & Matthis, 2011). However, concussed individuals demonstrate residual disturbance in execution of postural movement at 30 days post injury, depicting an impaired ability to perceive self-motion in a visually conflicting environment (Slobounov et al. 2006). The objective of this thesis was to investigate the extent to which one’s behaviours on a central field of view task are influenced by the amount and type of peripheral visual movement during a collision avoidance task, as well as to determine the additive effects of changes to balance control through the examination of the behaviours of a previously concussed population. The study utilized the closing doors of a virtual subway train to create an aperture for passage. For the purposes of this study, peripheral visual stimuli was a technique in which objects located within an individual’s peripheral field of view were manipulated to be absent, stationary/relatively stationary (veridical optic flow), or move independent of the participant’s movements (non-veridical optic flow). It was hypothesized that individuals would perform best when the environment provided visual information regarding one’s own self motion. It was expected that a critical point (i.e., when the limits of action are reached and a transition phase into a different action occurs (Warren & Whang, 1987)) would emerge, which would be impacted by the different levels of peripheral visual environment, eliciting a change in critical point. Furthermore, it was anticipated that previously concussed asymptomatic individuals would elicit more variable behaviours (i.e., inconsistent path selection when aperture width remains constant) compared to non-concussed counterparts (Baker & Cinelli, 2014), as a product of the peripheral visual environment.

Methods: Previously concussed (3-12 months prior) asymptomatic young adults (N=12) were recruited, along with age and gender matched non-concussed controls (N=12). Participants walked along a 7m virtual path (via HTC Vive) towards a set of subway doors and were instructed to safely board the train without colliding with the doors. When the participants were 2m from the doors, they began to close at a constant rate such that the final door aperture width at the time of crossing ranged from 35-85cm (in 10cm increments). Participants performed aperture crossing trials during one of four peripheral environments: 1) ground plane only; 2) ground plane plus stationary poles in the peripheral environment; 3) ground plane with stationary humanoids in the peripheral environment; or 4) randomly moving humanoids. Participants were exposed to three trials of each aperture width within each environment for a total of 72 walking trials (6 widths x 4 conditions x 3 trials). Kinematic data was collected using a 3D motion capture system (Optotrak, NDI).

Results: The results revealed that participants executed significant shoulder rotations regardless of aperture width at time of crossing ...


The Experiences Of Athletes, Parents, And Coaches With The Long-Term Athlete Development Model (Ltad) In Youth Soccer Academies, Kody Watson Jan 2017

The Experiences Of Athletes, Parents, And Coaches With The Long-Term Athlete Development Model (Ltad) In Youth Soccer Academies, Kody Watson

Theses and Dissertations (Comprehensive)

The Long-Term Athlete Development Model (LTAD) has been developed to allow children the best chance of engaging in lifelong sport and physical activity. The LTAD focuses on long-term development, not short-term success, which allows for the best opportunity of sport participation and optimal sport potential throughout life (Balyi, Way, & Higgs, 2013). Research surrounding the LTAD model has stated that there is a lack of empirical evidence of the model being utilized within sport, as some researchers believe that it is more theoretical than practical (Lloyd & Oliver, 2012). However, even with this criticism of the LTAD model, Canadian sport policy makers ...


Task-Dependent Modulation Of Cortical Excitability And Balance Control In Individuals With Post-Concussion Syndrome, Kristen Kaster, Jayne M. Kalmar Ms., Michael E. Cinelli Mr Jan 2017

Task-Dependent Modulation Of Cortical Excitability And Balance Control In Individuals With Post-Concussion Syndrome, Kristen Kaster, Jayne M. Kalmar Ms., Michael E. Cinelli Mr

Theses and Dissertations (Comprehensive)

