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Impact Of Psychological And Physical Stressors On The Exercise-Induced Immune Response In Collegiate Swimmers, Connor Alexander Kuremsky Jan 2019

Impact Of Psychological And Physical Stressors On The Exercise-Induced Immune Response In Collegiate Swimmers, Connor Alexander Kuremsky

LSU Master's Theses

Evidence suggests high-intensity exercise training increases incidence of upper respiratory infection in young-adult athletes (Spence et al. 2007). Collegiate athletes experience chronic stress, which has been shown to result in increased proportions of late-differentiated CD8+ T-cells of a dysfunctional phenotype (Bosch et al. 2009). However, many studies fail to consider possible moderators such as psychological stress and cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection. Purpose: To examine the impact of psychological stress, CMV infection, and exercise on proportions of early- and late-differentiated CD4+ and CD8+ T-cells in collegiate swimmers over a 7-month training period. Methods: Data were collected from NCAA Division 1 swimmers (13 ...


Physiological And Psychological Well-Being During The Spring Season In Female Soccer Players, Adam Conrad Lowe Jan 2017

Physiological And Psychological Well-Being During The Spring Season In Female Soccer Players, Adam Conrad Lowe

LSU Master's Theses

Female student-athletes are an understudied population that are exposed to athletic stressors in addition to academic and social stressors. This study is designed to investigate the physiological and psychological well-being during the spring season in female Division I soccer players. During the 2017 spring season, participants competed in five matches over five weeks and participated in three to four soccer training sessions in between match days. To measure well-being, both objective and subjective measures were used. Activation state was collected via the Activation Deactivation Adjective Checklist (AD-ACL) before all matches. Heart rate and heart rate variability were measured during all ...


Class-Related Emotions In Physical Education: A Control-Value Theory Approach, Kelly L. Simonton Jan 2016

Class-Related Emotions In Physical Education: A Control-Value Theory Approach, Kelly L. Simonton

LSU Master's Theses

This study investigated a model of students’ control beliefs and task value in physical education (PE). Specifically, it examined relationships among students’ perceptions of their teachers’ communication and instructional clarity, control beliefs and values toward PE, and academic emotions. High school students (N= 529) completed valid and reliable instruments assessing perceptions of teacher characteristics, control, value, enjoyment, and boredom in PE. Descriptive statistics, bivariate correlations, and internal reliability estimates were calculated. A path analysis was used to test the hypothesis that teacher communication and clarity would be related to control-value appraisals which would in turn, positively predict enjoyment or boredom ...


Testing Fitness-Related Phone Application Technology In Physical Activity Classes, Angela Nicole Simonton Jan 2016

Testing Fitness-Related Phone Application Technology In Physical Activity Classes, Angela Nicole Simonton

LSU Master's Theses

Many young adults are inactive (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2010) and time spent on smartphones and applications (“apps”) is high (Pew Research Center, 2014; The Nielsen Company, 2014). Technology is often viewed as a barrier to health behavior, so seeking ways of using technology to facilitate physical activity (PA) and other health-related behaviors could be beneficial. The Social Cognitive Theory (SCT) framework was used to determine if the NexTrack smartphone app could increase PA behaviors and SCT-related constructs among university students in PA courses. Participants in the NexTrack app intervention group were hypothesized to report increased psychosocial and ...


An Investigation Of The Generalizability Of Buoyancy From Academics To Athletics, Jackie Rae Victoriano Jan 2016

An Investigation Of The Generalizability Of Buoyancy From Academics To Athletics, Jackie Rae Victoriano

LSU Master's Theses

Buoyancy, the ability of an individual to handle everyday setbacks, has been applied successfully to academics, and has implications for performance and well-being. The purpose of this investigation was to determine if the concept of buoyancy can be successfully applied to the domain of sports (i.e., athletic buoyancy). This study sought to examine the relationship between academic and athletic buoyancy, as well as the efficacy of five sport-oriented predictors (5Cs), confidence, coordination (planning), commitment, composure (anxiety), and control, on both athletic and academic buoyancy. Sport club athletes (N = 285) aged 18 to 31 years completed a one-time survey assessing ...


