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Full-Text Articles in Life Sciences

Cellular And Molecular Changes Following Skeletal Muscle Damage: A Role For Nf-Kb And Muscle Resident Pericytes, Robert H. Hyldahl Sep 2011

Cellular And Molecular Changes Following Skeletal Muscle Damage: A Role For Nf-Kb And Muscle Resident Pericytes, Robert H. Hyldahl

Open Access Dissertations

Skeletal muscle is dynamic and actively regenerates following damage or altered functional demand. Regeneration is essential for the maintenance of muscle mass and, when dysregulated as a result of disease or aging, can lead to losses in functional capacity and increased mortality. Limited data exist on the molecular mechanisms that govern skeletal muscle regeneration in humans. Therefore, the overall objective of this dissertation was to characterize early molecular alterations in human skeletal muscle to strenuous exercise known to induce a muscle regenerative response. Thirty-five subjects completed 100 eccentric (muscle lengthening) contractions (EC) of the knee extensors with one leg and ...


Metformin And/Or Exercise Training Affect Metabolic Health In Men And Women With Prediabetes, Steven K. Malin May 2011

Metformin And/Or Exercise Training Affect Metabolic Health In Men And Women With Prediabetes, Steven K. Malin

Open Access Dissertations

Prediabetes is defined by elevated blood glucose concentrations not high enough to meet criteria for type 2 diabetes. Exercise or metformin, a common “anti-diabetes” medication, may attenuate the progression from prediabetes to type 2 diabetes by improving insulin sensitivity and cardio-metabolic health. Because each treatment has its primary action in different tissues, combining exercise (muscle) with metformin (liver) may further enhance insulin sensitivity and cardio-metabolic health. Purpose: To determine the efficacy of combining exercise training with metformin on insulin sensitivity and cardio-metabolic health in men and women with prediabetes. We hypothesized that the combined treatment would improve insulin sensitivity and ...


Adaptations To Running While Footwear Cushioning And Surface Are Manipulated, Trampas M. Tenbroek May 2011

Adaptations To Running While Footwear Cushioning And Surface Are Manipulated, Trampas M. Tenbroek

Open Access Dissertations

Minimal footwear sales have encountered rapid growth over the last several years. Minimal footwear are often constructed with thin basic uppers and thin, flexible midsoles. It is likely that running in minimal footwear will require adaptation and adjustments as the amount of cushioning and the geometry of the foot/ground interface will be substantially different than what many are accustomed to. This research investigated the effect footwear cushioning amount and the running surface had on running patterns. Study 1 (Chapter IV) utilized two different running footwear conditions and two different cushioned treadmill conditions, as well as a barefoot condition, to ...


Consequence Of Functioning At The End Range Of Joint Motion: Implications On Anterior Knee Pain, Pedro A. Rodrigues May 2011

Consequence Of Functioning At The End Range Of Joint Motion: Implications On Anterior Knee Pain, Pedro A. Rodrigues

Open Access Dissertations

“Excessive” and/or “delayed” subtalar joint (STJ) pronation has been linked to overuse injuries because of its influence on tibial internal rotation (TIR). The transfer of STJ pronation to TIR occurs via the talocrual joint, believed to have limited transverse plane motion. However, studies have shown the talocrural joint to have more transverse plane motion than once believed, therefore it is feasible that the STJ will only influence the motion of the tibia once this motion has been exhausted.

Currently, studies evaluating this relationship have focused on peak joint angles and excursion without reference to the amount of motion available ...


Optimal Control Of Human Running, Ross Herbert Miller May 2011

Optimal Control Of Human Running, Ross Herbert Miller

Open Access Dissertations

Humans generally use two modes of locomotion as adults. At slow speeds we walk, and at fast speeds we run. To perform either gait, we use our muscles. The central questions in this dissertation were: (1) Why do humans run the way they do, and (2) How do the mechanical properties of muscle influence running performance? Optimal control simulations of running were generated using a bipedal forward dynamics model of the human musculoskeletal system. Simulations of running and sprinting were posed as two-point boundary value problems where the muscle excitation signals were optimized to maximize an optimality criterion. In the ...