In most cases, symptoms resolve between 7-10 days post-concussion. However, in 10-15% of the concussed population, symptoms can remain unresolved for months to years following the head injury. The purpose of this thesis was two-fold, and was broken up into two studies, where the same individuals participated in both studies. The purpose of the first study was to quantify the differences in balance control between individuals with PCS (i.e., had been experiencing symptoms for <30 days) and non-concussed individuals during a lower-limb reaching task. Participants completed a static balance assessment before and after a lower-limb reaching task, which incorporated a Go/No-Go paradigm. Results from this study revealed no differences in the static stability assessments, however, individuals with PCS demonstrated increased medial-lateral COP displacement as well as greater trunk pitch during the reaching task. Overall, the findings reveal persistent balance impairments in individuals with PCS, which may put this population at an increased risk of further injury. The purpose of the second study was to assess task-dependent modulation of cortical excitability prior to planned index finger abduction contractions comparing a non-concussed population to a population with PCS. The protocol in this study consisted of both single and paired-pulse transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) which was applied prior to the beginning of 3 different tasks (i.e., a rest condition with no plan to contract, a precision contraction, and a powerful contraction). In addition to the three tasks, participants also had to respond to a Go/No-Go cue. The results of this study revealed an increase in excitability prior to a precision contraction in both non-concussed and PCS groups. No differences in task-dependent modulation were found between the two groups with respect to intracortical facilitation and inhibition, however a negative correlation between number of symptoms reported (SCAT3 symptom evaluation) and intracortical facilitation was revealed. The increase in corticospinal excitability prior to a precision contraction was not explained by the two cortical mechanisms we assessed and may therefore be due to spinal modulation or a different cortical mechanism. Overall, based on the results from this thesis, it appears that individuals with PCS have balance impairments, which may be a result of an inability to maximally activate their postural muscles. Furthermore, it appears that those individuals who reported a higher number of symptoms had greater reductions in intracortical facilitation, likely reflecting the heterogeneity of this clinical group.


An Evaluation Of Older Adults’ Perceptions Of Psychological Well-Being When Participating In Community Centre Programs, Kayla Rellinger Jan 2017

An Evaluation Of Older Adults’ Perceptions Of Psychological Well-Being When Participating In Community Centre Programs, Kayla Rellinger

Theses and Dissertations (Comprehensive)

Multi-purpose organizations, such as community centres, provide opportunities for individuals to participate in various physical and social activities. Although, it has been well established that community centres provide the opportunity and environment to promote health behaviour changes among older adults (Jones et al., 2013; Stewart, 1997; Wallace et al., 1998), there is a dearth of research differentiating between physically active and non-active community centre programming. The purpose of the current study was to evaluate whether participating in community centre programming influenced four key measures of perceived psychological well-being, as well as, to evaluate whether the perceived psychological well-being of community ...


Sedentary Behaviour, Physical Activity, And Mobile Apps Among University Students, Emily E. Dunn Jan 2017

Sedentary Behaviour, Physical Activity, And Mobile Apps Among University Students, Emily E. Dunn

Theses and Dissertations (Comprehensive)

Prolonged sedentary behaviour (SB) poses health risks independent of physical activity (PA) levels (Owen et al., 2010). University students in particular are at risk of engaging in prolonged SB due to the demands of school. Due to the pervasiveness of smartphones, and ability of mobile applications (apps) to target SB (Bond et al., 2014), apps may be used to encourage less SB in this population. Apps for PA have been coded for behaviour change techniques (BCTs) (Conroy et al., 2014; Middelweerd et al., 2014; Yang et al., 2015), however, apps for SB have yet to be assessed for BCTs.

The ...


The Effects Of Orthotics And Increased Plantar Sole Mechanoreceptor Activation On Turning Performance In Individuals With Parkinson’S Disease, Kelly A. Robb Jan 2017

The Effects Of Orthotics And Increased Plantar Sole Mechanoreceptor Activation On Turning Performance In Individuals With Parkinson’S Disease, Kelly A. Robb

Theses and Dissertations (Comprehensive)

Locomotion and turning are complex movement patterns essential to activities of daily living. Individuals with Parkinson’s disease (PD) report difficulties turning, often coupled with impaired balance and increased fear of falling. The purpose of this within-subject study was to determine if orthotics, with and without a textured top cover, can improve gait stability and turning performance within Parkinson’s participants. Seven participants with a diagnosis of idiopathic Parkinson’s disease, aged 55-80 years old, participated in the study. Participants completed three testing sessions; baseline, 4 weeks post-baseline, and 5 weeks post-baseline. The ‘footwear only’ and ‘footwear + non-textured orthotic’ conditions ...