Neural Recovery Rates Of Knee Extensors Following A Resistance Exercise Protocol, Darren Michael Polk Jan 2016

Neural Recovery Rates Of Knee Extensors Following A Resistance Exercise Protocol, Darren Michael Polk

LSU Master's Theses

Fatigue can manifest in the human body in a multitude of ways, one of these is neural-based fatigue. Neural-based fatigue occurs when the nerve fails to activate a muscle (Brooks et al., 2005). The purpose of this research is to investigate rates of neural recovery following a resistance exercise protocol. A pre-test consisting of a 5-second maximum voluntary isometric knee extension was performed. Next, each subject performed a resistance exercise protocol consisting of 5 sets of 10 repetitions of isokinetic knee extensions. Post-tests following the resistance exercise protocol consisted of 5-second maximum voluntary isometric knee extensions after 1, 5, 10 ...


Active Versus Passive Control Of Arm Swing: Implication Of The Restriction Of Pelvis Rotation During Human Locomotion, Stephen Paul Canton Jan 2015

Active Versus Passive Control Of Arm Swing: Implication Of The Restriction Of Pelvis Rotation During Human Locomotion, Stephen Paul Canton

LSU Master's Theses

To date, it remains unclear how passive dynamics and active neural control contribute to arm swing during human locomotion. The passive hypothesis attributes arm swing to the passive transfer of energy from the legs to the arms via biomechanical linkages, while the active hypothesis states that arm swing is actively driven by muscles via neural mechanisms. The present study aims to investigate this phenomenon further by disrupting the biomechanical linkages, thereby directly challenging the passive hypothesis. Ten healthy individuals walked on a treadmill with and without an apparatus that constrained pelvis rotation at 3 different speeds (2 mph, 3 mph ...


An Experimental Investigation Of Autonomy Support Versus Thwart In An Exergaming Context, Amanda Joy Weathers-Meyer Jan 2015

An Experimental Investigation Of Autonomy Support Versus Thwart In An Exergaming Context, Amanda Joy Weathers-Meyer

LSU Master's Theses

Considerable literature in self-determination theory (SDT) establishes satisfaction of basic psychological needs related to competence, autonomy, and relatedness as important determinants of well-being and motivation. Despite the abundance of SDT literature, few studies provide an investigation of autonomy support and autonomy thwart within an experimental design. Using SDT as a guiding framework, the effects of autonomy support (AS) versus autonomy thwart (AT) were examined within an exergaming context. Specifically, this study investigated the impact of autonomy support / thwart on five variables: perceived autonomy need satisfaction and autonomy thwart, affect, game performance, and willingness to recommend the study to others. Students ...


A Multi-Theoretical Analysis Of Motivation In College Activity Courses, Louis Hines Jan 2015

A Multi-Theoretical Analysis Of Motivation In College Activity Courses, Louis Hines

LSU Master's Theses

College activity courses present an opportunity for physical educators to increase physical activity among young adults. Facilitating motivation in activity courses may lead to increased engagement and future participation in physical activities. The purpose of this study was to examine motivation in college activity courses utilizing a multi-theoretical approach in order to assess changes in physical self-concept and intention for participation in physical activities. It was hypothesized that a task-involved motivational climate would predict need satisfaction, which would in turn predict self-determined motivation. It was further hypothesized that this motivational sequence would predict changes in physical self-concept and intention to ...


An Investigation Of The Quality And Quantity Of Student Motivation In Physical Education, Trey Douglas Willoughby Jan 2015

An Investigation Of The Quality And Quantity Of Student Motivation In Physical Education, Trey Douglas Willoughby

LSU Master's Theses

Physical inactivity is a prevalent problem in the United States associated with numerous health risk factors. Over half the population fails to meet prescribed physical activity recommendations, suggesting that individuals become less active as they age. It is important to observe individuals in the Physical Education setting because it is an ideal environment to provide meaningful physical activity, while promoting lifetime physical activity. This research sought to understand motivational behaviors in high school adolescents, attempting to draw links between physical education, student satisfaction, and leisure-time physical activity. Three research questions were present: (1) What relationships do high school student perceive ...


Parental Pressure, Anxiety, And Performance Among Age Group Swimmers, Timothy Michael Dasinger Jan 2014

Parental Pressure, Anxiety, And Performance Among Age Group Swimmers, Timothy Michael Dasinger

LSU Master's Theses

Background/Purpose: Parents introduce children to youth sport and can increase a child’s level of enjoyment in the sport. However, parents can also place too much pressure on the child, which can lead to increased pre-competition anxiety and decreased performance (Bois, Lalanne, & Delforge, 2008; Scanlan & Lewthwaite, 1984). The purpose of this study was to examine the relationships among perceived and desired parental pressure, pre-competition state anxiety, subsequent performance, and intention to continue the sport in youth swimmers ages 9-18. Method: A sample of 43 swimmers (17 male, 26 female; M=12.8±2.6 years) on a United States Swimming (USS) sanctioned club team in a mid-sized Southern city participated in this study. These swimmers completed the directive behavior scale of the Parental Involvement in Sport Questionnaire (PISQ) in the days preceding a swim meet. Variables analyzed in the PISQ include perceived pressure, desired pressure ...


Methionine Restriction-Induced Metabolic Changes In C57bl6j Mice, Cory Christopher Cortez Jan 2014

Methionine Restriction-Induced Metabolic Changes In C57bl6j Mice, Cory Christopher Cortez

LSU Master's Theses

Introduction: Eighty percent restriction of normal dietary methionine (MR) intake has been shown to increase energy expenditure and attenuate the rate of adiposity gain in rodents, despite a paradoxical increase in energy intake. Energy expenditure in rats was shown to increase, even though physical activity level stays the same. This observation suggests that metabolic mechanisms account for the majority of increased energy expenditure measured in methionine restricted animals. Purpose: To observe and document the onset of physiological effects brought about and to determine the mechanistic role of the skeletal muscle on MR-induced metabolic changes in the C57BL6J mouse. Methods: C57BL6J ...


Can Gravitational Influences Explain Endpoint Precision Between Visual Conditions?, Chelsea Marie Soebbing Jan 2014

Can Gravitational Influences Explain Endpoint Precision Between Visual Conditions?, Chelsea Marie Soebbing

LSU Master's Theses

Reaches to remembered target locations often result in different endpoint precision when compared to reaches to actual (seen) targets. Interestingly, errors are observed whether the reach to the remembered location is performed in an environment with or without allocentric cues (visual cues from the environment) available. People tend to point below remembered target locations in the dark relative to normal room lighting while seated, standing, and reaching with a step. In this study we questioned the effect of gravitational influences on upper extremity reaching and pointing accuracy in dark and illuminated environments. We hypothesized that alterations in body orientation would ...


Administrator Perceptions Of Intramural Coed Flag Football Modifications: A Qualitative Analysis, Zacharias Wood Jan 2014

Administrator Perceptions Of Intramural Coed Flag Football Modifications: A Qualitative Analysis, Zacharias Wood

LSU Master's Theses

Coed sport environments can be paradoxical settings where pre-existing gender biases influence participants’ enjoyment and success. Furthermore, gendered messages and stereotypes as well as low expectations for females within coed sports can create participation barriers by reducing feelings of confidence and performance. Within Campus Recreation, intramural sport administrators have a significant role in determining participation opportunities and experiences. This investigation examined administrators’ perspectives about coed intramural flag football gender modifications. Specifically, three research questions guided this study: (a) how do intramural administrators view coed flag football gender modifications?; (b) to what extent do intramural administrators perceive gender modifications to impact ...


Changes In Bone Density Following Exercise Training In Older Adults, Matthew Casey Scott Jan 2014

Changes In Bone Density Following Exercise Training In Older Adults, Matthew Casey Scott

LSU Master's Theses

Abstract Purpose: To determine effects of 8 wks of progressive whole-body training preceded by 4 wks of regional specific (RSTS) or aerobic training (AT), on bone mineral density (BMD). Methods: Subjects were over age 70 y, with a 6-min walk score of 218-490 m. Subjects were randomized to AT or RSTS for the first 4 wks (Phase 1). AT consisted of ~45 min of walking/biking (50-85% HR reserve), 3 d/wk. RSTS consisted of 8 exercises specific to major muscle groups and was performed for 3-5 min, at ~40-70% of max voluntary strength for ~45 min, 3 d/wk ...