An Investigation Of The Relationship Between Intervertebral Disc Puncture, Inflammation, And Tissue Mechanics Using A Rat-Tail Model., Brigitte Laird Jan 2017

An Investigation Of The Relationship Between Intervertebral Disc Puncture, Inflammation, And Tissue Mechanics Using A Rat-Tail Model., Brigitte Laird

Theses and Dissertations (Comprehensive)

Introduction: The intervertebral disc (IVD) is composed of the annulus fibrosus (AF), which surrounds and contains the nucleus pulposus (NP). It is hypothesized that when the IVD becomes injured, in the case of IVD herniation, a localized innate immune response is initiated. Although the presence of pro-inflammatory cytokines in injured IVDs has been well documented, the extent to which inflammation affects the mechanical properties of the IVD remains poorly understood. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of IVD damage (via puncture) and inflammation (via lipopolysaccharide (LPS) exposure) on the mechanical and structural properties of the IVD ...


The Effects Of Manipulated Somatosensory Input On Simulated Falls During Walking, Sarah Mitchell-Ewart Jan 2016

The Effects Of Manipulated Somatosensory Input On Simulated Falls During Walking, Sarah Mitchell-Ewart

Theses and Dissertations (Comprehensive)

Previous research has demonstrated that there is a distinct relationship between aging and instability. The somatosensory system plays a significant role in balance control in conjunction with vision and the vestibular system (Qiu et al., 2012). Evidence has shown that manipulation of the mechanoreceptors on the plantar surface of the foot has a direct effect on balance control. By manipulating these receptors with hypothermic anesthesia and vibration, researchers are capable of simulating the effect of sensory modification on healthy individuals, in order to understand the role that plantar-surface sensation has in adapting to perturbation during gait (Perry et al., 2001 ...


The 2d:4d Ratio, Handedness, And Sex Across The Age Span, Helen A M Protopapas Ms. Jan 2016

The 2d:4d Ratio, Handedness, And Sex Across The Age Span, Helen A M Protopapas Ms.

Theses and Dissertations (Comprehensive)

The ratio of the difference between the 2nd and 4th digits of the hand (2D:4D ratio) has been demonstrated to be an indirect indicator of prenatal testosterone levels. Prenatal testosterone has been found to play a role in brain development in utero, and thus may influence lateral asymmetries, such as handedness. Consequently, one of the aims of the current study was to examine relationships between the 2D:4D ratio, hand preference, and hand performance with the factors of sex (males and females), handedness (right handers and left handers), and age considered. A total of 104 participants were tested, 90 ...


Estimates Of Persistent Inward Current Decline In Human Soleus Motor Units During Fatigue, Kirby Mendes Jan 2016

Estimates Of Persistent Inward Current Decline In Human Soleus Motor Units During Fatigue, Kirby Mendes

Theses and Dissertations (Comprehensive)

Fatigue is defined as any exercise induced reduction in strength or power, and can be attributed to central and peripheral components. Many central and peripheral mechanisms have been extensively studied, but few studies have looked at the changes in the intrinsic properties of motor neurons and their contribution to fatigue. Persistent inward current (PIC) is an important intrinsic property of motor neurons responsible for setting a large increase in the gain of motor output and may contribute to fatigue. Inhibitory inputs such as reciprocal inhibition (RI) have been shown to turn off PICs and reducing the gain of output. PIC ...


What Lies Past Remission: The Perceived Late Effects Of Pediatric Cancer, Monica L. Molinaro Jan 2016

What Lies Past Remission: The Perceived Late Effects Of Pediatric Cancer, Monica L. Molinaro

Theses and Dissertations (Comprehensive)

Objective

Pediatric cancer survival rates are increasing (Childhood Cancer Canada Foundation, 2011) and with this, so are the late effects of pediatric cancer (Oeffinger et al., 2006). This research examines the lived experiences of the perceived long-term effects of pediatric cancer on adult survivors and their primary support persons in order to understand the multifaceted nature of the illness on adults, and how it affects others close to them.

Methods

The theoretical orientation used to guide the research was phenomenology in order to present an accurate depiction of all the participants’ lived experiences. Specifically, background questionnaires were administered and one-on-one ...


The Bigger Picture: Piecing Together The Experiences Of Family Members Living With High-Functioning Children With Autism Spectrum Disorder, Lauren Thomson Jan 2016

The Bigger Picture: Piecing Together The Experiences Of Family Members Living With High-Functioning Children With Autism Spectrum Disorder, Lauren Thomson

Theses and Dissertations (Comprehensive)

The purpose of this research was to explore the experiences of family members living with a child with ASD. The specific research questions that were addressed included: 1. How is a family member affected by having a child with ASD in the family unit; and 2. How does living with a child with ASD affect family functioning? The theoretical orientation of phenomenology was used to guide this research and to allow the “voice” of family members of children with ASD to be heard. The purpose of phenomenology is to distill individuals’ experiences with a phenomenon down to an “essence” of ...


The Effects Of External Focus Of Attention Exercise Rehabilitation On Dual Task Walking In Parkinson's Disease, Eric N. Beck Jan 2016

The Effects Of External Focus Of Attention Exercise Rehabilitation On Dual Task Walking In Parkinson's Disease, Eric N. Beck

Theses and Dissertations (Comprehensive)

Parkinson’s disease impairs control of well-learned movements, and therefore, individuals with Parkinson’s disease are forced to walk with greater conscious control. This causes difficulties while walking and completing a secondary task simultaneously (dual tasking), in that distractions from conscious control of walking increase the risk of falls and injury. Although, attention-based exercise may be a potential avenue to decrease the demands associated with walking in Parkinson’s disease. For example, an external focus of attention (on manipulated objects) has been found to recruit the networks that are important for walking with little conscious control (automatic control networks). In ...


The Influence Of Hip Mobility And Fatigue On Spinal Flexion And Muscle Activation In Rugby Scrum Performance, Joshua D. Clayton Jan 2016

The Influence Of Hip Mobility And Fatigue On Spinal Flexion And Muscle Activation In Rugby Scrum Performance, Joshua D. Clayton

Theses and Dissertations (Comprehensive)

Introduction: Rugby scrumming is a means of restarting play following a minor rule infringement that can occur up to 28 times per game. The scrum poses a significant injury risk, with more days missed due to injury per event than any other rugby activity. Rugby players also have a significantly higher rate of spine injury than the general population, perhaps due to flexion in combination with high compression forces, which has been cited as the main mechanism of injury. Flexion of the spine has also been associated with poor hip mobility and quadriceps fatigue in other athletic tasks and may ...


An Exploratory Approach To Manipulating Dynamic Stability: Investigating The Role Of Visual Control During A Precision Foot Placement Task, Russell Cg Kennedy Jan 2016

An Exploratory Approach To Manipulating Dynamic Stability: Investigating The Role Of Visual Control During A Precision Foot Placement Task, Russell Cg Kennedy

Theses and Dissertations (Comprehensive)

ABSTRACT

Background: The visual system provides the body with an accurate sensory system; designed to gather information at a distance and acts as a feedforward control mechanism during human locomotion. By doing so, visual information contributes coordination of the head-arm-trunk (HAT) segment and modulating foot placement. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of a constrained pathway during a complex navigational stone-stepping task on HAT segment control and how the visual system guides locomotion during a complex foot placement task.

Methods: Nine university-aged females (Mean age: 22.5 years old +/-1.75) participated in this study. Participants ...