Perceptions Of The Motivational Climate And Gender Class Structure In Physical Education, Lauren E. Delgado Jan 2013

Perceptions Of The Motivational Climate And Gender Class Structure In Physical Education, Lauren E. Delgado

LSU Master's Theses

Many children do not engage in the recommended levels of physical activity, and they ten to become even less active during adolescence. Girls are less active then boys, and it is important to explore ways that physical education teachers can foster girls’ motivation to be more physically active. The specific research questions for this study were: (a) How does gender class structure affect girls’ perception of the motivational climate?; and (b) How do girls’ views of the motivation climate in different gender class structures relate to intentions to participate in physical activity outside of physical education? A phenomenological framework guided ...


Oxygen Consumption During Exercise: The Role Of Venous Occlusion, Tiffany Noel Saltzman Jan 2013

Oxygen Consumption During Exercise: The Role Of Venous Occlusion, Tiffany Noel Saltzman

LSU Master's Theses

Abstract Oxygen consumption during exercise is typically used to advance performance, determine fitness level, and make clinical diagnoses. The rate at which VO2 adjusts to and recovers from (i.e. on- and off- kinetics) a bout of exercise is typically associated with certain metabolic processes such as stores of PCr, ATP, replenishing myoglobin, hemoglobin, and removing metabolic waste. The ability of an individual to utilize these processes can determine the speed at which oxygen consumption rises and falls, and thus is associated with the health of the individual (i.e. faster=fitter; slower=unhealthy). The use of circulatory occlusion training ...


Does Endurance Training Alter Energy Balance?, Brittany Inlow Jan 2012

Does Endurance Training Alter Energy Balance?, Brittany Inlow

LSU Master's Theses

An examination of the effects of a structured activity program on resting metabolic rate (RMR), physical activity, and dietary behavior is essential in gaining a better understanding of potential strategies that may be used in future exercise training programs. PURPOSE: To explore whether endurance training alters energy balance via changes in resting metabolic rate (RMR), daily energy expenditure (EE) and energy intake (EI). METHODS: Twenty-four subjects (17 females, 7 males; 21 + 0.3 years old) were assigned to one of two groups: 1) endurance (E; n = 12), or 2) active control (AC; n = 12). The E group completed 15 weeks ...


Autonomic Nervous System Response To Repeated Cold Exposure, Jonathan A. Simmons Jan 2012

Autonomic Nervous System Response To Repeated Cold Exposure, Jonathan A. Simmons

LSU Master's Theses

Recent work suggests repeated cold exposure raises energy expenditure, partly due to sympathetic nervous system stimulation, which indicates repeated cold exposure as a possible strategy to combat obesity without significant behavioral changes. PURPOSE: (1) To examine the acute resting metabolic rate (RMR) response to mild cold exposure of 16° C and the acute autonomic nervous system (ANS) response to two cold exposures of 16° C and 4° C through heart rate variability (HRV) indices; and (2) to examine whether 4 weeks of daily cold exposure would result in adaptations in the metabolic and autonomic responses to acute cold exposure. METHODS ...


The Acute Effects Of Stretching On Pennation Angle And Force Production, Ryan William-Ignatius Miskowiec Jan 2012

The Acute Effects Of Stretching On Pennation Angle And Force Production, Ryan William-Ignatius Miskowiec

LSU Master's Theses

PURPOSE: This study was designed to investigate the acute effects of stretching on pennation angle of the Medial Gastrocnemius and maximal voluntary isotonic plantar flexion. METHODS: 24 healthy college age subjects (14 female, 10 male, age 19-30) completed four trials using a randomized crossover design. Trials consisted of assessing the maximal voluntary isotonic contraction (MVC) and pennation angle (PA) before and after each treatment. Treatments consisted of either stretching (S) or mock stretching (MS). The S treatment involved four 30 second periods of stretching with 15 seconds of rest in between. During the MS treatment subjects were maintained in the ...