The Effects Of A Low Back Pain Vibration Modality On Trunk Postural Control, Adam R. Cornwall Jan 2016

The Effects Of A Low Back Pain Vibration Modality On Trunk Postural Control, Adam R. Cornwall

Theses and Dissertations (Comprehensive)

Abstract

Introduction: Low back pain (LBP) is prevalent worldwide and is affecting even more individuals as the population ages. There has recently been an increase in production of low back pain (LBP) vibration modality belts that apply localized vibration to the lumbar region of the spine as it has shown to reduce pain. However, vibration is also known to perturb muscle spindles and thus interfere with proprioception. If a LBP vibration modality causes a proprioceptive deficit in the trunk lumbar region it could potentially increase an individual’s risk of injury due to poor postural control. Therefore, the effects of ...


The Influence Of Joint-Site, Limb Preference, And Physical Activity On Joint Position Sense, Amanda N. Forsyth Jan 2016

The Influence Of Joint-Site, Limb Preference, And Physical Activity On Joint Position Sense, Amanda N. Forsyth

Theses and Dissertations (Comprehensive)

Joint position sense provides the body with information about where limb segments are relative to one another in three-dimensional space. The ability to utilize this sense is imperative for smooth, coordinated, and accurate movement in everything from activities of daily living to competitive sport (Ghez & Sainburg, 1995). Researchers currently use joint position sense as a measure of proprioceptive acuity. However, limited research has investigated the influence of potential confounding factors on proprioception. Specifically, literature on how joint-site specificity and lateral preference influence proprioception displays several incongruent findings. Therefore, the purpose of the current study was (1) to determine if joint-site influences proprioception across the body; (2) to determine whether joint position sense depends upon limb preference; and (3) to determine if direction of movement during active joint repositioning influences proprioceptive error. Joint position sense was measured bilaterally in 55 healthy right-handed young adults at the elbows, wrists, knees, and ankles using active-active joint repositioning with a Vernier© goniometer. The results ...


Alternate Foot Placement: Investigating The Role Of Gait Parameters, Planar Obstacle Complexity, And Athletic Training, Brittany A. Baxter Jan 2015

Alternate Foot Placement: Investigating The Role Of Gait Parameters, Planar Obstacle Complexity, And Athletic Training, Brittany A. Baxter

Theses and Dissertations (Comprehensive)

On a daily basis modifications, based upon environmental demands and the capabilities of the individual, are made to the locomotor pattern to enable avoidance of undesirable landing areas (i.e. planar obstacles). Athletes and dancers have been suggested to have superior perception-action coupling compared to non-athletes, allowing them to perform various tasks at a greater speed without a loss of precision (Federici et al., 2005; Gerin-Lajoie et al. (2007). The current study assessed non-athletes, dancers, and field athletes to investigate whether training influences the maintenance of forward progression and stability in relation to alternate foot placement during planar obstacle avoidance ...


An Athletic Approach To Studying Perception-Action Integration: Does Sport-Specific Training, And The Impact Of Injury, Influence How Individuals Visually Guide Navigation?, Carmen Baker, Jennifer Campos Ph.D, Michael E. Cinelli Ph.D. Jan 2015

An Athletic Approach To Studying Perception-Action Integration: Does Sport-Specific Training, And The Impact Of Injury, Influence How Individuals Visually Guide Navigation?, Carmen Baker, Jennifer Campos Ph.D, Michael E. Cinelli Ph.D.

Theses and Dissertations (Comprehensive)

The objective of this thesis was to investigate perception-action integration capabilities of individuals during a choice navigation task. This task assessed navigation strategies in open space while individuals avoided colliding with two vertical obstacles that created a body-scaled, horizontal gap, at three varying obstacle distances from the starting location (3m, 5m, 7m). The two studies completed in this thesis employed the same paradigm to assess the hypothesized group differences. Gaze behaviours and kinematics of navigation strategies were compared between: 1) athletes specifically trained in navigating in open space versus non-athletes; and 2) athletes with post-concussion syndrome (PCS) versus non-concussed, specifically ...


The Effect Of Training Older Adults In Tai Chi And Compensatory Stepping On Balance Control, Hannah L. Moore Miss Jan 2015

The Effect Of Training Older Adults In Tai Chi And Compensatory Stepping On Balance Control, Hannah L. Moore Miss

Theses and Dissertations (Comprehensive)

Abstract

Introduction: In Canadian society, there is a growing prevalence of older adults and one of the main problems facing this generation today is the risk of falling. Tai Chi (TC) is a martial art that has demonstrated improvements in balance control. It uses a series of fluid movements that engage head, neck and trunk rotation while simultaneously reducing base of support. In addition, it has been demonstrated that training older adults by administering unpredictable perturbations to challenge balance better equips them to react successfully in response to balance perturbations. This study aims to determine the potential balance specific benefits ...


Estimates Of Persistent Inward Current In Human Motor Neurons During Postural Sway, Ryan Foley, Jayne M. Kalmar Dr. Jan 2015

Estimates Of Persistent Inward Current In Human Motor Neurons During Postural Sway, Ryan Foley, Jayne M. Kalmar Dr.

Theses and Dissertations (Comprehensive)

Persistent inward current (PIC) is a membrane property critical for increasing gain of motor neuron output. In humans, most estimates of PIC are made from plantarflexor or dorsiflexor motor units with the participant in a seated position with the knee flexed. This seated and static posture neglects the task-dependent nature of the monoaminergic drive that modulates PIC activation. Seated estimates may drastically underestimate the amount of PIC that occurs in human motor neurons during functional movement. The current study estimated PIC using the conventional paired motor unit technique which uses the difference between reference unit firing frequency at test unit ...


Dancing With Autism Spectrum Disorder: A Mixed Methods Investigation, Nicole Reinders Jan 2015

Dancing With Autism Spectrum Disorder: A Mixed Methods Investigation, Nicole Reinders

Theses and Dissertations (Comprehensive)

Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is the most commonly diagnosed neurological disorder in children today, affecting an estimated 1 in 150 to 1 in 160 children in Canada (Health Canada, 2013). Children with ASD have reduced communication skills as well as restrictive and repetitive behaviours and interests (APA, 2014). Unfortunately there are few recreational activities available for the autistic population. Past research has shown dance/movement therapy to be beneficial for children on the spectrum, but there is a dearth of literature regarding recreational dance. Dance is a form of physical activity that fosters skill development, provides social opportunities, and can ...


Youth Athlete Leaders' Use Of Transformational Behaviours And Relations To Trust In The Leader And Sport Outcomes, Amy M. Cubitt, Mark Eys Jan 2015

Youth Athlete Leaders' Use Of Transformational Behaviours And Relations To Trust In The Leader And Sport Outcomes, Amy M. Cubitt, Mark Eys

Theses and Dissertations (Comprehensive)

Leadership is one of the most crucial factors determining whether a group succeeds or fails (Bass, 1990). Furthermore, leaders displaying transformational behaviours are thought to lift followers to higher levels of motivation to get them to perform beyond expectations (Bass, 1985), and they tend to have followers who are more committed and satisfied (Bass & Riggio, 2006). Another outcome of transformational leadership in organizations is that followers are more willing to trust leaders who show care and concern for the follower (Dirks & Ferrin, 2002). The purpose of the present study was to determine if the use of full range leadership behaviours by formal peer leaders on youth sport teams would relate to trust in the leader. Data were collected at two time points, once near the beginning of the season and again near the end of the season, using several questionnaires including the Multifactor Leadership Questionnaire – Form 5 (Bass & Avolio, 2004). Only data from participants who were present at both data collection points were included in the analyses of study hypotheses, which included 126 athletes (77 females, 49 males; mean age = 15.49) from 12 interdependent sport teams. It was found that perceptions of full range leadership were related to cognitive- and affect-based trust at both time points. Interestingly, the transformational components inspirational motivation and idealized influence (attributed) contributed positively, and the non-leadership component laissez-faire ...