Training, Nutrition, Injury And Lifestyle Characteristics Of Shorter Distance Triathletes, Loren Elizabeth Johnson Jan 2012

Training, Nutrition, Injury And Lifestyle Characteristics Of Shorter Distance Triathletes, Loren Elizabeth Johnson

LSU Master's Theses

Triathlon is an increasingly popular sport in which an athlete competes in swimming, biking and running in a single competitive bout. Today there are more than 140,000 members in the sanctioning body for triathlon. However, there is little descriptive data about this group of athletes. PURPOSE: The primary purpose of this exploratory study was to describe the demographics, training habits, nutritional practices, injury occurrence and overall health status of triathletes and identify any differences between two studies that collected this information. The secondary purpose was to examine any significant correlations among the major outcome variables in the LSU study ...


Vitamin D Status, Adiposity, And Athletic Performance Measures In College-Aged Students, Laura Forney Jan 2012

Vitamin D Status, Adiposity, And Athletic Performance Measures In College-Aged Students, Laura Forney

LSU Master's Theses

Research suggests that elevated serum concentrations of 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD) are associated with slowing the development of many age-related chronic diseases. Recent reports also show a positive relationship between 25OHD and muscle synthesis, strength, power and decreased body fat in elderly individuals. However, these findings have not been consistently reported in younger, healthy populations. PURPOSE: To investigate the relationship between 25OHD levels, body composition, measures of aerobic fitness and muscular strength and power in a young, physically active population. METHODS: Thirty-nine active subjects (20 males, 19 females; 23 ± 0.7 years old) reported to the lab six times for testing ...


Comparing The Effects Of Ten Weeks Of Equipped Vs. Non-Equipped Training On Performance In Collegiate Powerlifters, Travis Michael Godawa Jan 2011

Comparing The Effects Of Ten Weeks Of Equipped Vs. Non-Equipped Training On Performance In Collegiate Powerlifters, Travis Michael Godawa

LSU Master's Theses

Advances in powerlifting equipment have enabled athletes in that sport to achieve lifts once thought impossible. The effect of training using specialized powerlifting gear on performance has not yet been studied. PURPOSE: To examine the effects of powerlifting equipment on performance measures before and after 10 weeks of training. It was hypothesized that equipped lifters would achieve higher total training volumes and greater performance gains in the squat, bench press, and deadlift. METHODS: Eighteen powerlifters between the ages of 18 and 26 were randomized into either a group that trained and competed in equipment (Eq), or trained and competed without ...


The Role Of Motivation And Physical Activity In A Weight Loss Program, Ellen Kane Stevens Jan 2011

The Role Of Motivation And Physical Activity In A Weight Loss Program, Ellen Kane Stevens

LSU Master's Theses

Every year thousands of overweight and obese people in the United States join weight loss programs such as Weight Watchers in an effort to become healthier and feel more attractive. Weight Watchers has increased its program focus on physical activity as a critical part of weight loss. Initiating a consistent physical activity routine, however, is generally one of the last behavior changes made by program members, despite its proven role in weight loss maintenance. Using self-determination theory as a framework, the purpose of this study was to examine how perceptions of fulfillment of three psychological needs (i.e. competence, autonomy ...


Adolescents' Expectancy Beliefs And Task Values For Physically Interactive Video Games, Andrew James Mcgregor Jan 2010

Adolescents' Expectancy Beliefs And Task Values For Physically Interactive Video Games, Andrew James Mcgregor

LSU Master's Theses

The health benefits associated with appropriate levels of physical activity are well documented, but a large percentage of the population is not sufficiently active to attain those health benefits. Children are also not as active as they should be, and their activity levels decline during adolescence. Given that childhood activity patterns are likely to persist into adulthood, it is important to investigate ways to encourage children and adolescents to be physically active. Since virtually all school students participate in physical education programs, one way to do that is to explore ways that physical education programs can motivate children to be ...


The Effectiveness Of A Natural Carbohydrate Source (Sun-Dried Raisins) Versus Sports Jelly Beans On Prolonged Cycling Performance, Helena Rietschier Jan 2010

The Effectiveness Of A Natural Carbohydrate Source (Sun-Dried Raisins) Versus Sports Jelly Beans On Prolonged Cycling Performance, Helena Rietschier

LSU Master's Theses

PURPOSE: This study was designed to examine the effects of sun-dried raisins versus sports jellybeans on endurance performance in trained cyclists/triathletes. METHODS: Ten healthy males (18-33 y) completed one water-only acclimatization (WAT) exercise trial and two randomized exercise trials. Each trial consisted of a 120-minute constant intensity glycogen depletion period followed by a 10-km time trial (TT). During each experimental trial, participants consumed isocaloric amounts of sun-dried raisins (SDR) or Sports Jelly Beans(SJB) in 20-minute intervals. Measurements included: time to complete 10-km TT, power output during 10-km TT, blood glucose levels and respiratory exchange ratio (RER) during glycogen ...


Comparison Of Brachial Artery Vasoreactivity In Elite Athletes And Age-Matched Controls, Paul Joseph Blalock Jan 2009

Comparison Of Brachial Artery Vasoreactivity In Elite Athletes And Age-Matched Controls, Paul Joseph Blalock

LSU Master's Theses

The ability to distribute blood from areas with low demand to areas with high demand, such as occurs during exercise, is a critical function of the circulatory system. PURPOSE: To compare the resting diameter and vasoreactivity of the brachial artery in elite strength athletes to those of age-matched controls. We hypothesized that the brachial arteries of strength athletes would have larger diameters at rest, and show greater vasoreactivity in response to cuff occlusion and a cold pressor test than in untrained individuals. METHODS: Eight elite strength athletes (age, 23 ± 2 years) and ten age-matched controls (age, 22 ± 1 years) were ...


Carotid Intima-Media Thickness And Physical And Cognitive Function In Elderly Men And Women: Role Of Physical Activity, John Brent Jr. Rhodes Jan 2009

Carotid Intima-Media Thickness And Physical And Cognitive Function In Elderly Men And Women: Role Of Physical Activity, John Brent Jr. Rhodes

LSU Master's Theses

The incidence of cognitive impairment in the aging population remains one of the most common morbidities in the elderly, often associated with a decrease in physical function, institutionalization, and death. Several different mechanisms have been proposed, including age-related changes to the vasculature. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between physical activity, carotid intima-media thickness and other vascular measures, and measures of cognitive and physical function in older adults. Measures of daily physical activity, vascular structure and function, and cognitive and physical function were examined in 109 participants [age=81±11 yrs]. Daily physical activity was assessed ...


An Evaluation Of Endurance And Combined Endurance And Resistance Training On Fitness And C-Reactive Protein, Laura A. Daray Jan 2009

An Evaluation Of Endurance And Combined Endurance And Resistance Training On Fitness And C-Reactive Protein, Laura A. Daray

LSU Master's Theses

PURPOSE: This study was designed to determine whether endurance or endurance + resistance training would influence circulating C-reactive protein (CRP) levels and if these changes are related to alterations in aerobic fitness and/or body composition. METHODS: Fifty eight healthy young adults aged 18-24 yrs (78% female) were assigned to one of three groups: 1) endurance training (E) (n=18), 2) endurance + resistance training (ER) (n=11), or 3) active control (AC) (n=29). The E group completed 15 weeks of endurance training for either a half marathon (n=6) or full marathon (n=12). The ER group performed 15 weeks ...


Effects Of Exercising With A Weighted Vest On The Output Of Lower Limb Joints In Countermovement Jumping, Behdad Tahayori Jan 2009

Effects Of Exercising With A Weighted Vest On The Output Of Lower Limb Joints In Countermovement Jumping, Behdad Tahayori

LSU Master's Theses

The effect of exercising with a weighted vest equal to 15% of body mass on vertical jump height was assessed. It was hypothesized that the defined treatment protocol could enhance jumping performance by increasing hip, knee and ankle joint power. The findings of this study showed that the defined active stretching protocol significantly increases jump height in male participants (0.3364 m compared to0. 3456 m from pre to post exercise respectively) but did not yield a significant increase in females. No significant changes in joint angle, torque, power or velocity were observed between the pre and post exercise jumping ...