The Application Of Hand Switch Costs Towards Understanding Bimanual Movements: An Investigation Throughout The Lifespan, Gordon Young Jan 2015

The Application Of Hand Switch Costs Towards Understanding Bimanual Movements: An Investigation Throughout The Lifespan, Gordon Young

Theses and Dissertations (Comprehensive)

The objective of the present study was to examine the different kind of switch costs among a varied population using a modified bimanual serial reaction time task. Alternating between responses produce a cost of increased response time, which is termed a switch cost. However, not all switch costs are equal, and its effect on response time is dependent on what previous hand and digit combination was utilized. A detachable touchscreen tablet PC running a custom built JavaScript based software prompted participants to press down with their digits (2nd-5th) to corresponding buttons which would light up in a ...


Influence Of Planning Resources On Gait Control In Parkinson’S Disease, Frederico P. Faria Jan 2015

Influence Of Planning Resources On Gait Control In Parkinson’S Disease, Frederico P. Faria

Theses and Dissertations (Comprehensive)

Movement disturbances in individuals with Parkinson’s disease (PD) have been associated with difficulties to plan complex actions. Performance of simple and complex actions overloads resources for individuals with Parkinson’s disease (PD). However, it is unclear if central resources required to plan gait adjustments while walking exacerbate gait disturbances of patients with PD. More specifically, it is unclear how gait impairments, sensory processing, and the dopaminergic system influence the load on processing resources (e.g. cognitive load) during the planning of step modifications. In order to investigate the relative influence of these factors on cognitive load and its impact ...


The Effect Of Gvs On Path Trajectory And Body Rotation In The Absence Of Visual Cues During A Spatial Navigation Task, Tanya Karn Jan 2015

The Effect Of Gvs On Path Trajectory And Body Rotation In The Absence Of Visual Cues During A Spatial Navigation Task, Tanya Karn

Theses and Dissertations (Comprehensive)

Background: The vestibular system has been shown to contribute to mechanisms of locomotion such as distance perception. Galvanic vestibular stimulation (GVS) is a tool used to perturb the vestibular system, and causes significant deviations in path trajectory during locomotion. Previous research has suggested that applying GVS during straight-line locomotion tasks is not sufficient to determine the effects of the vestibular system on locomotion. However, spatial navigation challenges one’s ability to navigate throughout the environment using idiothetic cues to constantly update one’s position. The purpose of the current study was to determine the effects of GVS on both path ...


Gait Initiation Mechanics In Concussed Varsity Athletes, Adam Harper Jan 2014

Gait Initiation Mechanics In Concussed Varsity Athletes, Adam Harper

Theses and Dissertations (Comprehensive)

Concussions are a common and potentially serious injury that affects athletes across multiple sports. More than ever concussions are now at the forefront of sport-related research.

Current research indicates that in a cohort of Canadian junior hockey players examined during the 2009-2010 season showed a rate of concussion at 36.5% of all athletic injuries (Echlin et al., 2010). This rate of concussion injury indicates that proper evaluations and examination tools are key to successful management of concussions. The objective of this study was to determine whether a functional task such as gait initiation is able to quantify stability difference ...


Laterality Across The Lifespan: The Effects Of Task Complexity, Nicole Williams Jan 2014

Laterality Across The Lifespan: The Effects Of Task Complexity, Nicole Williams

Theses and Dissertations (Comprehensive)

The current study aimed to build on the work of Gooderham & Bryden (2013) by comparing the effects of task complexity on hand selection across the lifespan. It was hypothesized that the increasing complexity of a task would override a biomechanically efficient movement such that participants would use only the preferred hand to complete the task. It was also hypothesized that older adults would perform similarly to young children with respect to switch points in space. Four age groups of participants (3-7 year olds, 8-12 year olds, 18-25 year olds and adults over 70 years) completed the newly designed Hand Selection ...